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Full text of "Belgium and Holland: handbook for travellers"

BELGIUM AND HOLLAND. 



MONET-TABLE. 

(Comp. pp. XII, XXI.) 



English. 


Dutch. | 


Belgian. 


Jerman. 


American. 


t. 


s. 


d. 


fi- 


cents. 


fr. 


cent. 


mark. 


P/9- 


dollar. 


cent. 


1 








ll 





25 


_ 


20 


— 


4 


76 





19 





11 


40 


23 


75 


19 


— 


4 


53 


— 


18 


— 


10 


80 


22 


50 


18 


— 


4 


29 


— 


17 


— 


10 


20 


21 


25 


17 


— 


4 


5 





16 





9 


60 


20 




16 


— 


3 


81 





15 





9 




18 


75 


15 


— 


3 


57 


— 


14 





8 


40 


17 


50 


14 


— 


3 


34 


— 


13 


— 


7 


80 


16 


25 


13 


— 


3 


10 


— 


12 





7 


20 


15 




12 


— 


2 


86 


— 


11 





6 


60 


13 


75 


11 


— 


2 


62 





10 





6 





12 


50 


10 


— 


2 


38 


— 


9 





5 


40 


11 


25 


9 


— 


2 


14 


— 


8 





4 


80 


10 




8 


— 


1 


91 


— 


7 





4 


20 


8 


75 


7 


— 


1 


67 


— 


6 





3 


60 


7 


50 


6 


— 


1 


43 


— 


5 





3 





6 


25 


5 


— 


1 


19 


— 


4 





2 


40 


5 





4 





— 


95 





3 





1 


80 


3 


75 


3 





— 


71 





2 


— 


1 


20 


2 


50 


2 





— 


48 


— 


1 


8>|2 


1 


— 


2 


15 


1 


70 


— 


41 


— 


1 


7 


— 


96 


2 


— 


1 


60 


— 


38 





1 





— 


60 


1 


25 


1 


— 


— 


24 








93|4 


— 


48 


1 





— 


80 


— 


19 


— 


— 


9 





45 


— 


94 


— 


75 


— 


18 








8 


— 


40 


— 


83 


— 


66 


— 


16 








7 





35 





73 


— 


58 


— 


14 








6 





30 


— 


62 


— 


50 


— 


12 








5 


— 


25 


— 


52 


— 


41 


— 


10 





— 


4 


— 


20 


— 


42 


— 


33 


— 


8 








3 





15 


— 


31 


— 


25 


— 


6 








2 





10 





21 





16 


— 


4 


— 


— 


1 


— 


5 


— 


10 


— 


8 




2 



LINEAR MEASURES. 



Metres 


Parisian | 


Prussian I 


Viennese 


English 


(Dutch Ells). 


Feet. j 


Feet. i 


Feet. 


Feet. 


1 


3,08 


3,19 


3,16 


3,28 


2 


6,16 


6,37 


6,33 


6,56 


3 


9,24 


9,56 


9,49 


9,84 


4 


12,31 


12,74 


12,65 


13,12 


5 


15,39 


15,93 


15,82 


16,40 


6 


18,47 


19,12 


18,98 


19,69 


7 


21,55 


22,30 


22,15 


22,97 


8 


24,63 


25,49 


25,31 


26,25 


9 


27,71 


28,68 


28,47 


29,53 


10 


30,78 


31,86 


31,64 


32,81 


20 


61,57 


63,72 


63,27 


65,62 


30 


92,35 


95,59 


94,91 


98,43 


40 


123,14 


127,45 


126,55 


131,24 


50 


153,92 


159,31 


158,19 


164,04 


60 


184,71 


191,17 


189,82 


196,85 


70 


215,49 


223,03 


221,46 


229,66 


80 


246,28 


254,90 


253,10 


262,47 


90 


277,06 


286,76 


284,74 


295,28 


100 


307,84 


318,62 


316,37 


328,09 




Anfirns 



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"Wagner 4 Debea.TjHpzig. 



BELGIUM and HOLLAND. 



HANDBOOK FOR TRAVELLERS 



BY 



K. BAEDEKER. 



With 8 Maps and 19 Plans. 
SEVENTH EDITION, REVISED AND AUGMENTED. 



LEIPSIC. KARL BAEDEKER. 

1884. 

All rights reserved. 



"Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy prayere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all." 



Chaucer. 



PREFACE. 



The chief objects of the Handbook for Belgium and 
Holland are to supply the traveller with a few remarks on 
the progress of civilisation and art in these interesting coun- 
tries ; to render him as far as possible independent of the em- 
barrassing and expensive services of commissionnaires, 
guides, and other members* of the same fraternity ; to place 
him in a position to employ his time , his money , and 
his energy to the best advantage ; and thus to enable him 
to derive the greatest possible amount of pleasure and in- 
struction from his tour. 

The Handbook has been compiled almost entirely from 
the Editor's personal observation, and he has used every en- 
deavour to furnish information acceptable to travellers of 
every class. The present edition, which corresponds to the 
16th German edition and the 11th French, has been care- 
fully revised and remodelled from the most recent time- 
tables, catalogues, government statistics, and other sources. 
The Editor has also frequently availed himself of the valuable 
information kindly afforded by travellers, which he grate- 
fully acknowledges. 

The introductory article on art has been contributed by 
Professor Anton Springer of Leipsic, and has been adapted 
for the use of English travellers with the kind assistance 
of Mr. J. A. Crowe, author of 'The Early Flemish Painters'. 
Other valuable remarks on many of the principal works of 
art mentioned in the Handbook are also from Professor 
Springer's pen. 

The arrangement of the pictures in some of the Belgian 
galleries is frequently changed; but, as a general rule, the 



vi PREFACE. 

data afforded by the Handbook will enable the traveller to 
dispense with the costly and often bewildering catalogues. 

The Maps and Plans, on which the utmost care has 
been bestowed, will prove of material service to the tra- 
veller when threading his way through the intricacies of 
the curious mediaeval cities of Belgium, or when entangled 
in the network of railways, rivers, and canals with which 
the Netherlands are overspread. 

Heights and Distances are given in English mea- 
surement. 

The Hotels indicated by asterisks are those which the 
Editor has reason to consider the most comfortable and 
worthy of commendation ; and in awarding these asterisks 
he has entirely disregarded the self-laudations of innkeepers 
and other persons of a similar class. The average charges 
and prices stated in the Handbook, although constantly 
tending to rise, will enable the traveller to form some idea 
of his probable expenditure. 

To hotel-proprietors, tradesmen, and others the Editor 
begs to intimate that a character for fair dealing and cour- 
tesy towards travellers forms the sole passport to his com- 
mendation, and that advertisements of every kind are strict- 
ly excluded from his Handbooks. 



CONTENTS. 



Introduction. 

A. Belgium. 

Page 
I. Plan of Tour x i 

II. Money and Travelling Expenses xii 

III. Passports. Custom House xii 

IV. Language xiii 

V. Churches, Picture Galleries, and Collections ... xv 

VI. Railways xvi 

VII. History and Statistics xvi 

B. Holland. 

I. Plan of Tour xxi 

II. Money and Travelling Expenses xxi 

III. Passports. Custom House xxii 

IV. Language xxii 

V. Picture Galleries and Collections xxvi 

VI. Railways xxvi 

VII. Dutch Characteristics xxvi 

VIII. History and Statistics xxxi 

Historical Sketch of Art in the Netherlands by 

Professor SpringeT xxxvii 

Belgium. 

Route Page 

1. From London to Ostend 1 

Slykens. Mariakerk. Middelkerk. Oudenburg ... 6 

2. Blankenberghe and Heyst 7 

Lisseweghe 8 

From Blankenberghe to Ostend by the coast .... 8 

Sluys 9 

3. From Ostend to Brussels by Bruges and Ghent ... 9 

From Bruges to Blankenberghe and Heyst .... 9 

From Ghent to Terneuzen 9 

From Ghent to Bruges by Eecloo 10 

From Most to Antwerp 10 

4. Bruges 10 

Damme . 25 



viii CONTENTS. 

Route Page 

5. The Railways of S.W. Flanders 25 

1. From Ostend to Ypres 25 

From Ypres to Poperinghe and Hazebrouck .... 27 

2. From Ghent to Dunkirk via Lichtervelde ... 28 
From Dixmuiden to Nieuport 28 

3. From Bruges to Courtrai 29 

6. From Brussels to Courtrai and Ypres 29 

7. Ghent 31 

8. From Ghent to CouTtrai and Tournai 48 

From Ghent to Oudenaerde 48 

From Mouscron to Lille 51 

9. Tournai 51 

10. From Ghent to Antwerp 54 

a. State Railway via Dendermonde and Puers . . 54 

6. Waesland Railway 55 

From Dendermonde to St. Nicolas, Lokeren, Alost, and 

Brussels 55 

1 1 . From London to Brussels via Calais 56 

Lille 57 

From Lille to Brussels 61 

From Tournai to Mons 61 

From Denderleeuw to Grammont, Ath, and Jurbise . 61 

From Ath to Blaton. Chateau of Beloeil .... 62 

12. Brussels 63 

13. From Brussels to Charieroi by Luttre 101 

Battle Field of Waterloo 101 

14. From Brussels to Antwerp by Malines 116 

From Malines to Louvain and to Ghent 120 

From Malines to St. Nicolas and Terneuzen .... 120 

From Contich to Turnhout 120 

15. Antwerp 121 

Hoogstraeten 152 

16. From Antwerp to Rotterdam 152 

a. Railway Journey 152 

6. Steamboat Journey 153 

17. From Antwerp to Aix-la-Chapelle by Maastricht . . . 155 

From Hasselt to Maaseyck 156 

18. From Antwerp to Miinchen-Gladbach 156 

19. From Brussels to Braine-le-Comte and Mons . . . 157 

From Mons to Paris 160 

From Mons to Charleroi 160 

20. From Ghent to Charleroi and Namur by Braine-le-Comte 160 

From Manage to Mons 161 

From Manage to Wavre. Quatrebras 161 

From Charleroi to Vireux 162 

From Chatelineau to Givet 163 

21. From Namur to Dinant and Givet 165 

From Givet to Sedan 167 

22. From Brussels to Luxembourg and Treves, via Namur . 167 

Grotte de Eochefort. Trou de Han-sur-Lesse . . .168,169 

From Libramont to Limerle 170 

From Arlon to Longwy 170 

From Arlon to Gedinne 170 



CONTENTS. ix 

Eoute Paee 

23. From Brussels to Liege by Louvain 172 

From Louvain to Rotselaer, Aerschot, and Herenthals . 172 

From Tirlemont to Diest ........ 17a 

From Tirlemont to St. Trond and Tongeiren . .' .' '. 173 

From Tirlemont to Namur .... 173 

From Landen to Hasselt ........'. 173 

From Landen to Gembloux ........ 173 

24. Louvain ^74 

25. From Louvain to Charleroi 178 

26. Liege and Seraing 180 

27. From Liege to Marloie 189 

Durbuy. La Roche. Houffalize 191 

28. From Liege to Maastricht ' 191 

From Maastricht to Rotterdam by Venlo 194 

29. From Liege to Namur 195 

From Huy to Landen 196 

From Huy to Ciney [ \ 196 

30. From Liege to Aix-la-Chapelle ........ 197 

The Barrage de la Gileppe 199 

31. From Pepinster to Spa and Luxembourg ..... 199 

Malmedy 203 

From Ettelbriick to Diekirch. Vianden .... 204 

From Diekirch to Wasserbillig. Echternach . . 204 

32. The Valley of the Ambleve 205 



Holland. 

33. From Flushing to Breda 208 

Domburg !'.!'.'. 209 

34. Rotterdam 210 

35. From Rotterdam to The Hague , Leyden , Haarlem , and 

Amsterdam 219 

From Leyden to Woerden 221 

36. The Hague 222 

37. Scheveningen 239 

38. Leyden 241 

Katwijk aan Zee 246 

39. Haarlem 247 

Zandvoort 254 

40. Amsterdam 254 

Excursion to Muiden and Schellingwoude, etc. . . . 281 

41. Broek. Purmerend. Hoorn 282 

42. From Amsterdam and Haarlem to the Helder .... 284 

Ymuiden. Wijk aan Zee 280 

Egmond 287 

43. From Amsterdam or Rotterdam to Utrecht and Arnhem 289 

From Gouda to the Hague 290 

44. From Liege to Utrecht 293 

Chateau of Heeswijk 295 

45. Utrecht 295 

46. From Arnhem to Cologne 300 



x CONTENTS. 

Route Page 

1. Via Cleve and Crefeld 300 

2. Via Emmerich and Diisseldorf 301 

3. Steamboat Route 302 

47. From Arnhem to Rotterdam. The Rhine and Lek . . 303 

48. From Nymegen to Rotterdam. The Waal and Maas . . 305 

49. From Cologne to Rotterdam by Venlo 307 

Oosterhout. Dongen. Gertruidenberg 308 

50. From Amsterdam and Arnhem to Zutphen and Rheine . 311 

Doesborgh. Nederlandsch Mettray. Winterswijk . . 312 

From Zutphen to Zwolle 312 

51. From Amsterdam or Utrecht to Leeuwarden and Groningen 313 

Pauper Colonies of Frederiksoord , Wilhelminaoord, 

Willemsoord, Veenhuizen, and Ommerschans . . 315 

From Groningen to Delfzyl 318 

52. From Amsterdam to Harlingen and Groningen . . . 318 

53. From Groningen to Bremen 320 

List of Artists 321 

Index 333 



Maps. 

1. General Map of Belgium and Holland: before the title-page. 

2. Map of the Environs of Ostend and Bruges: p. 7. 

3. Map of the Environs of Brussels: p. 100. 

4. Map of the Battle Field of Waterloo: p. 101. 

5. Map of the Medse from Dinant to Liege: pp. 164, 165. 

6. Map of the Environs of Spa: between pp. 200, 201. 

7. Map of the Estuary of the Schelde and Maas: pp. 208, 209. 

8. Map of South & North Holland (Rotterdam, Amsterdam, & Alk- 

maar): pp. 218, 219. 

Flans of Towns. 

Amsterdam (p. 254), Amsterdam (inner town; p. 255), Antwerp (p. 121), 
Bruges (p. 10), Brussels (p. 63), Ghent (p. 31), Groningen (p. 317), The 
Hague and Scheveningen (p. 222) , Haarlem (p. 247) , Leyden (p. 246), 
Liege (p. 180), Lille (p. 57), Louvain (p. 174), Luxembourg (p. 171), Malines 
(p. 116), Osterid (p. 1), Rotterdam (p. 210), Tournai (p. 51), Utrecht (p. 295). 



Abbreviations. 



R. = Room. 

B. = Breakfast. 

D. = Dinner. 

A. = Attendance. 

L. = Light. 

M. = English mile. 

ft. = English foot. 



N. = North, northern, etc. 

S. = South, etc. 

E. = East, etc. 

W. = West, etc. 

r. = right. 

1. = left. 

hr. = hour. 



The letter d with a date, after the name of a person, indicates the 
year of his death. The number of feet given after the name of a place 
shows its height above the sea-level. The number of miles placed before 
the principal places on railway-routes and high-roads generally indicates 
their distance from the starting-point of the route. 



Asterisks are used as marks of commendation. 



BELGIUM. 



I. Plan of Tour. 

Belgium is now so completely intersected by a network of rail- 
ways , that the traveller will rarely have occasion to travel by any 
other conveyance ; but a steamboat-trip on the Meuse , and a few 
excursions on horseback or on foot in the neighbourhood of Liege, 
Namur , Dinant , Spa , etc. , should not be omitted ; for these 
are foremost among the many beautiful and historically-interesting 
districts of which Belgium can boast. On the whole , however, 
the works of the painter and the architect are Belgium's great attrac- 
tions ; and as a large proportion of the traveller's time will pro- 
bably be spent in the cities and larger towns , he is recommend- 
ed to select the spring or autumn in preference to the summer 
for his tour. Those who are already acquainted with the towns 
and their treasures of art, or whose object is retirement and re- 
pose , will find many delightful spots for spending the summer on 
the banks of the Meuse, or in the environs of Spa. 

The following tour, beginning at Ostend and terminating at 
Antwerp, will serve to convey an idea of the time requisite for a 
glimpse at the chief attractions of Belgium. Travellers entering 
Belgium from France, Holland, or Germany, will find no difficulty 
in planning other tours with the aid of the map. 

Ostend and Bruges l'/z day 

Ghent 1 „ 

Courtrai, Tournai, Mons 2 ,, 

Charleroi, Namur 1 ,, 

Valley of the Meuse, Dinant l'A ,, 

Liege and Seraing 1 „ 

Maastricht and the Petersberg 1 „ 

Louvain and Brussels 2 „ 

Waterloo 1 » 

Malines 1 » 

Antwerp • 2 ,, 

15 days- 

In order to prevent loss of time in exploring towns, the traveller 
should carefully consult the plans before leaving his hotel , and if 
pressed for time he had better hire a cab or vigilante by the hour, 
dismissing it, however, when a prolonged visit to a picture-gallery or 
museum is contemplated. The Handbook renders the services of 
commissionnaires and guides entirely superfluous (half-a-day 2-3, 
whole day 4-5 fr.), and the traveller is particularly cautioned 



xii Money. BELGIUM. 

against employing those of an inferior class by whom he is impor- 
tuned in the streets. 

II. Money and Travelling Expenses. 

Money. The Monetary System of France was introduced into 
Belgium in 1833 ; and by the Convention of Paris of 1865 Belgium 
belongs to a monetary league with France, Switzerland, and Italy. 
One franc, 100 centimes, 80 German pfennigs , 40 Austrian kreu- 
zers, 47 Dutch cents, 20 American cents, and 9% pence are all 
nearly equivalent (see the money-table at the beginning of the 
book). The coins in common circulation are French Napoleons 
(20 fr.) in gold ; 5, 21/2, 1, V2. and V5 fr- pieces in silver ; 10, 5, 2, 
1 c. in copper; 20, 10, 5 c. in nickel. English and French bank- 
notes and English gold are received at all the principal towns, 
hotels, and railway-stations at their full value (It. = 25 fr.). 
Belgian notes from 20 to 1000 fr. are current in all parts of Belgium, 
but do not realise their full value in France or elsewhere. English 
circular notes are recommended for the transport of large sums, in 
preference to banknotes or gold, as they always realise a favourable 
exchange, and as, if lost, their value is recoverable. Money should 
not be changed except at the shops of the larger and more respect- 
able money-changers ; the small dealers at the railway-stations sel- 
dom give the due rate of exchange. 

Expenses. Hotels of the highest class are somewhat expensive 
at Brussels and the principal Belgian watering-places, but in most 
other parts of the country they will be found cheaper than in Eng- 
land. The average charges are as follows : bed 3 fr., coffee and rolls 
IV2 fr-i dinner 4-5 fr. , l / 2 bottle of Bordeaux l l / 2 -2 fr. , atten- 
dance 1 fr. — The table d'hote dinner in the larger towns is generally 
at 4.30 or 5 p.m. — Supper may be ordered at a fixed charge of 2 fr. 
or upwards. The charges at hotels of the second class are about 
one-third lower, while the accommodation is sometimes quite as 
good, although less pretending. Hotel -expenses therefore need 
not exceed 10-15 fr. per day; the fees payable at picture-gal- 
leries, museums , and churches amount to 3-4 fr. per day , and 
travelling expenses to 8-10 fr. • so that most travellers should be 
prepared for a daily expenditure of at least 25-30 fr. each. On 
the other hand the 'voyageur en garcon', the artist, the student, and 
the pedestrian may easily reduce their expenditure to half that sum 
without much diminution of comfort. 

III. Passports. Custom House. 
Passports. These documents are now dispensed with in 
Belgium, but they are occasionally useful in proving the traveller's 
identity, procuring admission to private collections, etc., and they 
must be shown in order to obtain delivery of registered letters. 



BELGIUM. Language. xiii 

Custom House. The formalities of the douane are generally 
very lenient. The traveller should always, if possible, superintend 
the examination of his luggage in person. In crossing a frontier 
even the smaller articles of luggage usually kept in the railway 
carriage have to be submitted to inspection. The traveller is al- 
lowed 1 lb. of tobacco or cigars duty free, but he should declare it 
to the custom-house officers. When a frontier is to be crossed, 
ordinary passengers' luggage should never be sent by goods-train. 
The risk of detention , pilfering , and other vexations , far out- 
weighs any saving of trouble or expense which this plan affords. 

IV. Language. 

The linguist, the ethnologist, and indeed every observant tra- 
veller will be interested in the marked differences between the 
various races of which the Belgian nation is composed. The Walloons 
(of Namur, Liege, Verviers, etc.), who are believed to be partly of 
Celtic extraction, are Temarkable for their enterprising and in- 
dustrious, and at the same time passionate and excitable character. 
The Flemings, who constitute about five-eighths of the population, 
are a somewhat phlegmatic race of Teutonic origin ; they are pre- 
eminently successful in agriculture and those pursuits in which 
energetic action is less requisite than patient perseverance, and 
their language is of the Teutonic stock, being closely akin to the 
Dutch. Antwerp and other seaports, however, also possess a thriv- 
ing commercial and seafaring Flemish population. A third element 
is the French. Political refugees and obnoxious journalists fre- 
quently transfer the sphere of their labours from Paris to Brussels, 
while a considerable proportion of the Belgian population in the 
principal towns affect French manners and customs, are frequently 
educated in France, and are often entirely ignorant of the Flemish 
language. A valuable and interesting work, to which reference is 
frequently made in the Handbook, is the 'Descriptio totius Belgii' 
by the learned Florentine Ouicciardini (d. 1589), who in his ca- 
pacity of Tuscan ambassador resided for several years in the Nether- 
lands. 'Leodicum 1 (Liege), he says, 'utitur lingua Gallica, Aquis- 
granum (Aix - la - Chapelle) Germanica : viri Leodicenses alacres, 
festiui, tractabiles ; Aquisgranenses melancholici, severi, difficiles. In 
summa, tantum alteti et natura et moribus, totaque adeo vitae ra- 
tione ab alteris differunt, quantum Oalli discrepant a Germanis 1 . 

The boundary between the Walloon and Flemish languages is a 
tolerably-straight line drawn from Liege southwards past Brussels 
to Calais , Walloon being spoken in a few isolated districts to the 
N., and Flemish here and there to the S. of the line. 

French is the language of the government, the legislature, the 
army , of most of the newspapers , of public traffic , of literature, 
and indeed of all the upper classes, as it has been since the time 
of the crusades. 



xiv Language. 



BELGIUM. 



The Walloon language, which resembles a very corrupt dialect 
of French , or rouchi franfais as it is termed by the French, is a 
Celtic-Franconian-Romanic patois, occurring occasionally in ancient 
documents and poems, and not entirely without its literature, but 
almost as unintelligible to a Frenchman as to an Englishman or a 
German. Guicciardini describes it as 'sermo communiter Gallicus ; 
sed quia Oalliam inter atque Oermaniam positi , corruptua valde et 
perabsurdus' . The linguist who desires to form some acquaintance 
with the Walloon language is referred to two excellent works 
published at Liege in 1845 : 'Poesies en patois de Liege, precedi.es 
d'une dissertation grammaticale sur ce patois, et suivies d'wn glossaire 
par Simonori, and the 'Dictionnaire etymologique de la langue 
Wallonne par Ch. Qrandgagnage 1 , the latter unfortunately uncom- 
pleted. Liege also possesses an excellent Societi de Litterature 
Wallonne, the object of which is to disseminate useful literature. 
The following popular rhymes from the 'Almanack par maitre 
Matthieu LaensbergV will serve as a specimen of the language: 

January : 
11 gna pu cTbrotili hi d'poussir. 



I II y a plus de brouillard que de pous- 
siere. 



Li chdcT sop' so on vi stoumak, 
So n'freut pat, on ion spet cazak, 

Ni fri nin pu cfbin ki Vsolo, 
Si voUf lur on po sor no. 



February : 



La chaude soupe sur un vieil estomac , 
Dans un pays froid une bonne epaisse 

casaque, 
Ne ferait pas plus de bien que le soleil, 
S'il voulait luire un peu sur nous. 



April: 



Cest Vuseg dis't-on eT s'attrape 
Lonk et VauP, li prumi d'avri: 
Si c'ri'esteu ko qu"po s'diverti, 
Qu'on, koiraK in' goP a s'dupi! 
Mais eVest pu po nV qu'on s'surprin, 

Demon si on ce reie, ci n'est Is 1 de gros 
des din. 
On sHromp 1 , on s'dispoie al lournaie : 

(Test Vprumi d'avri toV Vannaie! 



Cest l'usage, dit-on, de s'attraper 
L'un et l'autre le premier d'avril : 
Si ce n'etait (jue pour se divertir, 
Qu'on cherchat un peu a se duper ! 
Mais ce n'est plus pour rire qu'on se 

surprend, 
Du moins si Ton en rit ce n'estque du 

gros des dents. 
On se trompe, on se depouille tour 

a tour: 
Cest le prem. d'avril toute l'annee. 



The Flemish language differs but slightly from the Dutch, both 
being branches of the same family of Germanic languages. In the 
middle ages they formed but one tongue , and even at the present 
day the Flemish spoken language differs no more from the Dutch 
than some German dialects do from each other , while the written 
languages are almost identical, especially since about 1864, when 
the Flemish writers ceased to use certain unimportant orthogra- 
phical peculiarities that had previously distinguished the languages. 
Flemish, although a rich and expressive language, cannot be called 
a highly-cultivated tongue, being spoken by the uneducated classes 
only, and possessing but little original literature. Centuries of 



BELGIUM. Churches. xv 

Spanish , Austrian , and French domination have left the Flemish 
language unaltered for the simple reason that it was never used 
as a written language, except for catechisms, prayer-books, legends, 
etc., for the use of the lower classes. Since the year 1840 several 
scholars of eminence and a number of learned societies have zea- 
lously striven to procure the introduction of Flemish into the higher 
political and social circles , but their efforts have hitherto met with 
indifferent success. A law was passed in 1873 permitting a more 
general use of Flemish in judicial proceedings than had previously 
been competent, and in 1883 the use of the Flemish speech was re- 
introduced into the middle-class schools of the Flemish provinces. 
While, however, this may tend to preserve and purify the language, 
the fact remains unchanged, that a knowledge of French is still con- 
sidered indispensable to all but the lowest agricultural and labour- 
ing classes. 

The following peculiarities of pronunciation are common to 
Flemish and Dutch : y (in Dutch if) is pronounced like the Eng- 
lish i in time (but in West Flanders like e), u like the French u, eu 
like the French eu, eeu like the English a (in fate), oe like oo, ae 
like ah, ou as in English, ui like the French eu-i, oei like we, sch 
like s and the guttural ch in the Scotch loch, and sch at the end 
of a word almost like s. 

After what has been said, it need hardly be added that a slight 
knowledge of French will enable the traveller in Belgium to con- 
verse with every one with whom he is likely to come in contact, 
and that an acquaintance with the Flemish and Walloon dialects 
will probably be of little use except to the philologist. Those 
who are ignorant of French will be glad to know that English is 
spoken at most of the principal hotels throughout the country. 

V. Churches, Picture Galleries, and Collections. 

The Churches (Roman Catholic) are usually open from 6 a.m. 
till noon, but in the afternoon the visitor must apply to the sacris- 
tan. If the architecture or the pulpit be the chief object of interest it 
may be inspected in the forenoon, but when pictures are to be seen 
the attendance of the sacristan is necessary, as they are often covered 
with curtains or concealed in side-chapels. The best hours in this 
case are 12-4 p.m., when there is no service. Fee for one person 
'/ 2 -l fr., and for a party more in proportion. In many churches 
the fees are fixed by tariff, but here also a fee to the sacristan is oc- 
casionally expected. 

Picture Galleries and Collections are generally open gratis 
from 10 or 11 a.m. till 3, 4, or 5 p.m., but on certain days a trifling 
fee for admission O/2-l fr.) is sometimes charged. For admission 
to town-halls and similar sights, the fee is usually about the same. 
In visiting a private collection a single traveller is expected to 
give a gratuity of about 2 fr. 



xvi History. BELGIUM. 

VI. Railways. 

The most trustworthy time-tables are contained in the 'Guide 
officiel des voyageurs sur tons les chemins de fer de Belgique', publish- 
ed monthly, and sold at all the principal railway-stations (edition 
in yellow cover, with map, 25 c). 

The fares on the Belgian lines are probably the lowest in the 
railway-world. The charges per Engl. M. are now about 17 o. for 
the first, 11 c. for the second, and 8!/ 2 c. for the third class; ex- 
press fares are somewhat higher. Return-tickets are issued at a 
reduction of 20 per cent., and are available from 1 to 3 days ac- 
cording to the distance. 

Luggage must be booked and paid for separately. On most of 
the international through-routes 56 lbs. are free, but on the inland 
routes the cost of its transport not unfrequently amounts to as 
much as a second or third class fare. The traveller is therefore 
recommended to restrict his requirements if possible to the limits 
of a travelling-bag or moderate valise , which when necessary he 
can wield unaided, and take with him into the railway-carriage, 
so as to avoid the delay and expense incurred in booking it for the 
luggage-van. Anything over 56 lbs. in weight, however, must be 
booked, and should be at the office at least Y4 hr. before the train 
starts. The luggage-offices are closed 3min. before the hour of de- 
parture. An advantage peculiar to the Belgian railways is that, in 
the case of the inland traffic, luggage may always be forwarded by 
passenger-train whether the sender takes a personal ticket for the 
journey or not. Luggage may be insured at a charge of 10 0. per 
100 fr. of the value. 

There are Refreshment Rooms at a few of the Belgian stations 
only. Their charges are mentioned in the above-noted official guide 
(Buffets-Restaurants). 

VII. History and Statistics. 

The country called Belgium at the present day, which was origi- 
nally peopled with a race of Celtic origin , and was subsequently 
overrun by Teutonic invaders , was conquered by Caesar , and re- 
mained under Roman supremacy until the beginning of the 5th 
century, when the Salic Franks established themselves in the dis- 
trict between the Schelde, the Meuse, and the Lower Rhine. 

In the 9th centuTy the country formed part of the Empire 
of Charlemagne. By the treaty of Verdun (843) the western pro- 
vinces , FlandeTs and Artois , became part of France , while the 
eastern , including Brabant , fell to the share of Germany. With 
the development of the feudal system various hereditary princi- 
palities were established here as elsewhere. Thus arose the states 
of Flanders , Artois , Hainault , Namur , the duchies of Brabant 
and Limburg , the principality of Liege , the county of Antwerp, 
and the lordship of Malines, which at a later period rendered 



BELGIUM. History, xvii 

themselves independent of their powerful neighbours. Flanders, 
which attained to great prosperity by means of its manufactures 
and commercial enterprise, carried on a long-continued struggle 
against France, the result of which, chiefly through the strenuous 
exertions of the cities of Ghent and Bruges, was the establishment 
of its complete independence. On the extinction of the male line 
of the Counts of Flanders in 1385, Flanders became annexed 
to Burgundy by the marriage of Philip the Bold with a daughter 
of the Flemish princely race, and by the beginning of the 15th 
cent, most of the other states were also united , by means of later 
marriages and other contracts, inheritance, etc., under the suprem- 
acy of the Dukes of Burgundy. This change of dynasty was most 
favourable to the growth of art in the Netherlands. The splendour- 
loving Philip the Bold (d. 1404) employed artists of every kind, 
particularly goldsmiths, while the name of his grandson Philip the 
Good (1419-1467), to whom Jan van Eyck was court-painter, is 
inseparably connected with the first bloom of Flemish painting. 

In 1477 the Netherlands came into the possession of the House 
of Hapsburg by the marriage of Mary of Burgundy, the daughter 
of Charles the Bold, the last Duke of Burgundy, with Maximilian, 
afterwards Emperor of Germany. Charles V. , grandson of Maxi- 
milian, who was born at Ghent in 1500, and subsequently became 
Emperor of Germany and King of Spain, succeeded to the whole of 
these provinces, which on his abdication in 1555 came under the 
sway of his son Philip II. Thenceforward the Netherlands were 
subject to Spanish Supremacy. Philip appointed his half-sister, Mar- 
garet of Parma, regent of the Netherlands (1559-67), and selected 
Granvella, Bishop of Arras, as her counsellor and assistant. Re- 
ligious agitations, the excessive increase of the number of the 
bishops (1559), the burdensome presence of the Spanish troops, and 
other grievances led to numerous tumults, to suppress which the 
king dispatched the Duke of Alva to the Netherlands with an army 
of 20,000 men. The extreme cruelty with which Alva fulfilled 
his task resulted in the famous revolt of the United Netherlands 
in 1568. Success was achieved by the northern provinces only, 
which now constitute the Kingdom of Holland, whilst the south- 
ern districts , the present Kingdom of Belgium , after protracted 
and fierce struggles, still continued to groan under the oppressive 
yoke of the Spaniards. At length, under the regime of Alexander 
Farnese, Duke of Parma (1578-96), the third governor after Alva, 
Belgium also succeeded in recovering the civic liberties in behalf 
of which the war had originally broken out. 

In 1598 the 'Spanish Netherlands' were ceded by Philip II. as 
a fief to his daughter Clara Isabella Eugenia on the occasion of her 
marriage with Albert, Archduke of Austria, the Spanish governor. 
Under their regime the wounds which the country had suffered 
during the war began to heal. The princely pair exerted themselves 

Baedekek's Belgium and Holland. 7th Edit. b 



xviii History. BELGIUM. 

in every way to promote the welfare of the provinces under their 
care ; industry and commerce once more flourished, and the ad- 
ministration of justice was reorganised. Their religious zeal, of a 
strong anti-reformation type, was displayed in the foundation of 
new monasteries, colleges, and other Roman Catholic institutions, 
but at the same time materially contributed to the development of 
art. Numerous churches, in the gorgeous but somewhat degraded 
taste of the period, were built and decorated with brilliant altar- 
pieces. The Archduke and his wife, moreover, rendered the country 
an important service by securing the services of Rubens, the great- 
est of Belgian painters, who in 1609 had made up his mind to 
settle in Italy. They appointed him their court-painter, permit- 
ting him at the same time to reside at Antwerp, the centre of 
Flemish art. 

After Albert's death without issue (1621) the Netherlands re- 
verted to Spain, which during the wars of the latter half of the 17th 
cent, was obliged to cede many of its provinces (Artois , Thion- 
ville, etc.) to France. In 1714 these provinces were awarded by 
the Peace of Rastadt to the House of Austria. 

The 'Austrian Netherlands' were wisely and beneficently govern- 
ed by the archdukes of Austria, who held the office of Stadtholder, 
and for a brief period the glorious days of the Burgundian re"gime 
appeared to have returned. The governors of that period, especially 
under the Empress Maria Theresa, are still gratefully remembered 
by the Belgians. The opposition which the reforms of the Emp. 
Joseph II. encountered at length (in 1789) gave rise to the 'Bra- 
bant Revolution', headed by Van der Noot and Vonk, but the inde- 
pendence thus attained lasted for a single year only, and under 
Emp. Leopold II. the Austrians again took possession of the country. 

This revolution, however, paved the way for the interference of 
the French , whose aid had been invoked by the ecclesiastical and 
the liberal parties. In 1794 the whole of Belgium was occupied 
by French Republicans, who divided it into nine departments. In 
1814 the French supremacy was finally shaken off. 

The Treaty of London , of 28th June, 1814, and the provisions 
of the Congress of Vienna, of 7th June, 1815, united Belgium and 
Holland under the name of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, and 
elevated William of Orange, son of the former stadtholder of the 
Seven Provinces , to the newly-constituted throne. Belgium was 
again severed from her constrained union with Holland by the 
Revolution of 1830. On 10th Nov. the provisional government 
summoned a national congress, by which the Due de Nemours, son 
of Louis Philippe, was invited to become the sovereign of Belgium. 
The French monarch having declined the dignity in behalf of his 
son, Leopold of Saxe-Coburg was next selected by the congress, and 
that prince accordingly ascended the throne on 21st July, 1831. 

The treaty of the intervening powers, signed at London on 15th 



BELGIUM. Statistics, xix 

Nov., 1831, by the representatives of the five great powers and of 
Belgium , although not finally recognised by the exasperated King 
of Holland till 1839, constituted the Kingdom of Belgium one of 
the independent European states , and determined the boundaries 
and the relations between the two disunited kingdoms. 

King Leopold II., born in 1835, the son of Leopold I. (b. 1790, 
d. 1865) and of Louise, his second consort, daughter of Louis Phi- 
lippe (d. 1850), ascended the throne on 10th Dec. , 1865. His 
Queen is Marie Henriette, daughter of the late Archduke Joseph. 
The royal family consists of the Princesses Louise (b. 1858 ; mar- 
ried in 1875 to Prince Philip of Saxe-Coburg) , Stephanie (b. 1864 ; 
married in 1881 to Rudolph, Crown Prince of Austria), and Clemen- 
tine (b. 1872). Leopold, the only son (b. 1859), died at the age of 
ten. The Count of Flanders (b. 1845), who is married to a German 
Princess, is the King's brother. Charlotte, the widow of Maximilian, 
Emp. of Mexico (d. 1867), is a sister of Leopold II. 

Extent. The extreme length of the kingdom, from N.W. to S.E., 
is 179 Engl. M., breadth from N. to S. 110 M., area 11,235 sq. M. 

Population (in 1881) 5,585,846 (in 1831, 3,785,864 only), of 
whom about 2'/2 millions are Flemings, and about 2 millions Wal- 
loons. The Roman Catholic religion is greatly predominant, about 
.15,000 only of the population being Protestants, and 3000 Jews; 
and of these two sects more than half are resident in the provinces 
of Antwerp and Brabant. 

Provinces. The country is divided into nine provinces , viz. 
Antwerp, Brabant, W. Flanders, E. Flanders, Hainault, Liege, 
Limburg, Luxembourg, and Namur. The density of population 
amounts to nearly 500 per sq. M., and varies from 800 per sq. M. 
in Brabant to 135 per sq. M. in Luxembourg. Brabant, E. Flan- 
ders, and Hainault, are, with the exception of some of the manu- 
facturing districts of England, among the most densely peopled 
districts in the world. 

Army. The Belgian army is destined on principle only for the 
defence of the country and of the neutrality assured to it by the 
Treaty of London (p. xviii). It consists of 103,890 men, of whom 
3373 are officers, and in time of peace, of 48,380 men. The army 
is composed of the following regiments: 1 Carabineers, 3 Riflemen, 
14 Infantry of the line, 1 Grenadiers; 2 Chasseurs-a-cheval, 2 Lan- 
cers, 2 Guides, whose celebrated band is one of the best in Europe; 
4 Field Artillery (40 batteries of 6 guns each, 4 mounted), 3 Fortress 
Artillery ; 1 Engineers ; 1 Telegraph , and 1 Railway company. 
There are also several companies of the military train andpontoniers. 
The country is divided into four military districts, each containing 
four active and one depot division. The principal military depot 
is at Antwerp. — The Oarde Civique , or militia , consists of 
29,833 men. 

The national colours, adopted in 1831, are red, yellow, and black, 

b* 



xx Statistics. BELGIUM. 

placed in three perpendicular stripes, which were the colours of 
the ancient Duchy of Brabant. The armorial bearings of Belgium 
consist of the Lion of Brabant, with the motto l Uunion fait la force'. 
Belgium possesses 59 merchant-ships, including 41 steamers, of 
an aggregate burden of 77,840 tons, and 299 fishing -boats of 
10,476 tons. It has no navy. 

Chakacteristics. Those indicated by the following monkish 
lines are said to exist to some extent even at the present day : — 
'Nobilibus Bruxella viris, Antwerpia nummis, 
Qandavum laqueis, formosis Bruga puellis, 
Lovanium doctis, gaudet Mechlinia stultis\ 

(Brussels rejoices in noble men, Antwerp in money, Ghent in 
halters, Bruges in pretty girls, Louvain in learned men, and 
Malines in fools.) Halters are mentioned in connection with Ghent 
in allusion to the frequent humiliations to which its turbulent 
citizens were subjected by their sovereigns. The unenviable repu- 
tation of the citizens of Malines originated in the story that they 
once mistook the moon shining through their cathedral-tower for 
a conflagration, and endeavoured to extinguish it by means of the 
fire-engines. 



HOLLAND. 



I. Plan of Tour. 

The following tour of a week is recommended to the traveller 
whose time is limited : — 

Day 
From London to Rotterdam by steamboat ; or from Antwerp 

to Rotterdam by railway 1 

Rotterdam, and thence by railway to the Hague .... 1 

To Seheveningen ; also visit ' T Huis ten Bosch 1 

To Leyden, and the same evening to Haarlem 1 

Haarlem , and in the evening to Amsterdam 1 

Amsterdam, and Environs 1 

To Utrecht and thence by railway to Arnhem 1 

A hasty glance at the principal places in Holland may thus 
be obtained in a week or ten days, but the traveller whose time 
permits should devote a longer period to this interesting country. 
The following will be found a pleasant and instructive tour of a 
fortnight: — Dayg 

From London, or from Antwerp, to Rotterdam .... 1 

Rotterdam and Delft 1 

The Hague and Seheveningen . 2 

Leyden and Haarlem iy., 

Alkmaar ; Helder, and back to Haarlem 3 

Amsterdam and Environs 3 

Utrecht 1 

Arnhem 1 

II. Money and Travelling Expenses. 

Money. The Dutch currency consists of florins (gulden or 
guilder) and cents. The florin (Is. S 1 ^-) contains 100 cents, or 
20 stuivers, ot 10 duhheltjes. The current gold coins are pieces of 
5 and 10 fl., known as half and whole Willemsd'or, or Gouden 
Willem, respectively ; the silver coins are pieces of 2^2 (rijksdaal- 
der) and 1 florin, and of 50, 25 (kwartje), 10 (dubbeltje), and 5 
(stuiver) cents. A stuiver, or 5 cents, is worth Id. English. Eng- 
lish, French, or German money is taken at the hotels and railway- 
stations. The average exchange for a Napoleon is 9 fl. 30 cents, 
for a sovereign 11 fl. 90 cents, for a 20 mark piece 11 fl. 80 cents. 

Expenses. The hotels at the principal towns and resorts of tra- 
vellers are generally clean and comfortable, but inferior to those 
of Belgium and Germany. In some respects they resemble the 



xxii Passports. HOLLAND. 

hotels in England more than those in other parts of the continent. 
The usual charge for a bedroom is 1-1 1 / 2 fl. , breakfast (plain) 
70-80 cents, table d'hote 21/2-3 fl., attendance i/ 2 fl - — Luncheon 
is generally taken at 1, dinner at 5 ot 6 o'clock. Although, as a 
nation , the Dutch are enlightened and well-educated , the class 
with whom the traveller comes in contact will perhaps impress him 
unfavourably ; but quite as much real comfort and civility will be 
met with in Holland as in any other part of the continent. 

Fees at museums, churches, etc., should not exceed 2 fl. per 
day. Hotel expenses amount to 7-8 fl. daily, and travelling and 
other expenses to 4-5 fl. , so that the total cost of a tour in Hol- 
land will be 13-15 fl. a day. The 'voyageur en garcon' may 
reduce his expenditure to one half of this sum by breakfasting at 
the cafes , dining at unpretending restaurants , and avoiding the 
more expensive hotels. It may also be remarked that the steam- 
boats on the canals, the Rhine, Meuse, Yssel, etc., afford a cheaper, 
and often pleasanter mode of travelling than the railways. 

III. Passports, Custom House. 

Passports may be dispensed with in Holland, as in Belgium, 
but the traveller had better be provided with one if he contemplates 
a prolonged tour. 

Custom House. All new articles , especially if not wearing- 
apparel , are liable to pay duty according to their value, which 
must be declared beforehand. New articles not previously declared 
are liable to confiscation. 

IV. Language. 

A slight acquaintance with the Dutch language will contribute 
greatly to the instruction and enjoyment afforded by a tour in 
Holland. German, however, is very generally understood, and 
English and French are spoken at all the best hotels and other prin- 
cipal resorts of travellers. Those who have a knowledge of German, 
Danish , or Swedish will recognise the identity of the roots of the 
great majority of the words in these languages with those of the 
Dutch. The language, which may be described as a Lower Frank- 
ish dialect, and which existed in a written form as early as the 
13th century, developed its individuality more strongly during the 
wars of independence of the 17th centuTy. It is expressive and 
highly cultivated, and free from the somewhat vague and ungram- 
matical character which stamps Flemish as a mere patois. Like 
other languages of purely Teutonic origin, it has admitted a consid- 
erable number of Romanic words to the rights of citizenship : 
thus , kantoor (comptoir) , kwartier (quartier) , katoen (coton), 
kastrol (casserole) , rekwest (requete) , gids (guide), etc. Words of 
foreign origin , however , have been imported from motives of con- 
venience or fashion, rather than absolute necessity. The language 



Wij leven vrij, vij leven blij 

Op Neerlands dierbren grond, 
Ontworsteld aan de slavernij, 
Zijn wij door eendragt groot en vrij ; 
Hier duldt de grond geen dwing- 
landij 
Waar vrijheid eeuwen stond. 

(Brand.) 

(Literal translation: 'We live free, 
we live blithe, on Netherlands' dear 
ground; delivered from slavery, we 
are through concord great and free ; 
here the land suffers no tyranny, 
where freedom has subsisted for 
ages'.) 



HOLLAND. Language, xxiii 

is remarkably rich and full of vital energy , and words of purely 
native growth are to be found in almost every branch of science 
and art. The following lines from two popular ballads will serve 
as a specimen : — 

Wien Neerlandsch bloed in de aderen 
vloeit, 

Van vreemde smetten vrij, 
Wiens hart voor land enKoninggloeit, 

Verhef den zang als wij : 
Hij stel met ons, vereend van zin, 

Met onbeklemde borst, 
Het godgevallig feestlied in 

Voor Vaderland en Vorst. 

( Tollens.) 
(Literal translation: 'Let him, in 
whose veins flows Netherlandish 
blood, free from foreign stain, and 
whose heart glows for country and 
king, raise the song with us, united 
in sentiment, with unburdened breast, 
in the festal song, pleasing to God, 
for Fatherland, and Sovereign'.) 

The pronunciation of Dutch somewhat Tesembles that of Ger- 
man , but is more guttural , and therefore more difficult for the 
English student. The vowels a, e, i, o, u are pronounced as in 
French , and are lengthened , but not altered in sound , by being 
doubled (thus 00 = o) ; ei and ij , or y, are like the vowel sound in 
the French pays ; au and ou like ow in now, but broader (aw-oo) ; 
eu like the French eu or the German ; oe like the English 00 or 
the German u ; ui has a sound fluctuating between oi and ow (as in 
now). In most other combinations of vowels each retains its usual 
sound. All the consonants are pronounced as in English, except g 
and ch, which have a guttural sound like the ch in the Scotch word 
loch, or the g in the German Tag ; w, which is pronounced like v ; 
j like the English y or ee ; and v like f. Final r is often dropped 
in colloquial speech (e.g. Leyde' for Leyden). 

The definite article is de for the masculine and feminine, and 
het for the neuter ; genitive des, der, des, or van den, van de, van 
het ; dative den, der, den, or aan den, aan de, aan het ; plural for 
all genders de, der, den, de. 

The declension of substantives and adjectives resembles the 
German. The plural of substantives is formed by the addition of s 
or of en (dative plural always en). 

The pronouns are ik, I ; mij, me, to me ; gij, thou, you ; u, thee, 
to thee, you, to you; hij, he; hem, him, to him; het, it; zij, she; 
haar, her, to her; zij, they; hun, to them; hen, them. Mijn, 
mijne, my; uw, uwe, thy, your; zijn, zijne, his; haar, hare, her; 
onze, ons, our; hun, hunne, their. Wie, who (interrog.); wat, 
what ; hoe, how ; wanneer, when. 

Cardinal numbers: een, twee, drie, vier, vijf, zes, zeven, acht, 
negen, tien, elf, twaalf, dertien, veertien, vijftien, zestien, zeven- 



xxiv Language. 



HOLLAND. 



tien, achtien, negentien , twintig , een en twintig , etc-. , dertig, 
veertig , vijftig, zestig, zeventig , tachtig, negentig, honderd, 
duizend. Ordinal numbers: de eerste, de tweede, de derde, de 
vierde, achtste (8th), etc. , de twintigste, de tachtigste (80th), etc. 
Partitive numbers : een half, een derde, een vierde, etc. 

Auxiliary verbs. Hebben, to have ; zijn or wezen, to he ; zullen, 
the infinitive of shall or will (future sense) ; worden, to he (in the 
formation of the passive voice). 

ik heb ik ben 

gij hebt gij zijt 

hij, zij heeft hij, zij is 

wij hebben ivij zijn 

gij hebt gij zijt 

zij hebben zij zijn 

gehad, had. geweest, been. 

The conjugation of verbs and the construction of sentences 
closely resemble the German. 

The form of address among the upper classes is always V (prop- 
erly Uwe Edele, Your lordship, Ital. Vossignoria), with the third 
person singular, and often with the addition of Mynheer. A mar- 
ried lady is addressed as Mevrouw (pronounced Mefrow), a young 
lady as Jungjuffrouw. Juffrouw is uniformly used in addressing 
bar-maids, female attendants in shops, etc. — Among the common 
people gij or jij, abbreviated into je, is used with the second per- 
son plural. Je is also made use of in familiar speech by persons 
of the upper ranks, but the stranger is recommended to abide by 
the more formal mode of address. 



ik zal 


ik word 


gij zult 


gij wordt 


hij, zij zal 


hij, zij wordt 


wij zullen 


wij worden 


gij zult 


gij wordt 


zij zullen. 


zij worden 




geworden, been. 



Mag ik u vragen, hoe ga iknaar . . ? 
Welke is de kortste weg naar . . ? 
Oa regtuit, en dan de eerste straat 

links, regts. 
Ik dank u, mijnheer. 
Ik zal met den spoorweg (or 

simply met het spoor) rijden. 
Kruijer, breng de bagage naar het 

spoor. 
Ik geloof het is te laat. 
In welke klasse gaat gij ? 
Ik zal een kaartje vor de tweede 

klas nemen. 
Hoe laat is het? 
Het is kwartier voor tweeen, over 

drie'en, halftien. 
De trein vertrekt ten vijf uur en 

komt ten tien aan. 
Hoe lang houden wij hier still'! 



May I ask you how I am to go to .. ? 
Which is the shortest way to . . ? 
Go straight on, and then by the first 

street to the right,to the left. 
Thank you, Sir. 
I shall travel by railway. 

Porter, take the luggage to the 

station. 
I believe it is too late. 
In which class will you go? 
I shall take a ticket for the second 

class. 
What o'clock is it? 
It is a quarter to two, a quarter 

past thTee, half-past nine. 
The train starts at 5 o'clock and 

arrives at ten. 
How long do we stop here? 



HOLLAND. 



Language, xsv 



Waar zijn wij nu ? 
Dit is de laatste station. 
Koetsier, breng ons naar . . 
Wacht , ik moet nog mijne ba- 

gage halen. 
Bij het Mtel . . . ophouden. 
Hoeveel is de vracht? 
Een fooi. 
Kan ik een tamer hebben? met 

een bed, twee bedden. 
Zeker, mijnheer. 
Kellner, wat hebt gij te eten ? het 

ontbijt , het middaggeten , het 

avondeten; drinken. 
Breng mij gebraden rundvleesch, 

schapenbout, kalfsborst, ham, 

visch , aardappelen , groente 

(fern.), brood, boter, vruchten, 

kaas, wijn, bier. Mes, vork, 

lepel, glas, bord, eene flesch. 
Ik zal morgen ten zeven ure ver- 

treken; wek mij ten zes. 
Hoeveel bedraagt onze nota ? 
Wat moeten wij u betalen ? 
In welke straat is het museum ? 
Hoe ver is het van hier? 
Wanneer is het geopend ? 
Dagelijks kosteloos , van tien tot 

drie uur. 
'«S woendags en 's zaiurdags tegen 

entreegeld. 
Zondag, maandag, dingsdag ,don- 

derdag, vrijdag. 
Heden, morgen, gisteren. 
Ik wensche eenige photographien 

te koopen, gezigten van ■ . . , 

kopijen naar de sehilderijen 

van . . . 
Laat mij zien wat gij hebt. 
Dat is niet mooi. 
Wat is de pry's ? 
Wat vraagt gij er voor ? 
Ik heb geen klein geld bij mij ; 

kunt gij mij wisselen'i 
Ja, mijnheer; neen, mijnheer. 
Als H u belieft. 
Met vragen komt men te Rome. 



Where are we now? 
This is the last station. 
Coachman, drive us to 
Wait, I must fetch my 



To stop at the . . . hotel. 

What is the fare? 

A fee. 

Can I have a room? with one bed, 
with two beds. 

Certainly, Sir. 

Waiter, what have you to eat? 
breakfast, dinner, supper; to 
drink. 

Bring me roast beef, leg of mut- 
ton, breast of veal, ham, fish, 
potatoes , vegetables , bread, 
butter , fruit , cheese , wine, 
beer. Knife, fork, spoon, glass, 
plate, bottle. 

I shall start to morrow at 7 
o'clock ; wake me at 6. 

How much does our hill come to? 

What must we pay you? 

In which street is the museum? 

How far is it from here '! 

When is it open ? 

Daily, gratis, from ten to three. 

Wednesdays and Saturdays on 
payment. 

Sunday,Monday,Tuesday, Thurs- 
day, Friday. 

To-day, to-morrow, yesterday. 

I want to buy some photographs, 
views of ... , copies of the 
paintings of . . . 

Let me see what you have. 
That is not pretty. 
What is the price? 
What do you ask for this ? 
I have no change with me ; can 
you change me (some money)? 
Yes, sir ; no, sir. 
If you please. 
By questioning one gets to Rome. 



xxvi Railways. HOLLAND. 

V. Picture Galleries and Collections. 
Picture Galleries and Collections are generally open from 
10 a.m. till 3 or 4 p.m. — In all collections belonging to the state 
gratuities are forbidden ; sticks and umbrellas must be given up 
at the door, but no charge is made for taking care of them. These 
last remarks do not apply to municipal collections. The usual 
gratuity at private collections is 1 fi. 

VI. Railways. 

Most of the remarks made with regard to Belgian railways apply 
to the Dutch also, except that the fares in Holland are considerably 
higher. In 1882 there were about 625 M. of government , and 
600 M. of private lines in use. Holland also possesses an exten- 
sive system of steam- tramways. 

The best railway, steamboat, and diligence time-tables are 
contained in Van Santen's Officieele Reisgids voor Nederland, 
published monthly (with map, price 25 cents). The hours of de- 
parture of the fast trains (1st and 2nd class) are printed in Italics; 
v. (vertrek) means departure, and a. (aankomst) arrival. To change 
carriages is overstappen. 

VII. Dutch Characteristics. 

Towns. Most of the Dutch towns , especially those in Noord- 
Holland , Zuid-Holland , Friesland, and Groningen, as well as the 
open country, are intersected in every direction by canals (Grachten), 
which are generally enlivened with numerous barges. The different 
quarters of the towns are connected by means of drawbridges 
(ophaalbruggen) , now being replaced , however , by swing-bridges 
(draaibruggen). The roads and streets skirting the canals are 
usually planted with trees, which render them shady and picturesque. 

The Dutch houses are generally lofty and narrow, and construct- 
ed of red brick and white cement. The beams occasionally seen pro- 
jecting from the gables are used for hoisting up goods to the lofts, 
which are used as magazines. The windows of the ground-floor 
being generally of ample dimensions, and polished with the 
scrupulous care which characterises the Dutch of all classes , the 
houses present a faT more cheerful and prosperous appearance than 
is usual in large towns. At the cellar-doors in the side-streets, 
sign-boards with the words 'water en vuur te koop' (water and Are 
to sell) are frequently observed. At these humble establishments 
boiling-water and red-hot turf are sold to the poorer classes for the 
preparation of their tea or coffee. Many of the houses and public 
buildings are considerably out of the perpendicular, a circum- 
stance due to the soft and yielding nature of the ground on which 
they stand. 

In many Dutch towns the custom prevails of affixing bulletins 
to the doors of houses in which persons are sick, in order that their 



HOLLAND. Characteristics, xxvii 

friends may be apprised of the state of their health without 
knocking or ringing. At Haarlem and Enkhuizen the birth of a 
child is announced by means of a small placard adorned with red 
silk and lace, and the friends of the family are entertained on 
these occasions with 'handed' (a kind of mulled wine) and 
'kaneel-koekjes' (cinnamon-cakes). Betrothals are celebrated by an 
unlimited consumption of i bruidsuiker l ('bridal sugar', or sweet 
cakes) and 'bruidstraneri ('bridal tears', as the spiced wine is 
figuratively called). 

The Chimes in the towers of the churches, or other public build- 
ings, proclaim the quarters of every hour by playing a few bars 
of some popular or operatic air, a pleasing custom, of which how- 
ever the effect is destroyed by too frequent repetition. 

The l 6aper' (gaper), a painted Turk's or Moor's head, is the 
customary sign of the druggists' shops. A large crown , decorated 
with box-leaves and gilding , suspended beneath the Dutch flag, 
is an indication that new herrings have arrived in the shop thus 
adorned. 'Tapperif (tap-room), or l hier verkoopt man sterke 
dranken' (strong drinks are sold here) , are the common signs for 
taverns. l Dit huis is te ftuw' (this house is to hire, or let) is also 
frequently observed. 

Stoofjes, or foot-warmers, are universally employed by the 
female members of the community , and are seen in great numbers 
in the churches. 

The Dutch love of cleanliness sometimes amounts almost to a 
monomania. The scrubbing, washing, and polishing which most 
houses undergo once every week, externally as well as internally, 
are occasionally somewhat subversive of comfort. Spiders appear 
to be regarded with especial aversion , and vermin is fortunately 
as rare as cobwebs. 

Country Houses (buitenplaatsen , or buitens). Although na- 
ture has not bestowed her charms lavishly on Holland , the careful 
cultivation of the fields, gardens, and plantations imparts a pictur- 
esque and prosperous appearance to the country. In the vicinity 
of the larger cities , especially on the Vecht between Utrecht and 
Amsterdam, and also at Arnhem, Haarlem, etc. , numerous villas 
and country-seats are seen near the roads and canals, frequently 
enclosed by carefully kept gardens , parks , and pleasure-grounds. 
These paradises of the Dutch gentry and retired merchants , which 
are too often built in bad taste, and disfigured with paint and 
stucco, usually bear inscriptions characteristic of the sentiments of 
their proprietors, and breathing a spirit of repose and comfort. 
Thus : l Lust en Rust' (pleasure and repose) , ' Wei Tevreden' (well 
content), l Mijn Genoegeri (my satisfaction), 'Mijn Lust en Leveri 
(my pleasure and life), 'Vriendschap en Oezelschap' (friendship and 
sociability), 'Vreugde bij Vrede' (joy with peace), 'Oroot Oenoeg 1 
(large enough), l Buiten Zorg' (without care). Many villas rejoice 



xxviii Dykes. HOLLAND. 

in much lengthier titles , which perhaps appear peculiarly appro- 
priate to the occupants, but cannot fail to excite a smile when read 
by strangers. Few of these country-houses are seen from the rail- 
way, and the traveller should therefore endeavour to visit some of 
the more attractive of those mentioned in the following pages. 

The Village Feasts {'kermis', literally 'church-mass', i. e. the 
anniversary of the foundation of the church) form a substitute for 
the Carnival of Roman Catholic countries, but the gaieties on these 
occasions too frequently degenerate into scenes of drunken revelry. 
The popular refreshments at these festivities are 'Hollands' and 
'Poffertjes', a kind of cake sold in the booths erected for the purpose. 
The picturesque national Costumes, which are fast disappearing 
from the larger towns , aTe seen to advantage on these festive oc- 
casions. 

The Trekschuit (literally 'draw-boat') , or passenger-barge , was 
formerly a conveyance universally employed in Holland, where 
canals are as common as roads in other countries, but it is now 
almost entirely superseded , partly by the railways and partly by 
screw-steamers. 

Windmills (molens) are a characteristic of almost every Dutch 
landscape , and often occupy the old ramparts and bastions of the 
towns, which they appear to defend with their gigantic arms. Many 
of them are used in grinding corn, sawing timber, cutting tobacco, 
manufacturing paper, etc., but one of their most important func- 
tions is to pump up the superfluous water from the low ground to 
the canals which conduct it to the sea. The highly-cultivated state 
of the country bears testimony to the efficiency of this system of 
drainage. Many of the windmills are of vast dimensions, each 
sail sometimes exceeding 60 ft. in length. 

Dykes. Holland , as a whole , is probably the lowest country 
in the world, the greater part of it lying many feet below the sea- 
level. The safety of the entire kingdom therefore depends upon the 
dykes , or embankments , by which the encroachment of the sea is 
prevented. In many places these vast and costly structures are 
equally necessary to prevent inundation by the rivers, the beds 
of which are gradually raised by alluvial deposits. 

The first care of the constructor of dykes is to lay a secure and 
massive foundation, as a preliminary to which the ground is 
stamped or compressed in order to increase its solidity. The dykes 
themselves are composed of earth , sand , and mud , which when 
thoroughly consolidated are entirely impervious to water. The 
surface is then covered with twigs of willows, interwoven with 
elaborate care , the interstices of which are filled with clay so as 
to bind the whole into a solid mass. The willows, which are 
extensively cultivated for the purpose , are renewed every three or 
four years. Many of the dykes, moreover, are planted with trees, 



HOLLAND. Canals, xxix 

the roots of which contribute materially to the consolidation of the 
structure. Others are provided with bulwarks of masonry, or 
protected by stakes against the violence of the waves , while the 
surface is covered with turf. 

The most gigantic of these embankments are those of the Hel- 
der, and of Westcapelle on the "W. coast of the island of "Wal- 
cheren (p. 153). The annual cost of maintaining the latter alone 
amounts to 75,000 fl. , while the total expenditure through- 
out Holland for works of this description is estimated at sixj 
million florins. A corps of engineers , termed De Waterstaat , is 
occupied exclusively in superintending these works. The con- 
stantly-imminent nature of the danger will be thoroughly ap- 
preciated by the stranger, if he stands at the foot of one of the great 
dykes at high tide, and hears the breakers dashing against the other 
side of the barrier, at a height of 16-18 ft. above his head. The 
force of the old Dutch proverb 'God made the sea , we made the 
shore', will also be apparent. 

Canals intersect the country in every direction. They serve a 
threefold purpose: (1) as high-roads, for purposes of traffic; (2) as 
drains , by which superfluous water is removed from the cultivated 
land ; (3) as enclosures for houses , fields , and gardens , being as 
commonly used for this purpose in Holland as walls and hedges in 
other countries. The Dutch canals differ from those in most other 
countries in being generally broader, but variable in width, while 
locks are rare, as the level of the water is nearly always the same. 
Those canals, however, which are connected with the sea are closed 
at their extremities by massive flood-gates , to prevent the en- 
croachment of the sea when its level is higher than the water in 
the canal. 

The principal canals are about 60 ft. in width, and 6 ft. in 
depth. Not only the surface of the water, but the bed of the canal 
is often considerably above the level of the surrounding country. 
The three most important works of this kind in Holland are the 
great North Holland Canal (p. 282), 42 M. in length, 43 yds. in 
width, and 20 ft. in depth ; the North Sea Canal across 'Holland 
op zijn smaalst' (p. 285), connecting Amsterdam and the North 
Sea; and the Willems- Canal in N. Brabant. 

Polder is a term applied to a morass or lake, the bed of which 
has been reclaimed by draining. A great part of Holland and 
Flanders has been thus reclaimed , and rendered not only habit- 
able, but extremely valuable for agricultural purposes. 

The first step in the process of drainage consists in enclosing the 
marsh with a dyke , to prevent the admission of water from with- 
out. The water is then removed by means of water-wheels of pecu- 
liar construction, formerly driven by windmills, now by steam-en- 
gines. The marsh or lake to be reclaimed is sometimes too deep to 
admit of the water at once being transferred to the main canals, and 



xxx Dunes. HOLLAND. 

thus carried off. In these cases a system of dykes , one within the 
other, and each provided with a canal on its exterior, forms an as- 
cending series of levels, from the lower of which the water is grad- 
ually transferred to the higher, and thence finally into the principal 
channels. An excellent example of this is seen in the Schermeer 
Polder (p. 288), where four different levels have been formed. These 
canals, although separate from one another, are all provided with 
means of communication, by which if necessary the water from 
the higher can be discharged into the lower. 

The extraordinary fertility of the land thus reclaimed is chiefly 
accounted for by the fact , that superfluous water can be removed 
by means of the water-wheels on the shortest notice, while in dry 
seasons a thorough system of irrigation is constantly available. 

The appearance of these polders differs materially from that of 
the rest of the country. The speculators by whom they are drained 
map them out with mathematical precision into parcels , separated 
by canals and rows of trees at right angles, and furnished with 
houses of precisely uniform construction, all affording manifest 
indications of the artificial nature of the ground. The polders 
often lie under water in winter, but this by no means impairs 
the fertility of the soil, provided the water is not salt. 

The principal polders are the Beemster, Purmer, Schermeer 
(pp. 283, 288), that of Haarlem (p. 222), reclaimed in 1840-53, 
and the recently - drained polder of the Y (p. 284). It is now 
proposed to convert the whole of the Zuider Zee into a polder, 
whereby Holland would gain an additional province of 687 sq. M. 
in area at an estimated cost of 120 million florins, or about 34J. 
sterling per acre. 

Dunes, or downs, are the low sand-hills, 30-160 ft. in height, 
which extend along the coast of Holland and Flanders, having 
been thrown up by the action of the wind and waves. Those 
nearest the sea are of very unsubstantial consistency , and being 
frequently altered in shape by the wind they afford little or no sup- 
port to vegetable life. Between the central downs (the highest and 
broadest) and those farther inland, is situated an almost uninter- 
rupted tract of pasture and arable land, studded with cottages, and 
producing excellent potatoes. Most of the downs are honeycombed 
with rabbit-warrens, which often afford excellent sport. 

In order to prevent the sand of the downs from covering the 
adjacent land , they are annually sown with the plants that most 
readily take root in such poor soil, especially the reed-grass (Dutch, 
helm; arundo arenarea). In course of time the roots spread and 
entwine in every direction, thus gradually consolidating the sand. 
A substratum of vegetable soil once formed , the arid and useless 
sand-hill is converted into a smiling and fertile agricultural district, 
in which even plantations of pines appear to thrive. 



HOLLAND. History, xxxi 

VIII. History and Statistics. 

The earliest inhabitants of the district at the embouchures of 
the Rhine are said to have accompanied the Oimbri and Teutones 
in their expedition against Italy. Several banished tribes of the 
Catti, who settled in the deserted island of Betuwe (p. 303), were 
conquered by the Romans , whose supremacy over this part of the 
country continued from the failure of the great rebellion of Clau- 
dius Civilis till the end of the 4th cent. , when the Salic Franks, 
the inhabitants of the banks of the Yssel, took possession of theBe- 
tuwe, and established themselves between the Schelde, Meuse, and 
Lower Rhine. The district to the N. E. of the Salic Franks was 
occupied by the Frisians, to the E. of whom were the Saxons. 

The supremacy of Charlemagne extended over the whole of 
the Netherlands. Under his successors the system of investing 
vassal-princes with the land gradually developed itself. The most 
powerful of these were the Bishops of Utrecht, the Dukes of Guel- 
ders, and the Counts of Holland. In 1274 Count William II. of 
Holland was elected German Emperor through the influence of 
Pope Innocent IV. In 1512 the Dutch provinces were enrolled as 
a part of the Burgundian section of the Germanic Empire. 

Under the Emperor Charles V. the whole of the Netherlands were 
united (1543), and they now enjoyed a golden era of prosperity, in 
consequence of the powerful protection accorded by that monarch 
to commerce and navigation. Under his bigoted son and successor 
Philip II. of Spain, after the Duke of Alva's arrival at Brussels 
(1568), began that memorable, and at first apparently-hopeless 
struggle which lasted for 80 years, and terminated in the re- 
cognition of the Northern Netherlands as an independent state 
by the haughty Spaniards , and the establishment of the powerful 
Dutch Republic. 

The great founder of Dutch liberty was William of Nassau, 
'the Taciturn', Prince of Orange, a German nobleman, who was bom 
atDillenburg in the Duchy of Nassau in 1533. He was a great favour- 
ite of the Emperor Charles V. , who appointed him, when 22 years 
of age only , 'stadtholder' or governor of the provinces of Holland, 
Zealand , and Utrecht. The Low Countries having come into the 
possession of the Duke of Alva , the Spanish Governor , William 
retired to Dillenburg, but in 1572 was invited by Holland and Zea- 
land to take the command of their troops against the Spaniards. 
He shortly afterwards captured Middelburg, and succeeded in 
raising the siege of the distressed town of Leyden. On 29th Jan., 
1579, was formed the famous defensive league of the N. Netherlands, 
known as the Utrecht Union. William was shortly afterwards con- 
demned to banishment by Philip II., but the States General bravely 
defied the king's authority, and in 1581 formally threw off their 
allegiance to the Spanish crown. On 10th July, 1584, William fell 
by the hand of an assassin at Delft (p. 219), very shortly before 



xxxii History. HOLLAND. 

the day on which the States intended to have conferred upon him 
the dignity of an hereditary count of Holland. The year following 
his death his son Maurice was elected stadtholder in his stead. 

Under his presidency (1585-1625) the power and wealth of 
the Republic rapidly increased , active hostilities were frequently 
undertaken against the Spaniards, and the B. Indian trading com- 
pany was formed (1602). Meanwhile, however, there arose serious 
dissensions between the democratic and the government parties, 
which were greatly aggravated by the pernicious theological contro- 
versies of the Arminians and the Oomarists (p. 310). Contrary to 
the sound advice of the stadtholder , the States in their anxiety for 
commercial prosperity concluded a twelve years' peace with Spain 
in 1609. Incensed by the quarrels which now ensued, Maurice 
caused the influential John van Oldenbarneveld , the pensionary or 
chancellor of the province of Holland, then in his 72nd year, to be 
arrested and condemned to death by a partial tribunal in 1619 
(p. 225), but by this judicial murder he did not succeed in intimid- 
ating his refractory subjects. Maurice died in 1625, and was suc- 
ceeded by his brother Frederick Henry (1625-47), under whom 
the unity of the Republic became more consolidated , and the 
prosperity of the States reached its climax. Both by land and by 
sea they triumphed over the Spaniards in the hostilities which now 
broke out afresh; and in 1628 the gallant admiral Piet Hein 
captured the Spanish 'silver fleet'. The Dutch commerce of that 
period was the most widely extended in the world. 

The great Dutch navigators Houtman, Heemskerk, Davis, Schou- 
ten, Lemaire, Hartog, Edels, Schapenham, Nuyt, Vianen, Caron, Tas- 
man, Be Vries, Van Campen, and Berkel, explored the most distant 
coasts in the world during this period, while theE. Indian factories, 
especially that of Batavia, which had been established in 1619, 
yielded a rich harvest. The Dutch school of painting now attained 
its culminating point (comp. p. liii), and the sciences were also 
highly cultivated during this prosperous epoch, as the well-known 
names of Orotius, Vossius, Heinsius, Oronovius, etc., abundantly 
testify. 

Frederick Henry died in 1647, shortly before the Peace of 
Westphalia, by which the independence of the United States of the 
Netherlands was formally recognised , and was succeeded by his 
son William, then in his 21st year. 

The renewal of dissensions between the States and the stadt- 
holder determined them, on the early death of this prince in 1650, 
not to elect a new governor, and the reins of government were now 
entrusted to the distinguished Grand Pensionary John de Witt , an 
able and energetic senator. 

During this period the navigation acts were passed by Crom- 
well, placing restrictions on the Dutch trade, and thus giving rise 
to the war which called into activity the talents of Tromp , De 



HOLLAND. History, xxxiii 

Witt, De Ruyter, and other naval heroes , whose memory is still 
justly cherished by the Dutch. "Within the brief period of sixteen 
months (1652-54) no fewer than twelve great naval battles were 
fought, in most of which the arms of the Republic were crowned 
with success. By the peace concluded in 1654, however, the States 
were obliged to recognise the authority of the navigation acts. In 
1665 a war with England again broke out, during which, in 1667, 
De Ruyter even entered the estuary of the Thames with his fleet, 
endangering the safety of London itself, to the great consternation 
of the citizens. Notwithstanding this success , the peace concluded 
shortly afterwards was again productive of little benefit to 
Holland. 

Meanwhile Louis XIV. of France had disclosed his designs 
against the Netherlands , and had taken possession of the part be- 
longing to Spain. His proceedings against Holland, however, were 
checked for a time by the triple alliance between England, Holland, 
and Sweden , concluded by the advice of the Grand Pensionary de 
Witt. In 1672, after the dissolution of the alliance, Louis renewed 
his attacks on the now almost defenceless Union, whose army 
had been entirely neglected since the death of Prince William. 
Conde" and Turenne took possession of the provinces of Guelders, 
Over-Yssel, and Utrecht almost without a blow , while that of Hol- 
land, with its capital Amsterdam , only succeeded in averting the 
same fate by means of an artificially caused inundation. The people, 
believing that they had been betrayed by their government , now 
broke out into a rebellion to which De Witt fell a victim (p. 233), 
and which resulted in the revival of the office of stadtholder. 

William III. (1672-1702) , the last and greatest scion of his 
house, was accordingly elected, and the office of stadtholder declared 
hereditary. Under his auspices, with the aid of the Elector of 
Brandenburg and the Spanish troops, the French were defeated, 
and the war was at length terminated by the Peace of Nymegen 
in 1678. 

"William III., who had thus been instrumental in asserting the 
liberties of Europe against the usurping encroachments of the 
'Grand Monarque', married the daughter of the Duke of York, 
afterwards King James II. of England. In 1688 he undertook that 
bold expedition across the Chanuel which resulted in the deliverance 
of England from the arbitrary government of the Stuarts and the 
final establishment of constitutional liberty and Protestantism in 
Great Britain. The following year he was elected King by parlia- 
ment, retaining at the same time the office of stadtholder of the 
Netherlands. In his new position he continued strenuously to oppose 
the increasing power of France. The united fleets of England and 
Holland gained a decisive victory over the French near La Hogue 
in 1692, and by the Peace of Rijswijk in 1697 Louis was compelled 
to restore a considerable part of his conquests. "William was now 

Baedeker's Belgium and Holland. 7th Edit. c 



xxxiv History. HOLLAND. 

estranged fiom his native country, but shortly before his death, 
without issue, in 1702, he brought about the 'Great Alliance' which 
disputed the right of the French monarch to succeed to the crown 
of Spain. 

Following the example of the States General (p. xxxi), the five 
most important provinces now declared the office of Stadtholder 
abolished. Their foreign policy, however, underwent no alteration 
on this account. Prince John William Friso (d. 1711, see p. 155), 
stadtholder of Friesland and cousin of William III, succeeded to 
the command of the army of the Republic, which took part in the 
war of the Spanish succession. Under his presidency the power of 
the States General manifested itself anew. The flower of the Dutch 
army fell at the bloody victory of Malplaquet (p. 160), and in 1714 
the Peace Congress assembled at Utrecht, on Dutch soil. 

The events of the 18th cent, scarcely require special mention. 
The Republic had lost its prestige , and in the continuing alliance 
with England the preponderating power of the latter became more 
and more marked. When the French entered the territory of the 
Republic during the Austrian war of succession , the people com- 
pelled the States to appoint William IV., Prince of Orange, the 
son and successor of John William Friso, General Stadtholder over 
all the seven provinces ; and in 1748 this dignity was once more 
declared hereditary. A revolution which broke out towards the close 
of the century ended in the expulsion of the Stadtholder William V. ; 
but he was reinstated in his office by the Prussian army which 
had advanced almost unopposed to the gates of Amsterdam itself. 

The importance of the Republic had now dwindled to a mere 
shadow. In 1795 the French Republicans , led by Dutch exiles, 
took possession of the country , founded the 'Batavian Republic', 
and at the same time caused heavy taxes to be levied. Schimmel- 
pennink, an able statesman , was created president of the new Re- 
public, under the old title of Grand Pensionary , but in 1805 was 
compelled to yield up his authority to Louis Bonaparte, who had 
been created King of Holland by his brother Napoleon I. This 
semblance of independent existence came to an end in 1810, 
when Napoleon annexed Holland to France , declaring it to have 
been formed by the alluvial deposits of French rivers. 

At length in November, 1813 , the French were expelled from 
Holland by the Dutch , aided by the Russians and Prussians ; and 
the Prince of Orange, son of William V. , the last stadtholder, who 
died in exile in 1806, ascended the throne of Holland as an in- 
dependent sovereign. 

By the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the southern, or Belgian 
provinces of the Netherlands, were united with the northern into a 
single Kingdom , and the Prince of Orange was created King of the 
Netherlands , under the title of William I. This bond of union 
between two races differing materially in language , religion , and 



HOLLAND. History, xxxv 

character was severed by the Belgian Revolution of 1830 (comp. 
p. xviii). Ten years later William I. abdicated in favour of 
his son William II., who died in 1849, and was succeeded by 
William III., the present king (born in 1817, married first in 1839 
to Princess Sophia of Wurtemberg, who died in 1877, and secondly 
to the Princess Emma of Waldeck in 1879). The heir-presumptive 
to the throne is the Princess Wilhelmina (b. 1880), daughter of the 
King, as his only surviving son, Alexander, Prince of Orange (b. 
1851), died in June, 1884. 

Area and Population. The Kingdom of the Netherlands, in- 
cluding the Province of Limburg, is 13,000 sq. M. in area, and has 
(1881) a population of 4,114,077 ( 2 / 5 ths Rom. Cath., 70,000 Jews). 
Amsterdam is the capital of the kingdom, and the Hague is the re- 
sidence of the king. The Netherlands are divided into eleven pro- 
vinces : N. Brabant (capital Hertogenbosch) , Drenthe (Assen), 
Friesland (Leeuwarden), Ouelderland (Arnhem), Groningen (Gro- 
ningen), N. Holland (Amsterdam), S. Holland (Hague), Limburg 
(Maastricht), Over- Yssel (Zwolle), Utrecht (Utrecht), Zeeland (Mid- 
delburg). Besides these provinces , the district of Luxembourg 
(210,000 inhab., capital of the same name) is governed by the king 
of Holland as grand-duke. 

Revenue. The annual income of the government (exclusive of 
the colonies) amounted in 1882 to 107,421,555 florins (about 
9,000,000f. sterling), and the expenditure to 129,987,644 fl., 
leaving a deficit of 22,566,089 florins. The national debt in 1882 
amounted to 941,308,450 florins. 

The national colours are red , white, and blue, placed in hori- 
zontal lines (the French are placed vertically) ; the motto , 'Je 
maintiendrai'. 

Colonies. The most important Dutch colonies in the E. Indies 
are Java (capital Batavia), Sumatra, Borneo, and Celebes ; in the 
W. Indies Surinam , St. Eustache , and Curacao ; to which must 
be added a number of factories on the coast of Guinea. The total 
area of these possessions amounts to 660,000 sq. M., the popu- 
lation to 28 million souls. 

Commee.ce. The merchant fleet of Holland on Jan. 1, 1882. 
numbered 837 vessels (including 86 steamers), of an aggregate 
burden of about 1 million tons. The imports in 1881 amounted to 
920 million, the exports to 690 million florins. 

The Army consists of 1 regiment of Grenadiers and Riflemen, 
8 regiments of Infantry, 3 regiments of Hussars, 3 regiments of 
Field - Artillery (18 batteries), 1 regiment of Horse Artillery (2 
batteries), and 4 regiments of Fortress Artillery (40 companies), 
corps of the military train, pontoniers, 'dep&t-battalions', instruc- 
tion battalions, etc., amounting in all to 65,000 men. Beside the 
regular army there are the 'Schutterys', a kind of national guard, 



xxxvi Statistics. HOLLAND. 

and the 'landsturm', or militia. — The army in the colonies has a 
strength of 33,000 men. 

The Navy consisted in 1883 of 138 vessels of war, commanded 
by a vice-admiral, 5 rear-admirals ('schout-Mj-nacht'), 25 captains, 
35 commanders, etc., and manned by upwards of 6600 hands. 



An Historical Sketch of Art in the Netherlands. 

By Professor Springer. 

The traveller who would explore the Netherlands without tak- 
ing account Of the Art Treasures still preserved there, heedlessly 
disregards a source of the highest gratification. The collections 
in the cities , as well in Belgium as in Holland , can hoast that 
they include many of the most remarkable creations of the art 
of a bygone period : works , moreover , which have not found 
their way hither by meTe accident , but grow out of the very soil, 
so to speak, of these Low Countries, and have their raison d'etre 
in the land , in those forms and fashions which to this day repeat 
themselves alike in the native landscape and in the habits of the 
people. How much more lively is the impression received from 
works of art when seen amidst their natural surroundings , is a 
matter of common and approved experience. Everything that is 
essentially characteristic in a picture, atmosphere and light, form, 
whether natural or otherwise, fashion and custom , present them- 
selves to the beholder. The sources of the artist's inspiration, 
all that served to feed his fancy, are clearly manifest; while many 
a characteristic incident, which would otherwise escape observation 
or remain altogether unintelligible, receives its requisite inter- 
pretation. It is true that the aesthetic value of individual pictures 
may be always in all places recognised. A Titian is lustrous even 
in St. Petersburg; Diirer's incisive pencil asserts itself in Madrid. 
Nevertheless the historical significance of Art , the necessary cause 
of her development, can be understood by those only who will 
explore the scenes which witnessed her life's first dawn , particu- 
larly when lapse of time has failed materially to alter the character 
of such scenes. 

A distinction which the Netherlands enjoy in common with 
Italy consists in the opportunity afforded of obtaining the best 
possible insight into the mysterious quickening of the artistic spirit ; 
a comprehensive survey, too, of art's earliest promise and maturity, 
and her identity with the national life. That continuity and many- 
sidedness of national art, which in Italy is so pronounced, the Nether- 
lands do not, however, possess. Twice only — once in the 15th, and 
once in the 17th century — do they furnish remarkable material for 
the history of modern art. Earlier centuries reveal a poor art life, 
and the intervals between the two periods referred to fail to make 



xxxviii HISTORICAL SKETCH OF ART 

any profound impression. Nor does Ait prosper equally in all its 
branches. Sculpture and Architecture in their several domains offer 
nothing to compare with the brilliant achievements in the province 
of painting. 

Churches. During the centuries of the Middle Ages, art in the 
Netherlands did not by any means keep pace with the advance made 
in Germany and France : it was slow to move, and followed in the 
wake first of German, and later of French art. The number of Ro- 
manesque buildings in Belgian territory — for Holland must first 
be noticed in connection with the Gothic era — is not great. Of these 
the Cathedral of Tournai (p. 52) is the most prominent example. 
The influence of lower Rhenish architecture (that of Cologne), is ex- 
hibited in this cathedral, which, in respect of scale, surpasses 
all the older churches. At the same time there is an evident approxi- 
mation to the French style, which, after the 13th century, pervaded 
the entire land. It is much to be regretted that our acquaintance 
with the history of this church is so imperfect. Certain it is, 
that the present edifice was begun in the 13th century and 
completed in the 14th. Whilst the nave retains the impress of the 
pure Romanesque, an approach to the Gothic style is observable in 
the slender proportions of the shafts in the transept. The transept 
is after the model of Cologne , and was probably built by French 
workmen , who carried the experience thus acquired to Noyon and 
Cambrai, whose cathedrals closely resemble that of Tournai. 
When in the adjacent territory of Northern France the Gothic 
Style had acquired completeness , the Netherlands adopted this 
model. The southern portion of the land now became, in the 
realm of architecture, a mere province of France; and indeed French 
influence extended gradually to politics and culture also. Stately 
Gothic cathedrals rear themselves in the more considerable Belgian 
towns. With the church of St. Gudule in Brussels are associated 
the choir of the church of Notre Dame at Bruges , St. Bavon at 
Ghent , St. Rombaut at Malines , the Cathedral of Louvain , and, 
lastly, the renowned Cathedral of Antwerp, where a lamentable 
want of structural harmony must be noted, more particularly 
in the spire, whose toppling height rather astonishes by its 
audacity than delights by its beauty. Although there is an evident 
preference for lofty towers (the double tower is seldom seen, 
but rather a single tower in advance of the western extremity), 
yet, as a rule, an endeavour to secure a spacious area visibly 
determines the general proportions , while the soaring height 
and slender support which give so marked a character to the in- 
teriors of the cathedrals of France and Germany, are but slightly 
regarded. Double aisles are frequent in the churches ; but the height 
of the nave seldom exceeds 80 or 90 feet, being but twice, not as 
was usual elsewhere, three times, the width. The Dutch churches aTe 
of similar construction. Gothic architecture was much more preva- 



IN THE NETHERLANDS. xxxix 

lent in Holland than is generally supposed ; Utrecht , Amsterdam, 
Haarlem, Leyden , and Rotterdam , for example , possess Gothic 
churches on a grand scale. The building material, however, namely 
brick, which has been used (the Germans learned its use from the 
Dutch) , gives a ponderous appearance to these edifices ; while the 
wood covering which conceals the vaulted roof, the absence of archi- 
tectural ornamentation, and, finally, change in the forms of worship, 
have done much to destroy their original beauty. But we do not 
visit Holland to study ecclesiastical Gothic. 

Secular Buildings. Of far greater interest are those Gothic 
buildings erected for secular and civic purposes , in which Flan- 
ders is especially rich. So early as the 12th century , mighty 
towers to serve as belfrys were erected in the midst of fortified 
towns , for the purpose of mustering the citizens by sound of bell 
in the event of an enemy's approach or of alarm from fire. Attached 
to the belfries , or erected separately , are spacious Holies , im- 
posing edifices , used for the display of those products of Flemish 
industry which were once foremost in the markets of the world. The 
Hotel-de-Ville adorns the principal square of the town. Its facade 
generally exhibits the wealth of decoration belonging to the later 
Gothic ; while, in the interior , sculptor and painter found occasion 
for the exercise of their respective arts. The belfries at Tournai 
and Ghent, the 'halles' of Bruges and Ypres, and the 'h6tels-de-ville' 
of Bruges , Brussels , and Louvain, call for especial notice from the 
traveller; and, in case he should be interested in antiquated do- 
mestic architecture, he will find a rich treat provided for him in 
Bruges and Antwerp, once chief among Hanseatic towns. These 
buildings date as far back as the 15th and 16th centuries, a time 
when painting in the Netherlands bore its first fruits. 

Painting. To connect these early efforts with the power and 
wealth of the old Hanseatic League , and to find in the sump- 
tuous habits of the Burgundian Princes the chief impulse to the 
rapid development of the painter's art in the Netherlands , is 
obviously natural and reasonable. How the eye of the painter 
must have revelled in the varied costumes, in the manifold 
and sharply defined types , whether of native or foreigner, 
which he encountered in the motley assemblage that thronged 
these cities of the League t We may well conceive the artist's 
imagination to have been fascinated by the wealth of colour 
presented by a picture composed of weather-beaten mariners, sturdy 
labourers, burly citizens, and sagacious traders. The early practice 
of portrait-painting may also be attributed to the spirit prevailing 
in the Hanseatic towns. The interest in this branch of the painter's 
art originated probably in the self-complacency which naturally 
possesses a community of substantial burghers , proud of their vo- 
cations and achievements. Further , the Burgundian Princes, in the 
gratification of their love of splendour, found, as trustworthy accounts 



xl HISTORICAL SKETCH OF ART 

assure us, abundant employment for the artist as well as artizan. 
In their luxurious court, with its brilliant retinue, there must have 
been robes of state , glittering weapons , costly furniture , besides 
courtly manners, to captivate the eye and engage the attention of 
the painter. Undoubted, however, as the effect of such influences 
was in giving a particular direction to painting in the Nether- 
lands, they assuredly were not the source from which it sprung. 
It was not until the painter's art was emancipated from the tram- 
mels of a traditional practice , that it found favour at Court, and 
in the towns of the League. 

Up to the beginning of the 15th century Art was in neither a 
better nor worse condition than in adjacent lands, though the paint- 
ers of Cologne could undoubtedly claim pre-eminence. Such spe- 
cimens of wall-painting in the Low Countries as are still pre- 
served , show an entire want of professional training. The works of 
the miniature painters, however, rank higher. Encouraged by com- 
missions from French Princes , they were elaborately finished , and 
both in colour and drawing give evidence of a higher education in 
the artists. Sculpture , too , could boast of sterling work. If any 
general inference is to be drawn from monumental effigies preserved 
in Tournai, and dating from the beginning of the 15th century, a 
school of sculpture existed there, which successfully aimed at a 
truthful rendering of nature. The practice of painting works of 
sculpture brought the sister arts into more intimate relation. So 
far, however, was sculpture in advance, that painters found them- 
selves reduced to the expedient of adopting the plastic mode of 
treatment in the disposal of groups, as well as in drawing and the 
treatment of drapery. A long interval elapsed ere painting acquired 
a style of its own, and until every trace of the plastic relief had dis- 
appeared. Such was the condition of the painter's art in the Nether- 
lands, when the two brothers Van Eyck made their appearance , but 
we are not in a position to indicate their immediate predecessors, nor 
to determine with certainty the circumstances of their early training. 

The two brothers Van Eyck were natives ofMaaseyck, nearMas- 
tricht, where Hubert, the elder, was born somewhere about 
the years 1360-70. Wolfram von Eschenbach, in his 'Perze- 
val', had already pronounced the painters of Mastricht and Cologne 
to be the best of his time, but how painting at Mastricht or Limburg 
was employed in Hubert's time we know not. Absolutely nothing 
is known of the course of Hubert's early training, of his school, or 
early works. About the year 1420 , we find him settled at Ghent, 
where a guild of painters had already long existed, along with his 
brother. Whether while here he was the teacher or the taught, 
whether the local influences of Ghent first modified his conceptions 
and method, or whether the guild in Ghent derived new light from 
him, cannot be determined. We know of only one work from 
Hubert van Eyck's hand, indisputably identified as his, and it 



IN THE NETHERLANDS. xli 

was painted in the concluding years of his life , and remains un- 
finished. This is the gigantic Altarpiece which Jodocus Vydts com- 
missioned him to paint for the St. Bavon church in Ghent. In it he 
still clings to the traditional rules of composition in the observance 
of the severely-symmetrical proportions of an architectural struc- 
ture. But while he fails to dispose the crowd of figures in separate 
groups, he succeeds in giving to the heads a portrait-like indi- 
viduality ; he is careful to render the varied texture of the draperies, 
and in modelling the nude figure he closely imitates nature in 
every minute particular. For example, in the figure of Adam (now 
detached from the original picture and preserved along with Eve in 
the Brussels Museum) , even the short hairs of the arms and legs 
are carefully elaborated. But the most surprising innovation is in 
the colouring, to which he gave wonderful force and harmony, 
using it to give effect to an appearance of reality almost deceptive. 
The old belief that Hubert invented oil-painting cannot indeed be 
unreservedly accepted. But, although oil had long been in use as a 
vehicle, Hubert's merit is not the less conspicuous. He is still the 
first who adapted the invention to the purposes of art, by employing 
the fluid medium for the more subtle blending of colours. By this 
means he so far facilitated the process of painting , that the endea- 
vour to give a faithful, life-like rendering of nature was com- 
pletely successful. He possessed himself of the means by which alone 
effect could be given to the new impulse in art. We can have no 
better proof of the importance attached to this new method of 
painting introduced by Hubert , than in the sensation it made in 
Italy , where the invention and its publication were invested with 
the attributes of romance. 

Hubert's connection with his brother Jan van Eyck (born 1381 
-1395) is involved in some obscurity, but the latter came to be 
regarded as the moTe capable of the two. Unjustly so, however, as the 
younger brother with his own hand bears record, in an inscription on 
the Altar-piece at Ghent, in these words : 'Hubertus — major quo 
nemo repertus', — thus showing that Hubert was at least his equal. 
We are, at the same time , very imperfectly informed of Jan's early 
training, though we know a good deal about his public career. 
While Hubert, it would appear, found favour with the wealthy 
burghers of Ghent , Jan took service in the courts, first of John of 
Bavaria, afterwards of Philip the Good. He lived for some years at 
the Hague , later in Lille , and after Hubert's death removed to 
Ghent, in order to finish the Altar-piece. In 1432 he migrated to 
Bruges, where he died on 9th July , 1440, about fourteen years 
after his brother. His peculiar art can best be studied in Bruges ; 
not that many of his works are to be found there, but that the self- 
same genius still pervades the place which inspired the school of 
early Flemish painters. Bruges still remains outwardly very 
much what it was in the 16th century. The old houses have lost 



xlii HISTORICAL SKETCH OF ART 

nothing of their character and dignity by contact with the newer 
buildings which have sprung up in their midst ; while , in the quiet 
of the comparatively-forsaken thoroughfares, there is nothing to 
disturb the wanderer in quest of reminiscences of the Bruges of 
bygone days. Just as Nuremberg, some half-century ago, vividly re- 
called the age of Durer, so in Bruges a perfectly clear conception may 
still be had of the period which witnessed the labours of the Eycks 
and Memling. But, in any case , two admirable works by Jan van 
Eyck in the Academy at Bruges afford a valuable opportunity of 
appreciating his art. In keeping with a strong determination 
towards a more portrait-like and realistic conception of nature , is 
the endeavour, observable in his method , after a greater fulness of 
outline and an exact rendering of textures. The direction of his 
aim is indicated by the fact of his having painted genre pictures 
with a definite motive — the 'Bath-room' for example. 

There can be no doubt that Jan van Eyck had pupils ; but 
there can be as little doubt that theTe were painters, both in Ghent 
and Bruges, who adopted Van Eyek's method, and imitated his 
style , though not recognised as members of his school. Owing to 
the scanty information possessed of art in the Netherlands during 
the 15th century, nothing can be conclusively affirmed on the sub- 
ject. Petrus Cristus may be mentioned as a pupil of Jan van Eyck, 
at Bruges ; as independent masters Gerard van der Meire and Hugo 
van der Ooes, of Ghent. 

The people were as averse to centralisation in the domain of 
art-training as in the conduct of state affairs. While the Van Eycks 
were carrying their art from the Valley of the Meuse to Bruges and 
Ghent , another great artist was founding a school of painting at 
Brussels. Roger van deb. Weyden is apparently identical with that 
Rogelet de la Pasture who , in 1426', worked as a pupil of Robert 
CampinatTournai, and in 1432 was admitted as master in the Paint- 
ers' guild. We find Van der Weyden installed as painter to the town 
of Brussels in 1436. In 1450 he appears in Rome, as the first north- 
ern painter of undisputed fame whose name was honoured by the 
Italians, uncompromising though he was in adhering to the practice 
of his native art. On his return he again took up his abode in 
Brussels, still painting, and died in 1464. In the absence of any 
signature, his works are confounded with those of Jan van Eyck, with 
whom he had nothing in common, and with those of Memling, who 
was his pupil. They are, moreover, scattered far and near, and have 
to be sought for at Madrid, Rome, Frankfort, Munich, Berlin, etc. 
The Museum of Antwerp, however, possesses in the Seven Sacra- 
ments one of the most prominent works of this master, who was 
peculiarly successful in depicting scenes of dramatic interest 
(Descent from the Cross) ; too often, however, his power of animated 
expression betrays a want of feeling for beauty of form , and is 
continually suggestive of tinted reliefs. 



IN THE NETHERLANDS. xliii 

Hans Memling, the pupil of Van der "Weyden , bears the least 
possible resemblance to him. According to a legend, which in earlier 
times received general credence, Memling, having been wounded at 
the battle of Nancy, was carried to Bruges , where , in gratitude for 
the tender care bestowed upon him in the Hospital of St. John, he 
painted numerous pictures. This story may be placed in the same 
category as those of Diirer's malevolent spouse, and of the licent- 
iousness of the later Dutch painters. Memling was born (in Guelders '! ) 
about the year 1430 ; was, in 1472, already actively engaged as pain- 
ter; in 1478 was permanently established in Bruges, a well-to-do 
house proprietor in the Vlaminckdamm (now Rue St. George) , and 
died in 1495. The little we know of him personally is in some mea- 
sure compensated for by the great number of his works still extant. 
Bruges, in particular, can boast of possessing literally a Memling 
museum. In the Academy is the Triptych with the St. Christopher, 
in the Hospital of St. John the so-called St. John Altar, the Ad- 
oration of the Magi, the Madonna with Martin Nieuwenhoven, the 
portrait of Catharine Moreel, and, finally, the Ursula casket, the 
most ornate and captivating illustration of legendary lore bequeathed 
by the art of this early period. In Memling, indeed, it may be said 
the school of Van Eyck exhibits its highest attainments. Pure and 
luminous colouring is combined with correct drawing ; a keen percep- 
tion of Nature with a coherent sense of the beautiful. Crowe and 
Cavalcaselle in their history of old Flemish Painters, speak of Mem- 
ling as a lyric bard, and if his forms lack ideality, he knows how 
to give them the impress of a winsome beauty. His Madonnas, whose 
golden hair falls over the shoulders , or is gathered up in luxuriant 
tresses, combine dignity with a sainted loveliness. 

Among later masters of this school may be mentioned Dierie Bouts, 
of Louvain (1465-1475), and Gerard David, of Bruges (1483- 
1523), recently recovered from oblivion. The latter is a painter of 
the first rank, whose forte is in quiet Holy Family scenes, and in the 
tender sweetness of his female figures. In his constant occupation as 
a miniature painter he evidently originated the exceeding fineness 
of his manipulation, which envelopes his pictures as with a tender 
haze, and which, along with other properties, entitles him to a place 
rather in the beginning than in the end of his school. 

We have, indeed, abundant cause to deplore the ravages of 
time, when we proceed to sum up the number of authenticated 
old Flemish pictures still in existence. Scarcely, indeed, do we 
possess mementoes of ten painters , such as enable us to form a 
really distinct and vivid conception of their character as artists ; 
yet this old Netherlands school was busy for eighty years ; nor was its 
activity confined to Bruges and Ghent alone, but was shared by Ant- 
werp, Brussels, and in the North by Leyden and Haarlem. One im- 
portant cause of this absence of reliable accounts , lay in the new 
direction taken by the Netherlands school of painting in the 16th 



xliv HISTORICAL SKETCH OF ART 

century, which had the effect of depreciating the works of their 
predecessors in the general estimation, and finally of committing 
them to oblivion. For the Netherlands, like the rest of the North, 
became subject to the spirit of the Italian Renaissance. Under 
the Burgundian rule, literature had already been alienated from the 
popular sympathies, and even so it was now with pictorial art. Lu- 
cas van Leyden , and Quinten Massys, of Antwerp (1466-1531), 
are the last distinguished masters who were not carried away by 
this current. The importance of the former, however, is chiefly due 
to his admirable engravings ; while Quinten Massys sometimes dis- 
plays a vigour of sentiment at variance with the hitherto habitual 
conception. Quinten Massys is, indeed, generally regarded as the 
connecting link between the old school of the Van Eycks and 
Rubens. 

Those who would give themselves up to the enjoyment of art in 
their tour through the Netherlands, need hardly concern themselves 
about the Flemish Painters of the 16 th Century. By the historian 
they cannot be overlooked, because they indicate the course taken by 
painting in the Netherlands ; but for the lover of art their indivi- 
dual works, owing to the incongruities apparent in them, are 
anything but satisfactory. These classical figures which they affect, 
this idealised drawing which they imitate, this parade of learning 
which they make , with their scraps of mythological lore , has the 
effect of a mask forcibly concealing all natural form. Just as we 
prefer the popular ballad to the Latin verse of our school days, so we 
prize the unadorned Flemish style more highly than unsuccessful 
imitations of the Italian. The 16th century was, it is true, of a 
different way of thinking, and hailed this inroad of the Renaissance 
upon their native art as a sign of progression I Antwerp especially 
was for a long time the capital of art in the Netherlands, whence 
Duke William of Bavaria, as well as the Emperor Rudolph II., the 
two most enlightened patrons of art among German princes, supplied 
their requirements ; while Flemings, too, provided for England's 
needs. It is evident, then, that the Netherlands had no lack of 
renown nor yet of highly-gifted spirits, whose achievements, had a 
more auspicious fate attended them, would have been considerable. 
The earlier pictures of Oossart, or Mabuse (painting from 1503 to 
1532), please by force of their masterly modelling and intense col- 
ouring. Bernard von Orley (1471 - 1541) turned his residence 
in Rome to good account in mastering the style of theRaphaelesque 
school, which both in composition and drawing he reproduced with 
considerable cleverness. If we can praise the industry only of Mi- 
chael van Coxie or Coxcyen (1499-1592), and find the insipidity in 
conception and the exaggeration of form in the work of Frans de 
Vriendt, surnamed Floris (1520-70), simply repulsive ; if, again, 
Karel van Mander is famous principally for his literary acquire- 
ments, and Hubert Goltzius for his versatility, still one branch of 



IN THE NETHERLANDS. xlv 

the art remains in which the Flemings achieved and sustained a 
maTked success, viz. Portraiture, represented in the 16th century 
by Jan van Schorel or Schooreel (1495-1562), Ant. Moor (1518- 
1588), the elder Peter Pourbus (1540-1580) , and Geldorp. The 
earliest approaches to genre and landscape painting which later at- 
tained to such majestic proportions must not be allowed to escape 
observation. Their germs are, in fact, already to be detected in the 
works of Van Eyck. The principle of a careful study of Nature, and 
delight in every phase of life, early asserted itself, giving to every 
object, however insignificant, however obscure, an artistic charm. The 
painting of still life, the pourtraying of those humorous incidents, 
never wanting in domestic experience, which served to illustrate every- 
day life among the people, came early into vogue, though at first dis- 
agreeably qualified by the intermixture of the grotesque (in the shape 
of Devils' dances). Old Brueghel (see below) and Vinck-Boons had 
already painted rustic subjects, Patinir of Dinant and PaulBril land- 
scapes, with richness of effect, and Roelant Savery animal pictures. 

Among all these painters , the members of the family of 
Brueghel or, as sometimes written, Breughel, attract our interest most 
effectually. They not only afford the most striking example of that 
highly propitious practice, the hereditary prosecution of the same 
craft, but also excellently illustrate the transition from the old to 
the new style of art. Peter Brueghel the elder, or ' Peasant Brueghel' 
(about 1525-69), the earliest representative of this race of paint- 
ers, travelled in Italy for the purpose of studying art, ;but re- 
mained faithful to the subjects and treatment of his native laud. 
His figures are of a purely Flemish type, while his delicate colour- 
ing is content to reveal the study of nature in northern climes 
alone. Of Ms two sons Peter or 'Hell-fire' Brueghel (1565-1637) 
and Jan or '■Velvet' Brueghel (1568-1678), the latter, who acquir- 
ed his surname from his partiality for wearing velvet, is the more 
important. He acquired eminence not only in paying homage to 
the widely-extended national taste for flower-pieces, but also by 
his landscapes, which are distinguished for the tender bluish tone 
of their middle distance and background (not , however, always 
true to nature), and for the marvellous finish of detail in the small 
figures occupying the foreground. The sons of the two brothers bore 
the same Christian names as their fathers, followed the same pro- 
fession, and perpetuated the manner of the Brueghels down to the 
close of the 17th century. 

All previous attainments, however, sink into insignificance beside 
the extraordinary capacity displayed by the Flemish artists of the 17th 
century. The eighty years' revolt of the Dutch against Spanish oppres- 
sion was at an end. Though bleeding from a thousand wounds, the 
youthful Republic had triumphantly maintained itself , and con- 
quered for itself virtual recognition. Two worlds separate and distinct 
from one another were here compressed into their narrow confines 



xlvi HISTORICAL SKETCH OF ART 

In the still Spanish Netherlands , forming the Southern division, 
the old regime in politics as in faith remained intact ; in the States 
General of Holland, not only was a new form of government estab- 
lished, but new political and economical views, and a new form of 
faith, were in the ascendant. Both these worlds find in contemporary 
art a clearly -defined expression. The art of Peter Paul Rubens 
serves to glorify the ancient regime and the ancient faith , and was 
by this means in effect assimilated to the art of Italy, and beguiled 
by the mythological ideal. Dutch art, on the other hand, grew out 
of the new life and the new faith, and thus reflects the provincialism 
and civic pretensions which now became the characteristic features of 
the body politic. Here the schools of Haarlem, the Hague, Leyden, 
Delft, and Amsterdam, possess equal merit. Historical pictures are 
superseded by portrait groups of the civic functionaries and rulers ; 
the veil of mystery is withdrawn from the representation of sacred 
subjects, and, in its place, abare matter-of-fact and modernised treat- 
ment is introduced , in conformity with the Protestant views of the 
16th and 17th centuries, which regarded the Bible in a very different 
light from the old Church. An historical notice of the condition 
of national culture would not in itself serve to throw much light 
on the relations of Flemish and Dutch painting of the 17th century, 
but is , notwithstanding , not altogether superfluous. Such a study 
would be the means of putting in its true light, the contrast, so 
often overlooked, between Rubens and the Dutchmen. Irrespective 
of much superficial resemblance («. g. a similar tone of colour) , the 
two styles have entirely different sources and aims ; and while in 
the school of Rubens the old notions , old practices, disappeared, 
that art began to reveal itself in Holland which to this day is re- 
ceived with unqualified approbation. In the study of Rubens , the 
mind must frequently he guided by reference to history ; the Dutch, 
on the other hand, we hail as bone of our bone, and flesh of our flesh. 

Rubens. 
For centuries Cologne and Antwerp have contended for the hon- 
our of having given birth to the greatest of Belgian painters. Lat- 
terly, however, their claims have been surrendered in favour of the 
little town of Siegen , formerly in Nassau. Our artist's father , the 
Antwerp justice Johannes Rubens, being suspected of a leaning to- 
wards the Reformation, sought refuge in flight from the Spanish 
Inquisition , and joined the party of William of Orange. Arrived 
at the Rhine , where the emigrants assembled , he formed an inti- 
macy with Anna of Saxony, the crazy, sensuous wife of William, of 
such a nature as furnished the Prince with sufficient grounds for a 
divorce. The guilty lover was consigned in 1571 to the fortress 
Dillenburg. His wife, Marie Pypeling , who had followed him 
into exile , was induced by the severity of his punishment to 
forgive the offender the disgrace he had brought upon her, and 



IN THE NETHERLANDS. xlvii 

to join him at Siegen, the place assigned to him in 1573 as his 
abode. Here accordingly, on 29th June, 1577, on SS. Peter and 
Paul's day, Peter Paul Rubens was born. In the following year, 
John Rubens received permission to remove to Cologne. It is con- 
ceivable that his lot should have damped his ardour for service with 
the Princes of Orange, and encouraged a desire to be reconciled to 
the Spanish government. John Rubens, however, died pending 
the negotiations which ensued, but his wife finally made her peace 
with the Spanish ecclesiastical authorities, returned in 1588 to Ant- 
werp , and as a pledge for the genuineness of her conversion placed 
her son in a Jesuit school. In the character of the man, however, 
there was nothing Jesuitical ; but in the sensuous splendour of his 
religious pictures, in the accessories of his classical representations, 
which however brilliant are often superficial , it is easy to discern 
the effects of his training in the then flourishing schools of the 
all powerful Jesuits. 

He received instruction in painting from Adam van Noort, a 
thorough master of his art as we are assured, though no authenticated 
works of his are preserved, and from Otto van Veen, commonly 
called Otto Vaenius, court-painter to the Dukes of Parma, and an ar- 
tist more distinguished for erudition than force of imagination. 
The Trinity and the Holy Family with the Parrot ('La Vierge au 
Perroquet') in Antwerp Museum are reckoned among the first of 
Rubens's works. If this be really the case the painter must have 
developed some of his peculiar characteristics at a surprisingly 
early period , and to a great extent have acquired his style before 
his sojourn in Italy. In the year 1600, Rubens undertook, accord- 
ing to the then prevailing custom with artists, who looked upon 
Italy as the high school of art, a journey to the South. The follow- 
ing year we find him in the service of Duke Vincenzo Oonzaga , in 
his time the most pleasure-loving, most enthusiastic connoisseur of 
all princes. Rubens was sent in 1603 to Spain, as bearer of costly 
gifts, in the shape more particularly of numerous pictures, to the 
court of King Philip III. On his return he took up his abode suc- 
cessively in Mantua, Rome, and Genoa, until the year 1608, when 
he returned home. 

Now what did Rubens bear away as the fruits of his eight years' 
residence in Italy? It is of no great moment that several of his 
pictures savour of Italian prototypes; in his celebrated Descent 
from the Cross, we see a reflection of Daniele da Volterra's picture, 
in the Baptism of Christ (lost), of which the original drawing is pre- 
served, he produces single figures from Michael Angelo's battle- 
cartoon ; the Communion of St. Francis recalls a composition of 
Annibale Carracci ; while a work of Titian served as model for the 
battle of the Amazons. It is of greater importance that Rubens was 
fortified by his Italian experiences in his resolution to rely mainly 
on ideas engendered by the study of mythological-historical subjects 



xlviii HISTORICAL SKETCH OF ART 

for his inspiration, and to devote his art to their illustration. By 
this means he establishes a bond of union between the art of Italy 
and that of the North, without in any wise sacrificing his individual- 
ity. Rather does a comparison with contemporary Italian painters 
show how far he surpassed them in virtue of his spontaneous sym- 
pathies and the abounding force of his character. 

Rubens, married in 1609 to Isabella Brandt, and again, after her 
death (1626), to Helena Fourment, in 1630, had settled in Antwerp, 
where he led an uncommonly active life. As he himself assures us, 
while in the service of the Regent Albrecht and his consort Isabella, 
he had one foot always in the stirrup, making repeated trips to 
London, Paris, and Madrid, and devoting as much of his time to 
politics as to art. Certainly the varied occupations of his life are not 
to be discovered in the astounding number of his works. Nearly a 
thousand pictures , many of them of colossal dimensions, bear his 
name. This amazing fertility may be explained by the circumstance 
that the numerous pupils who frequented his workshop were em- 
ployed upon his pictures, and that he himself possessed wonderful 
rapidity of execution. It is not an easy matter to render justice to 
Rubens in all cases, partly because so many works have been attri- 
buted to him with which he had very little to do, partly, also, be- 
cause his rendering of form frequently took directions repugnant to 
our modern notions. Perhaps in his manner of treating the female 
form only he can be charged with flagrant want of taste. The ca- 
pacity of depicting the unsullied purity of maiden beauty is one of 
the attributes in an artist we most prize, while , on the other hand, 
we naturally recoil from the spectacle of naked females disfigured 
by the labours of maternity. Nevertheless, we must not forget that 
in these coarse unwieldy shapes, in the ponderous limbs and violent 
action of these female forms so constantly recurring in Rubens' pic- 
tures, we behold the direct manifestation of such impassioned 
energies and irrepressible vitality as the master seeks to embody. 

Rubens' earlier pictures have this marked superiority over his 
later works, that with all their depth and warmth of colouring, they 
preserve a certain unity, and exhibit a broad but careful finish. The 
most important of the works executed soon after his return from 
Italy is unhappily no longer in the possession of his native land, 
but rests in the Belvedere collection at Vienna. The central portion 
represents St. Ildephons receiving a rich chasuble from the Virgin ; 
on the wings are portraits of the donors , and on the outside the 
Rest on the Flight into Egypt, or the Virgin under the apple-tree. 
The painter is here seen at the apex of his artistic excellence, and 
never subsequently produced so perfect a work in so lofty a style. 
So long as Italian models were fresh in his mind his imagination 
and his sense of form were chastened and refined, but at a later 
period they were not unfrequently somewhat too exuberant. Of 
similar beauty is the Doubting Thomas in the Museum at Antwerp, 



IN THE NETHERLANDS. xlix 

with the two accompanying portraits of Burgomaster Rockox and 
his wife. The celebrated Descent from the Cross in the Cathedral 
and the Crucifixion in the Museum ('Le Coup de Lance') are also 
of the highest value as undoubtedly works of the artist's own hand. 

In his later large ecclesiastical paintings Rubens availed him- 
self to a large extent of the assistance of his pupils ; so that a less 
exalted idea of the master than he deserves may be derived from 
the study of these pictures. Another circumstance may help to lead 
the traveller in the Netherlands to a similar conclusion. Owing to 
the wide-spread renown of the artist, his works did not all remain at 
home, but found their way, even in his lifetime, far and wide. 
England, Madrid, Paris, Munich, Vienna, and St. Petersburgh con- 
tain, in their respective galleries, many of Rubens' choicest works. 
The Antwerp Museum, however, preserves a whole series of valuable 
pictures by the master, thus affording an opportunity of studying 
him on the spot where he achieved greatness. 

Though , however , it may not be possible to find unalloyed 
satisfaction in separate works of the master, no one can deny that 
Rubens is a figure of great historical importance. This is owing to 
the fidelity, with which he has adhered to the traditions of the 
national art, to the power, with which he has harmonised these 
traditions with an altered condition of art and life, and to the uni- 
versality which rendered him capable of working in every depart- 
ment and of making the age subservient to his purposes. He is 
master of the whole range of artistic material. To the greatest fer- 
tility in the domains of ecclesiastical art he adds an intelligent and 
enthusiastic appreciation of the ancient gods and heroes. He looks 
upon these latter more with the eye of a Virgil than of a Homer, and 
often depicts them in the spirit of an orator rather than in that of 
a poet. He shows that he has most affinity for the fleshy figures 
of the Bacchic myths, and paints them with a freshness and energy 
possessed by none of his contemporaries. His brush is as much at 
home in important historical compositions as in the richly-coloured 
allegories, by which his age tried to make up to itself for the want 
of genuine poetic sensibility. He paints alike portraits and land- 
scapes, the battles of men and the fighting of brutes, the gallant 
love-making of the noble and the coarse pleasures of the vulgar. 
This versatility is peculiarly his own , although he possesses cer- 
tain characteristics in common with his contemporaries, just as he 
shares with them the same national atmosphere and the same tra- 
ditionary precepts. 

Rubens occupied this field along with several other painters. 
No wonder, then, that similar characteristics are observable in his 
works and those of others , and that they so closely resemble one 
another as occasionally to be confounded. Abraham Janssens (1587- 
1631) comes very near to Rubens in freedom of brush and in 
the impassioned action of his figures. Indeed there were few of 

Baedeker's Belgium and Holland. 7th Edit. d 



1 HISTORICAL SKETCH OF ART 

Rubens' contemporaries who escaped his influence, pervading as it 
did the whole field of art, inspiring in an especial manner the 
engraver. The most notable of Antwerp artists who were contempo- 
raries of Rubens are Gerard Seghers (1591-1651), Theodore Rom- 
bouts (1597-1637) , Gaspar de Grayer (1582-1669), who evinced 
in his quiet compositions a charming vein of thought , and Lucas 
van Vden (1595-1662), who painted in many instances the land- 
scape in the background of Rubens' pictures , as well as Frans 
Snyders (1597-1657), who placed his extraordinary talent for ani- 
mal painting at the disposal of the great chief. 

Of Rubens's most distinguished disciple, Anthony Van Dyck 
(born at Antwerp 1599, died in London 1641), owing to the 
shortness of his sojourn in his native city , few important works 
are retained. After being initiated in painting first by Henry 
van Balen, later by Rubens, he visited Italy in his 24th year, 
where Genoa especially fascinated him , as it had done his master 
before him. From 1626 to 1632 he lived at Antwerp, after that 
in London, in the service of Charles I. It was not only the 
fashion then prevailing in aristocratic circles which engaged Van 
Dyck in portraiture. Portraiture made the strongest appeal to his 
proclivities as an artist. He does not shine in the invention of 
gorgeous or stirring scenes ; but in the refined and animated pour- 
trayal of distinguished personages in particular , there are few who 
are his peers. His portraits are not only instinct with life : they 
fascinate by their dignity of conception and grace of delineation, 
which, without sacrifice of truthfulness, impart a certain stateliness 
as well as beauty to the individual represented. In what a rare 
degree Van Dyck possessed this faculty is best seen in his admirable 
etchings which are still preserved, and in which he presents us with 
an invaluable gallery of portraits illustrative of the 17th century. 

Of the remaining pupils of Rubens , few acquired distinction ; 
but, owing to the copiousness of their works , they are by no means 
unimportant. They occupy in the department of religious art the entire 
century. From Diepenbeeck, Erasmus Quellinus, and Cornells Schut, 
Jacob Jordaens (1593-1673) may be distinguished by a marked 
individuality. No study in Italy had estranged his thoughts from his 
native art. His profession of the reformed faith made him unwilling 
to contribute to the exaltation of the Church's ideal, so he applied 
himself to depicting scenes from domestic life and the unrestrained 
mirth of popular festivities, and thus prepared the way for the for- 
mation of that school of genre painting , in which the art of the 
Netherlands subsequently acquired its chief renown. His often- 
repeated pictures of the crazy house-concert ('as the old ones sung, 
so will the youngsters twitter'), for example, are well known. Jor- 
daens's humour is unsophisticated ; his figures are as devoid of grace, 
as they well can be ; but so surpassing is the quality of colour in his 
pictures that one must condone the vein of almost coarse vulgarity 



IN THE NETHERLANDS. li 

which runs through very many of them. Pictures by him at the Bosch, 
near the Hague, which celebrate the deeds of Prince Frederick Henry 
of Orange, show what he could accomplish as an historical painter, 
and belong to the very best contributions of the entire school. • — 
Among the less-known though by no means unimportant pupils 
of Rubens is Jan van den Hoecke (1598-1651), who in delineat- 
ing scenes of quiet feeling runs his master very hard and, indeed, 
is not unfrequently mistaken for him. 

Even upon David Tbnibus (1610-1685), the greatest genre 
painter to whom the southern Netherlands have given birth, Rubens 
exercised an enduring influence. The fairs and rustic scenes which 
he delighted in depicting , fascinate not only by the spirit of con- 
viviality which animates them, but bear witness to a searching ob- 
servation of nature ; and the subtlety of colouring serves of itself to 
invest the scenes depicted with a true poetic charm. In gradation 
of tone, in wondrous harmony of colour, in artistic combination, he 
retains an undisputed supremacy. It is not less wonderful how he can 
by the most delicate modifications so manipulate a dominant tone of 
colour as to make it effective, and how he can at his pleasure 
either assert or dispense with the most marked contrasts. The 
pictures of his fortieth year, where the peculiar silvery tone first 
appears , are those which afford the best insight into this painter's 
method and style. His works are unfortunately widely scattered, 
and are rarely to be met with in his native country. 

The same may be said of the majority of genre painters of the 
southern Netherlands. The neighbourhood of Prance lured away, if 
not the painters themselves, certainly many of their works ; nor were 
either wealth or love of art at this time sufficiently diffused in Bel- 
gium to allow of the creations of native art being retained in the 
land. In this respect painting was more advantageously circum- 
stanced in Holland. There it was unmistakably associated with the 
people, and to this day indeed is identified with their habits and 
predilections. The greater number as well as the best of its pro- 
ductions are still retained in Holland, coveted though they be by 
the lovers of art from every quarter , who at last have learned to 
estimate them at their true value. 

Rembrandt. 

The grandeur of the 17th century school of Dutch painters has 
partially obscured the excellencies of their predecessors, and thrown 
into the shade what was of sterling value in the Dutch school he- 
fore Rembrandt's time. It is only in recent times that research 
has succeeded in bringing to light the earlier history of Dutch 
painting, and has surrounrled Rembrandt, who hitherto had dazzled 
as the flash of a meteor in the horizon, with precursors and associates. 
Art flourished in the Dutch towns as early as the 15th century, 
but it would be more than difficult to separate it from the con- 

d* 



lii HISTORICAL SKETCH OF ART 

temporaneous art of Flanders ; indeed, owing to the similarity of the 
two peoples, no very essential difference could have existed. When, 
accordingly, at the beginning of the 16th century, painting in the 
North became Italianised, the Dutch painters succumbed to the 
prevailing influence. It must be noted, however, that the partir 
cular manner which most nearly responded to the national taste 
was generally preferred , and most successfully imitated ; that of 
Caravaggio, for example, distinctly coarse as it is in its broad realism. 
After Karel van Mander, Heemskerck, and Bloemaert, exponents 
of a more imaginative treatment, came Honthorst (Oherardo delta 
Notte) and his associates , whose art was "entirely based upon this 
realism. These painters fearlessly grapple with nature ; they con- 
cern themselves little about grace and beauty ; they do not despise 
what is vulgar and repulsive , if only it supplies life and energy. 
Lamp-light , abounding as it does in glaring contrast , served ad- 
mirably to enforce startling effects and an impassioned exuberance of 
expression often bordering upon distortion, and was freely resorted 
to with evident relish. Along with Caravaggio , another artist had 
considerable influence upon the Dutchmen, viz. Adam Elshaimer 
(1578-1620), of Frankfort, who, however, lived and died in 
Rome. He painted as if nature were only to be seen through a ca- 
mera obscura ; but his pictures are harmonised by the utmost mi- 
nuteness and indescribable delicacy of finish , and receive their 
compensating breadth from a masterly management of colour. Last- 
man, Poeleriburg, Ooudt, etc., learned from him. 

In the desperate struggle during the 16th century with the two- 
fold yoke of Spain, artistic enterprise in the Netherlands was ne- 
cessarily crippled. It is principally owing to this circumstance that 
so many Dutch painters found their way to Italy, and there com- 
pleted the training which their native land , sorely distracted as it 
was, could not afford them. But just as the Netherlands finally came 
forth from their eighty years' struggle as glorious victors , and in 
corresponding measure secured for themselves wealth and politi- 
cal power, while their antagonist, Spain, once mistress of the world, 
but now hopelessly impoverished, subsided into political insigni- 
ficance, Dutch Art received during and at the conclusion of the war 
its noblest impulse. It was now that the painters of the Netherlands 
were enabled correctly to discern what , amidst all the surrounding 
wealth of material , was best suited to their needs, and what form most 
strongly appealed to them ; they created, in a word, a national art. The 
war had made a nation of heroes. Stern necessity had steeled their 
courage and quickened their sense. Brave men, experienced in war 
as well as state affairs , pious of heart , yet joyous withal , met the 
eye at every turn. To pourtray these , not only as single and im- 
pressive personalities , but assembled in groups , in the council- 
chamber, or sallying forth to the tilting ground , or engaged in 
festive celebrations , was the artist's favorite task. 



IN THE NETHERLANDS. liii 

Pictures of a peaceful, happy life, the charms of existence 
amidst privacy and comfort, were doubly attractive in a time so 
heavily charged with fateful events. The pleasurable abandonment 
too, which, taking no thought for the morrow, is content to enjoy 
the passing hour, captivated the imagination and furnished material 
for numerous paintings. But the victorious Netherlander not only 
created for themselves a new field of pictorial matter, in which 
national sentiment should find expression ; the appropriate form of 
expression was also provided. Though nearly all the Dutch painters 
are great colourists, some indispensable attributes of the artistic 
faculty are wholly wanting in them. The single figures lack ideal 
grace, the groups do not conform to the rules of perspective. On 
the other hand, they know how to impart such an artistic charm by 
means of colour alone, as effectually compensates for these defects. 
The use of the word 'compensate', however, may mislead. It must 
not be inferred that any particular means of expression can singly 
avail in painting. The Italians are guided by established laws in 
the disposal of individual figures, as well as in composition, and 
rightly so ; for these laws were the product of their particular cul- 
ture and habits of mind. With equal right, however, the Dutch 
painters framed for themselves rules for the guidance of their art 
in harmony with national views and sentiments. It must not be 
supposed that these Dutchmen, after they had carefully completed 
the drawing of a picture, were content to overlay their pictures with 
colour for the sake of mere beauty of effect. They thought, they 
felt in colour, and composed in colour. The delicate gradation of 
colour, the disposal of light and shade in the mass, and chiaroscuro, 
are their natural means of expression. It is a matter of common 
observation that colour beautifies many an object which without it 
would be utterly insignificant, and to such objects the Dutch artists 
knew how to impart an ideal charm by the modulation of colour- 
tone. Household furniture, for example, was highly valued by 
the Dutchmen. In its carefully-ordered splendour and subdued 
brightness were reflected the delights of peaceful domestic life. 
Applied to art-purposes, it transcended meaner objects only in so 
far as it was richer in colours than they : and thus it was with 
scenes from every-day life, which were in like manner idealised 
by this mysterious witchery of colouring. It is impossible to convey 
in mere words any adequate idea of theeffect of colour thus wielded. 
The eye alone can comprehend it, and has its opportunity in the 
study of the various galleries of Holland. 

The 'Regent 1 and 'Doelen 1 pictures are among the most conspicuous 
creations of the Dutch school of painters. It was the custom for 
the presidents (Regents) of the various corporations , public and 
charitable institutions, to place in the guild-halls and shooting 
galleries (Doelen) portraits in groups of members of the various 
guilds , especially of the shooting societies. Among the earliest 



liv HISTORICAL SKETCH OF ART 

pictures of this kind is the Commemoration Banquet of Bowmen, 
painted by Cornells Anthonissen , in Amsterdam (1533); but it 
was later than this that the 'Regent-pieces' acquired their complete 
artistic significance. The Haarlem Museum possesses a 'Corpora- 
tion-picture' by Cornells Corneliszoon, dating from 1583, and four 
similar pieces by Frans Pieterszoon Grebber, the later of which are 
specially distinguished by the freshness of their colouring. In 
the hospital of Delft is a 'Regent-piece' by that prolific portrait- 
painter Michael van Mierevelt (born in Delft, 1568; died 1651), 
who has been erroneously described as painter to William of 
Orange (assassinated 1584). It is a so-called anatomical lecture, in 
the painting of which Mierevelt's son, Peter, took part. Jacob 
Oerritsz Cuypf, founder of the painters' guild in Dort (born 1575), 
and Paul Moreelse, a pupil of Mierevelt, do not appear to have 
attempted the execution of the 'Regent' pictures proper ; the greater 
is the number thereof to be ascribed to Thomas (Theodore) de Keyser 
and Jan van Bavesteyn. Thomas de Keyser was born probably in 
1595. He was the son of an architect of Amsterdam, Hendrik de 
Keyser, and began to paint in 1616. His masterpieces are preserv- 
ed in the new Stadhuis (town-hall) in Amsterdam, and the gallery 
of the Hague. In the town-hall of the Hague, too, his contem- 
porary, Jan van Ravesteijn can best be studied. But the treatment of 
the 'Regent' pictures and portrait groups generally was brought to its 
highest perfection first by Frans Hals, of Haarlem(p. lix), and more 
especially by that greatest of all the'painters of the north, Rembrandt. 
Slandered and grossly abused as Rembrandt has been by dilet- 
tanti scribes of the 18th century, the enthusiastic eulogium bestowed 
upon him by the youthful Goethe must be noticed as an ex- 
ceptional tribute. It is only in quite recent times that the research- 
es of Dutch savants, particularly of Scheltema and Vosmaerff, 
undertaken in a spirit of affectionate devotion , have vindicated the 
truth concerning him. Rembrandt Harmensz van Kijn, the son of 
a miller of Leyden, was born probably in 1607. That he first saw 
light in his father's mill is a story for which there is as little 
foundation as that he first studied art amongst his father's flour 
sacks. Jacob Swanenburgh, -who had studied in Italy, and was mar- 
Tied to a Neapolitan, and Peter Lastman were his first instructors. 
His earliest recognised work bears the date 1627; he removed to 
Amsterdam in 1630. Amsterdam had gradually outstripped the 
other towns of the Republic , and had become virtually its capital, 
ascendant not only in the domain of politics , but prescribing also 
the direction to be given to the study of art. A new and stately 



t The termination 'szen' or 'szoon', abbreviated 'sz', which occurs so 
frequently in Flemish names, signifies son; thus Gerritsz = son of Ger- 
hard, Harmensz = son of Harmen or Herman. 

tt Rembrandt, sa vie et ses ceuvres , par C. Vosmaer. 2nd ed. The 
Hague, 1877. 



IN THE NETHERLANDS. lv 

architecture, which subsequently exercised extraordinary influence 
in Germany, testifies to the splendour of the town at that period. 
Vondel, Huygens, and Hooft represent the muse of Poetry, while 
numerous engravers and painters, of whom several connected them- 
selves later with Rembrandt, such as S. Koninck, Livens, and 
Van Vliet, found employment in Amsterdam. 

Rembrandt very soon made himself famous as an artist; fortune 
smiled upon him, too, in his love affairs. From the year 1633 the 
face of a good-tempered, handsome woman appears from time to time 
in his pictures. This is Saskia van Ulenburgh, the daughter of a 
Friesland lawyer, whom he brought home as his bride in 1634. Th e 
numerous portraits of Saskia , painted by the great artist with evi- 
dent gusto, have familiarised us with her countenance ; the best are 
those in the galleries of Dresden and Cassel. That in the Antwerp 
Museum is either a copy, or was painted from memory. After 
Saskia's death (1642), Rembrandt married a second and perhaps also a 
third time; but from that period private affairs took a turn for the 
worse with him. The great financial collapse, which since 1653 had 
continued in Amsterdam, bringing wide-spread and ruinous disaster 
upon the community, did not suffer our Rembrandt to escape. He 
was declared bankrupt in 1656, and an inventory of his effects was 
taken by the Commissioners of the 'desolate-boedelkamer', who 
brought them to the hammer in the following year. This inventory 
is still preserved, and is an all-sufficient reply to those who main- 
tained that Rembrandt was destitute of refined tastes. The walls of 
his spacious apartments were covered not only with works from his 
own and his pupils' hands, but such Italian masters as Palma, 
Giorgione, etc., were likewise represented. Moreover, in addition 
to antique busts and a collection of miscellaneous curiosities , he 
possessed a choice collection of engravings, which bear unan- 
swerable testimony to the refinement of his taste. In addition to all 
this, the confidential intercourse which he maintained with Huygens 
and Jan Six sufficiently belies the opinion once current as to Rem- 
brandt's low-lived habits. The close of his life found him poor and 
living in complete retirement; still busy notwithstanding, and still 
capable of laughter, as a portrait of himself from his own hand 
(painted about 1668), and now in a private collection in Paris, gives 
evidence. He died about 8th October, 1669, leaving two children 
behind him. 

In the works of Rembrandt three distinct methods of treatment 
are to be noted as succeeding each other. At the outset of his 
career, his pictures receive the full light of day, and at the same 
time a carefully blended manipulation. Subsequently he delighted 
in a concentrated light, a prevalent golden tone , and in a more 
vigorous handling of the brush. About 1654 his pictures receive a 
still warmer and more subdued tone, and are brown even to 
dimness , but retain , nevertheless , an unfaltering breadth in exe- 



lvi HISTORICAL SKETCH OF ART 

cution. These several methods of Rembrandt are admirably il- 
lustrated in his masterpieces exhibited in the various galleries of 
Holland. The 'Regent' picture in the Hague Collection , known as 
'The Anatomical Lecture' , which contains portraits of Professor 
Nicholas Tulp, and the members of the Surgeons' guild, belongs to 
the year 1632. This picture is an excellent example of the master's 
art, which has enabled him to animate a momentary action of this 
portrait group with dramatic life, by force of a concentrated expres- 
sion and accentuation of tone. The 'Night Watch', preserved in the 
museum at Amsterdam, Rembrandt's greatest work, was painted ten 
years later. It bears the date 1642, and shows with what skill this 
master of chiaroscuro could, by its means, convert a prosaic occur- 
rence, such as that of this band of citizen musketeers sallying forth 
from their guild-house, into a scene abounding in poetical expression, 
and exciting the liveliest emotions in the beholder. In the so-called 
'Staalmeesters' picture, portraits of the syndics of the Clothmakers' 
guild in Amsterdam (belonging to the year 1661), the entire tone 
seems to be permeated by a golden-brown medium. Art has neveT 
again created a greater wealth of stirring imagery or poetry of colour 
so entrancing as these three pictures reveal to us. Unconsciously 
our thoughts recur to Shakespeare's familiar creations , and we re- 
cognise in these two mighty art-champions of the north kindred 
natures and a corresponding bent of fancy. 

It must not, however, be assumed that Rembrandt confined 
himself to the representation of 'Regent' pieces , portrait groups 
(as the 'Jewish bride' in the Van der Hoop Museum in Amsterdam), 
and single portraits (e.g. Jan Six and Anna Six, in the collection 
of J. P. Six in Amsterdam). "We possess many scriptural pictures 
by him, scenes from the New as well as Old Testament, for the most 
part scattered in other countries. The Hague, however, possesses 
examples of this class of pictures in 'Susanna at the bath', and 
'Simeon in the Temple' (bearing the date 1631). Here, too, Rem- 
brandt preserves a mode of treatment peculiarly his own. In re- 
presentations of our Saviour's passion the tragic event is pourtrayed 
in a harsh matter-of-fact spirit, and might serve to illustrate the 
well-known hymn, '0 Head once full of bruises'. A serener, happier 
expression of solemnity prevails in the Parables , which enables 
us fully to realise their significance, often sufficiently obscure. 
Scenes from the youthful life of Christ have an idyllic charm of 
their own , and in all Rembrandt's religious compositions the en- 
deavour is apparent to bring them within the range of human 
apprehension — a fact important for a right understanding of the 
Protestantism of the 17th century. Rembrandt touched also the 
Tegions of Mythology; but, as will be readily understood, with 
more doubtful success. On the other hand his landscapes, devoid of 
incident though they be, wide, unbroken, plain, exhibit the master's 
feeling for colour and poetical expression in the most favourable light. 



IN THE NETHERLANDS. lvii 

It need hardly be mentioned that in order to become intimately, 
and as it were personally acquainted with Rembrandt, the collection 
of his etchings, over 300 in number, must be carefully studied. 
Among the best-known, the rarest and most beautiful, are 'Rem- 
brandt's portrait with the Sword', 'Lazarus Rising from the Dead', 
the 'Hundred Florin Plate' ('Healing of the Sick' ; the former name, 
by which it was popularly known in the 18th century, now no longer 
applies, inasmuch as in 1867 the sum of lOOOf. was paid for a single 
impression), 'Annunciation', 'Ecce Homo', 'The good Samaritan', 
'The great Descent from the Cross', the portraits of Tolling, Bonus, 
Six, the landscape with the mill, and that with the three trees. 

A goodly array of pupils and imitators are gathered around Rem- 
brandt. His influence was not confined to Amsterdam alone, but ex- 
tended to the neighbouring schools , that of Haarlem , for example. 
Amongst his more immediate followers may be mentioned Oer- 
brand van den Eeckhout (1621-74), whose works frequently bear 
Rembrandt's name (the Museum of Amsterdam possesses one of 
the best of his pictures — The Adulteress), and Ferdinand Bol of 
Dordrecht (1609-81) , who deserted his native style after the 
death of his master. The 'Regent' picture, formerly in the Lepers' 
Hospital, and now in the new Town Hall, at Amsterdam, belongs 
to his best time. 

Oovert Flinck, of Cleves (1615-60), may be said almost to have 
rivalled Rembrandt at the outset of his career. Besides his two 
best 'Regent' pieces (that in the new Town Hall dated 1642, that in 
the Mus eum 1648), there is in the Museum of Amsterdam a scriptural 
picture by him. It represents Isaac in the act of blessing Jacob , a 
favourite subject with the school of Rembrandt. Amongst the number 
of Rembrandt's satellites are also Jan Livens and Jan Fictoor ot 
Victors, a name by which several artists are known ; Ph. Koninck, 
the landscape painter; Salomon Koninck, whose scriptural pictures 
and portraits bear so strong a superficial resemblance to those of 
Rembrandt that they are often mistaken for his ; Jacob Backer, in- 
timately associated in his youth with Govaert Flinck, and his com- 
panion in Rembrandt's workshop; Nicholas Maes, of Dordrecht, whose 
best works belong to the time of his youth (1650-60), as, 
having in after-life settled in Antwerp, he seriously deteriorated 
under the influences of the school of Rubens ; and lastly Karel 
Fabritius, who came to a premature end by a powder explosion in 
Delft (1654). Fabritius forms a link between Rembrandt and Jan 
van der Meer, of Delft, one of the most interesting of Dutch paint- 
ers, though until recently little known. He was a pupil of Fabri- 
tius, and died in 1696, and in the same year his effects were sold 
at Amsterdam. Young women engaged in all kinds of household 
work, or in the more congenial occupation of love-making, interiors,"' 
street scenes, and landscapes, are his favourite subjects, all wond- 
rously pure in colour , abounding in delightful effects of peTspec- 



lviii HISTORICAL SKETCH OF ART 

tive , full of life , at once truthful and charming , entitling them 
to rank amongst the gems of Dutch art. Scarcely inferior to him is 
Peter de Hooch , celebrated for his fascinating effects of light, 
whereby he is frequently confounded with Van der Meer of Delft 
(who again must not be confounded with Jan van der Meer of 
Haarlem, a distinguished landscape painter). And last, but not 
least , of this artist array who , whether as pupils or followers, are 
associated with Rembrandt, conies Gerard Dou (born at Leydenl613 ; 
died 1680), the great master of minuteness of finish , whose ' Night 
Schools' , 'Maidens by candle light', and 'Hermits' are in so much 
favour with the public , commanding prices commensurate with the 
admiration bestowed upon them, though it must be said of his 
works that skilful and delicate manipulation takes the place of poet- 
ical expression, and that the Tange of his fancy is contracted in 
measure corresponding with his painstaking elaboration of finish. 
This latter quality, however, must receive its due meed of praise. 
On the other hand , Dou is connected with a number of painters 
of declining excellence, such as Frans van Mieris the Elder, of Ley- 
den (1635-81), Pieter van Slingeland, of Leyden (1640-91), God- 
frey Schalcken (born at Dordrecht, 1643; died at the Hague, 
1706), A. van Oaesbeeck, and many others. 

It will be seen, then, that Rembrandt's influence was as weighty 
and comprehensive as the products of his easel were great in 
number and surpassing in quality. Painters of the most widely 
differing motives acknowledge him as their master and example, 
and he has led the way, not only in historical and portrait painting, 
but in landscape too , and in the so-called genre painting. In this 
respect Bartholomew van derHelst, to whom many would assign 
a place amongst the foremost realists next to Rembrandt, cannot 
compare with him. Van der Heist was born at Haarlem in 1613, 
and ended his days there in 1670, in the enjoyment of great wealth 
and general esteem. Nothing is known of his teachers, nothing of his 
relations with Rembrandt, whose path he appears to be continually 
crossing without compromising his independence. He was the favour- 
ite portrait painter of the wealthy burghers of Amsterdam, and confined 
himself almost entirely to the painting of 'Regent' pieces and portraits. 
His most celebrated work, The Arquebusiers' Banquet (1648), is in 
the Museum of Amsterdam (in addition to this are the Arquebusiers' 
Guild in the Stadhuis, 1639, and the 'Doelenstukk', 1657, in the 
Museum), where it confronts Rembrandt's 'Night Watch', thus 
bringing to view the points of difference between the two masters. 
Van der Heist presents to us Nature as she is, unrelieved, a bare 
reality. If Nature herself could paint she would have given us a 
picture such as Van der Heist's. It is otherwise with Rembrandt. 
Upon all his works he sets the seal of his individuality. As the 
reality presents itself to his eye, so he reproduces it with just that 
iegree of truthfulness which his intention prescribes. Van der 



IN THE NETHERLANDS. lix 

Heist's are mere imitations, illusive in their fidelity, but leaving no 
enduring impression. 

Fkans Hals, of Haarlem, a somewhat earlier painter, so far at 
least as the effects of his training in the great Master's school are con- 
cerned, is more akin to him than Van der Heist. Though of Haarlem 
parentage, he was born at Antwerp (about 1584). When he returned 
to Haarlem is not known. He married in 1610, unhappily as the event 
proved, for in 1 616 he was brought before the Burgomaster for ill-treat- 
ing his wife, and had to promise to abstain for the future from 
'dronkenschappe'. Of the joys of conviviality which he could so well 
depict he freely partook, and thus got into difficulties which his 
prolific pencil failed to avert. His goods and chattels were sold by 
auction in 1652 to pay his debts, and he became in his old age a 
pensioner of the State. His death took place in 1666, at the age 
of 82, his labours having extended over half-a-century. The earliest 
of his paintings known to us bears the date 1616, the Banquet of 
Officers of the George's Guild of Musketeers, in the Museum of Haar- 
lem , where the most considerable of this master's 'Regent-pieces' 
are collected. Amongst these the Assembly of Officers of the An- 
dreas Guild (1633), and Assembly of Officers of the George's Guild 
(1639), are the best. Rembrandt's influence is still apparent ii} 
pictures of the succeeding decade, without however impairing the 
individuality of the artist. The utmost vivacity of conception, 
purity of colour, and breadth of execution, which in his latest works 
betrays a handling of the brush so uncompromising that drawing is 
almost lost in a maze of colour-tone , are distinguishing character- 
istics of Frans Hals, who, besides the 'Regent-pieces' referred to, 
was the author of numerous portraits ; and he has immortalised such 
popular figures as the 'Rommelpott-players' , 'The tipsy old wife, 
Hille Bobbe', 'The jolly shoemaker, Jan Barentz', ready either for 
a drinking bout or for service in the fleet with Admiral van Tromp. 

His best known pupils are Adrian Brouwer (b. Haarlem, 1608 ; 
d. Antwerp, 1641?), and Adxkw*-vari,.Qstade (b. Haarlem, 1610; 
died there, 1685). As we do not possess more correct biographical 
data concerning the former of these, we must accept as true the 
stories told of him and his fellows by authors of the 18th century. 
He is his master's most formidable rival in the naive conception of 
national character, as well as in mere technical skill ; and had he 
lived long enough to mature his natural powers, he must have borne 
away the palm now conceded to Adrian Ostade. In the earlier efforts 
of Adrian van Ostade, we are reminded of Brouwer ; it was after the 
year 1640, or thereabouts, when the influence of Rembrandt was 
in the ascendant with him , that he first displayed those technical 
qualities and artistic predilections which have made him a favour- 
ite with the most fastidious connoisseurs. Grace and beauty are attri- 
butes which the forms crowded into his cottage-interiors or animating 
his court-yard scenes certainly do not possess ; but they always abound 



lx HISTORICAL SKETCH OF ART 

in lusty life, characteristic and appropriate, whether playing cards, 
intent upon the enjoyment of pipe and glass, or dancing accompanied 
by the ever-present fiddler ; and with such marvellous effect is colour 
accentuated, so complete is his mastery of chiaroscuro , that nearly 
every picture may be said to provide a new 'feast for the eye'. 
With Ostade are connected his brother, Isaac van Ostade (1620-57?), 
Cornelia Bega (1620-64), and Cornelis Dusart (1660-1704). 

And thus we are brought to the almost innumerable throng of 
Genre Painters, who have imparted to Dutch art its peculiarly dis- 
tinctive attributes, and have secured its greatest triumphs. It 
would be difficult to distinguish amongst the genre painters of 
Holland various degrees of excellence, inasmuch as each in his 
respective, and, as a rule, contracted sphere, has asserted an in- 
disputable supremacy. It is unfortunate that the greater number 
of their works have been transferred to foreign galleries , and are 
rarely to be met with in Dutch collections , so that Holland is no 
longer exclusively the place where the genre and landscape-paint- 
ers of the Netherlands can be studied. It must suffice, therefore, 
to mention the most conspicuous names. 

The genre painters are usually divided into several groups, ac- 
cording to the subjects which they make peculiarly their own; pic- 
tures, for example , belong to the higher or lower genre as they set 
before us the more refined or coarser aspects of social life, the world 
of fashion, or the vulgar herd. These, however, are merely adventi- 
tious distinctions, and do not by any means sufficiently account for 
this latest development of Dutch art, resolving itself as it did into 
a number of local schools. Dirk Hals (probably a younger brother of 
Frans Hals, to whom many genre works by Dirk have been ascribed),* 
Anton Palamedesz, J. A. van Duck, Pieter Codde, and others, abound 
in pictures of soldiers and cavaliers contending with Venus and 
Bacchus, or engaged in the sterner encounter of pitched battle and 
skirmish ; in illustrations, too, of the fierce licence engendered by the 
wars of the 17th century ; figures roaming hither and thither without 
restraint, lusty and light-hearted. In striking contrast to such scenes 
as these are the pictures of a peaceful and refined domestic life, oc- 
casionally disconcerted by the vicissitudes of love, which formed the 
favourite theme of Oerard Terburg, born at Zwolle in 1608, a man who 
had travelled much and who was Burgomaster of Deventer when he 
died in 1681. He, together with his successors, Gabriel Me tsu, of Ley-? 
den (1615-67), Caspar Netscher (born at Heidelberg, 1639 ; died at 
the Hague, 1684), etc., are"generally known as 'stuff' painters, owing' 
to the attention they bestow upon drapery stuffs, especially silks and 
satins. It must be borne in mind, however, that in the absence of 
these external properties, thus carefully supplied , the refinements 
of life could not be invested with appropriate pictorial splendour. 
But that these painters weTe not the mere imitators of stuff and 
texture, that they were capable of emotion, and could give utterance 



IN THE NETHERLANDS. lxi 

to the sentiments of romance, will be sufficiently evident to those 
who study the 'Paternal Warning' of Terburg in the Museum at 
Amsterdam. As a portrait painter, too, Terburg has made a great 
reputation. (His 'Peace Congress of Miinster', his most celebrated 
piece, was lately sold with the Demidoff collection for 182,000 ft.) 

Jan Steen, the so-called jolly landlord of Leyden (1626-79), 
was also a painter of social subjects, but in a line and in a manner 
quite his own. That he was a low-lived tippler is simply one of 
those wholly gratuitous slanders with which it was once the fashion 
to besmirch the painters of Holland. A jovial life was probably not 
repugnant to his tastes; and what is more to our purpose is the 
fact that a spontaneous joyousness pervades his works, and a sparkling 
sense of humour too ; while as a colourist he must be looked upon 
as the foremost of the entire school. His pictures might be enti- 
tled comedies of life, in which man's follies are chastised with 
satire, and his weaknesses held up to ridicule, but without the 
glaring exaggeration and obtrusive moralising which make Hogarth's 
pictures (with whom Jan Steen has much in common) so unpleasant 
to look upon. Family feasts and merry makings , the wedding of- 
ill-assorted couples, quacks and their quackeries , lovelorn maidens' 
('hier baat geen medicijn, want het is minne pijn'), tavern brawls 
and similar scenes are his favourite subjects. Jan Steen has, and 
with justice, been likened to Moliere. The greater number and the 
best of his works are in England. He is very partially represented 
in the museums of Amsterdam and the Hague. The Due d'Aren- 
berg possesses in his Brussels collection one of the very rare scrip- 
tural pieces by this master, the 'Marriage at Cana'. 

Jan Steen is a solitary personage. He stands alone , and has no 
followers. So much the more numerous, and at the same time in- 
timately associated , are the painters whose genius found employ- 
ment in the domain of landscape , which they rendered with true 
artistic appreciation , and enriched as well as animated by the ad- 
dition of living forms. Very frequently these 'landscapes with 
figures' are the result of friendly co-operation. Thus Adrian van de 
Velde (1639-72), one of the most estimable as well as gifted of 
Dutch painters, supplied the figures for the landscapes of his master 
Wynants , for Moucheron , and even for Hobbema and Ruysdael. 
Philip Wouverman (1620-68) has perhaps the greatest repu- 
tation for these figure pictures , of which some 800 may still be 
reckoned. Cavalry combats , hunting scenes , in which horses al- 
ways play a conspicuous part , he has repeated with endless varia- 
tions, without however passing the bounds of mediocrity. To enu- 
merate the names of all who occupied this particular field is simply 
impracticable, for it is precisely in this field that Dutch art was most 
prolific. We must, however, mention (as akin to the foregoing) 
Paul Potter (b. 1625; d. Amsterdam, 1654), chief of animal paint- 
ers, to whose pictures landscape lends idyllic charms, and whom we 



lift HISTORICAL SKETCH OF ART. 

must accept as a classical example of the entire fraternity. A con- 
summate draughtsman, he was at least as eminent as a colourist, 
especially in his smaller pictures. KarelduJardin( 1625-78), an ex- 
uberantly fertile painter, owes his best qualities to the foregoing, 
but the inequality of his works shows his inability to resist othei 
less favourable influences. Other 'idyllic' painters are Jan Asse- 
lyn (1610-60) and Nicolas Berchem (1620-83), both of Amsterdam. 

As landscape painters must be named Jan van Goyen of the 
Hague (1596-1666); Albert Cuyp of Dordrecht (1606-72), son 
of Jacob Gerritsz (p. liv), also eminent as a painter of portraits and 
animals ; Jan Wynants of Haarlem (1600-70) , famous for the 
number of his pupils and his own steady development ; Allart van 
Everdingen (Alkmaar, 1621-75); Jacob Ruysdael (born 1625, at 
Haarlem; d. 1681), 'excelling all other masters in a feeling for 
the poetry of northern landscape combined with the power of gra- 
phic embodiment' ; and Meindert Hobbema, whose merits have only 
recently come to be appreciated. Hobbema was born at Amsterdam, 
1638, and died in 1709. His works exhibit a moderate talent only 
for composition ; the same motive constantly recurs in his pictures 
(the figures are for the most part by another hand) ; but in delicacy 
and thoroughness of elaboration, more particularly in his treatment 
of atmosphere and light, his pictures must be highly prized as works 
of genius of the highest order. — Jan van der Meer of Haarlem 
(1678-91) shows himself near of kin to Jacob Ruysdael. Numer- 
ous other landscape painters remained true to their national sce- 
nery , but in many cases they lapsed into a kind of mannerism, 
which is very apparent in the moonlight scenes of Aaart van der 
Neer (of Amsterdam, 1619-83). Fashion also began to demand the 
study of Italian landscapes, and in the second half of the 17th cent, 
compositions of this kind are decidedly predominant. Among the 
earliest examples of this tendency are Jan Both of Utrecht (c. 1610- 
50), Adam Pynacker (1621-73), and Herman Swanevelt (1620-59?). 

It is well known how marine painting (Willem van de Velde, the 
Younger, 1633-1707; Hendrik van Vliet of Delft), and architec- 
tural painting [Jan van der Heyden, 1637-1712, and Emanuel de 
Witte, 1607-92), prospered in Holland, and how the national art, 
as it were with its last breath , gave birth to the so-called 'still- 
life' (VP. van Aelst of Delft) and flower painting (Jan Davidsz 
de Heem, 1600-1674, Utrecht and Amsterdam; Rachel Ruysch, 
1664-1750, Amsterdam; Jan van Huysum, 1682-1749). 

"We conclude these slight observations with the wish that they 
may induce to a more searching study of Dutch art in a careful 
examination of the works themselves , and we recommend all who 
are so disposed to read Burger's well known book on the 'Musees 
de la Hollande', in which the subject of Dutch painting is 
exhaustively treated. 



1. From Loudon to Ostend. 

There are two direct routes from London to Ostend : 1. Via Dover 
twice daily, in 81/2-IO hrs. ; 2. By Gen. Steam Nav. Co.'s steamers, twice 
weekly, in 11-14 hrs. — The former route is recommended to those whose 
time is limited; the latter is pleasant in fine weather, and considerably 
less expensive . — Coinp. R. 11. 

Ostend. — The Central Railway Station (PI. B, 4) lies on the S. side of 
the town, at a considerable distance from the sea and the principal hotels, 
but is connected with the steamboat-pier (PI. C, D, 4) by rails used for the 
through-traffic with England via, Dover. Omnibuses from the hotels meet both 
the trains and the steamers (fare usually 50 c). Cab from the station to the 
town 1 fr. ; luggage under 56 lbs. free ; for over-weight 2>/ 2 c. per lb. 
Travellers proceeding direct to Antwerp through the Waesland (p. 55) 
should book to Bruges only, and there take a fresh ticket via Ghent (see 
p. 9 and R. 10). If a through-ticket from Ostend to Antwerp be taken, the 
traveller is conveyed by the longer route via. Malines. 

Hotels. On the Digue , with unimpeded views of the sea, nearly all 
large, new, and expensive. To the S.W. of the Cursaal: Hotel Conti- 
nental (PI. p; B, 2), an imposing establishment; R. from 5 fr. ; on the 
first floor, with view of the sea, 15-30 fr. ; B. l«/ a , S. 1, A. 1, D. 5 fr. — 
Adjacent, Hotel de l'Ocean (PI. b; B, 2); Hotel de la Plage (PI. a; 
B, 2); Hot. Beaurivage. Rooms may also be procured at the Hotel 
Garni Beebulouk (PI. c ; A, 1, 2), a wooden structure, and at the Pavillon 
du Ruin (see next page) % farther on. — To the N.E. of the Cursaal: Hotel 
Royal Belge; Grand Hotel d'Ostende, with a restaurant; Grand Hotel 
du Littoral (PI. m; C, 2, 3), at the corner of the Rue du Cerf; Hotel 
de Rdssie, between the Rue de Flandre and Rue Louise ; Hotel Villa 
Nemrod, a small house with a cafe'-restaurant ; Gkand Hotel du Phake 
tPl- g ; D, 2), almost at the end of the Digue, with restaurant. 

Adjoining the Digue: Hotel Royal de Prusse (PI. h; D, 2), at the 
corner of the Boulevard du Nord and the Rue des Capucines, R. 5, A. 1, 
B. I1/2, D. 5fr. Hotel Imperial (PI. o; B, 2), just beyond the Cursaal, 
D. 4fr.; Hotel de la Digue (PI. s; D, 2); Hotel des Arcades (PI. I; 
B, 2) , with restaurant ; these all command a view of the sea from the 
upper windows. 

In the Town. Between the Digue and the Place d'Armes: "Hotel 
Mann (PI. j ; C, 2), in the Rue Louise, close to the Boulevard van Iseghem. 
Adjacent, Hotel du Boulevard, with cafe-restaurant. -Hotel de Flandre 
(PI. k; C, 2), first-class; Welt's Hotel du Nord (PI. 1; C, 2), D. 21/2 fr., 
both in the Rue de Flandre. "Grand Hotel Fontaine (PL m; 0,2), a 
large first-class house, with spacious dining-room containing several old 
pictures by Netherlands artists, D. 5 fr. ; Hotel Frank (PL n ; C, 2) ; Hotel 
de Vienne (PL 0; 0,2); these three in the Rue Longue, between the Rue 
Louise and the Rue de Flandre; Hotel de l'Union, Rue Longue 38, with 
cafe-restaurant. "Hotel Mertian (PL p; C, 2), first-class; Cercle Catho- 
lique (PL q; C, 2), with chapel, both in the Rue de l'Ouest. — More to 
the W. : Hotel de Suede (Pl.r; B, 2), Place du Theatre, with restaurant. 

In or near the Place d'Armes: "Hotel du Grand Cafe (PL v; C, 2, 3), 
corner of the Rue Louise and the Rue du Cercle, first-class; opposite, 
Hotel de l'Emi'ekeur (PL w; C, 2,3), with restaurant; "Hotel du Lion 
d'Or (PL u; C, 2), corner of the Rue de Flandre and the Rue St. Se- 
bastien, old-fashioned Belgian house, D. 3 fr. ; Hotel de Gand et d'Al- 
eion (PL x;C, D,3), in the Marche-aux-Herbes ; Hotel-Pension Victoria 
(PL y ; C, 3), Rue de l'Eglise. Coue d'Angleteere (PL z ; C, 3), Rue de la 
Chapelle 10; opposite, Hotel de Bavieke , Rue de la Chapelle 15; 

Baedeker's Belgium and Holland. 7th Edit. \ 



2 Route 1. OSTEND. Hotels. 

Europe (PI. a; D, 2), D. 2'/2 fr-, Rue des Capucines, and Etoile (PI. 6 ; 
C, 3), more unpretending ; Hotel St. Pierre, Rue Christine. 

Still farther from the sea: "Grand Hotel Marion (PI. c; C, 3), Rue de 
l'Eglise 33, first-class; Hotel de la Marine (PI. d; C 3), Cour de France 
(PI. e; C, 3), D. 2'/2 fr., side by side in the Rue de laChapelle; opposite, 
Hotel St. Denis (PI./; C, 3), No. 44; Hotel des Nations (PI. g; C, 3), 
No. 60; Hotel de l'Agneau, Rue St. Paul 36, moderate. '■ Hotel d'Alle- 
magne or Stracke (PI. »; C, 3), Rue du Quai 24, first-class, R. 3'/2, 
B. I1/2, D. 4, 'pens' 8-12 fr. ; Hotel du Rhin (PI. *; C, 4), Place St. Joseph. 
Couronne, Quai de l'Empereur, near the railway-station ; Ship Hotel, near 
the steamboat-pier. — All the hotels on the Digue and many of those in 
the town are open during the season only, but. the last-named are 
always open. 

Hotels Garnis and Private Lodgings abound both on the Digue and 
in the town. Even at the beginning or the close of the season (1st 
June to 15th Oct.), a room cannot be obtained under 3-5 fr. a day, or 
15-30 fr. per week. The rent of a small suite of rooms (dining-room, 
drawing-room, three bedrooms, kitchen) in June is about 300 fr., in July 
500 fr., August 800 fr., and September 600 fr. — The contract should be 
committed to writing, if the hirer contemplates a prolonged stay. The 
usual charge for a plain breakfast is 75c.-lfr, for attendance 50 c. per 
day. French is often imperfectly understood by the Flemish servants. — 
The hirer should see that attendance is expressly included in the agree- 
ment, both in private apartments and at the hotels garnis , as otherwise 
he is liable to an extra charge of 1 fr. per day. 

Restaurants in the Town: "Freres Provencaux, Rue de Flandre22, good, 
but expensive ; ~ Taverne Allemande (ground - floor of Welt's Hotel du 
Nord, see above), beer. — Many of the summer-residents at Ostend cater 
for their own breakfast and luncheon at one of the 'charcutiers' or pur- 
veyors of preserved meats, such as "Raeymaekers\ Rue de l'Ouest 4; Au 
Gourmet, in the Hotel du Nord , Rue de Flandre. — Wine at Michens- 
Verhoest, Rue de Flandre 15 (claret from 1 fr. 10c. per bottle; ale or 
porter 10 fr. per doz., or 1 fr. per bottle; also tea, etc.). — Beer at 
several taverns and beer-saloons. 

Restaurants on the Digue, dear, and attendance often bad. The Cursaal 
(PI. B, 1,2), an extensive establishment with restaurant, cafe, a reading- 
room, a large hall, and galleries commanding an extensive view of sea 
and land, open to subscribers only, is the principal resort of visitors dur- 
ing the bathing season. With its gardens it occupies an area of about 
13,000 sq. yards. Subscribers for a week or upwards are admitted to the 
balls at the Casino (see below). Belgian, French, and other newspapers. 
Subscriptions: per day 3, 4 days 9, per week 17, per fortnight 31, per 
month 631/2, six weeks 681/2. per season 76 fr. ; 2 pers. 6, 17, 321/2, 53V2, 
76, 831/2, 91 fr. ; three pers. 9, 25, 44i/ 2 , 68V2, 831/2, 943/,, 106 fr. — Restau- 
rants in the above-mentioned hotels, Continental, de TOctan, "de la Plage, 
and Beanrivage ; also at the Pavilion du Rhin (PI. f; A, 1), the farthest to 
the S., with an oyster and lobster-park. — At the opposite (N.) end of 
the Digue : Hdtels Royal Beige, Oslende , Littoral, Beau-Site, de Russie, 
see p. 1. Adjacent, the HStel du Phare (PI. D, 2; see p. 1), 'plats du jour' 
from 10 to 2 o'clock IV4-IV2 fr-, D. from 2 to 7 p.m. 4 fr. — Farther on, 
between the approaches to the Estacade, is an Estaminel where oysters are 
sold. — Table dlidle at the hotels, the Cursaal (for subscribers), and the 
Pavilion du Rhin (4 fr.). — It is customary at all these establishments to 
give a few sous to the waiter at each repast. 

Cafes, besides those above mentioned: Grande Pdlisserie, Rue de 
Flandre 32, also a restaurant (Dej. 3, D. 5 fr.) ; "Noppeney, corner of the Rue 
de Flandre and the Rue Longue (confectioner); Cave de Munich, Rue 
de Flandre, in the Hotel de Flandre (p. 1). The SociiU Littiraire on 
the ground-floor of the Hotel-de-Ville (PI. 7; C, 3), to which strangers are 
introduced by a member (first 5 days gratis, afterwards 3 fr. per month), 
contains a restaurant and reading-room. 

Concerts and Balls. Concerts daily at the Cursaal; balls on Sun., 
Tues., and Thurs. in the Casino, a handsome ball-room on the first floor 



Baths. OSTEND. 1. Route. 3 

of the Hotel-de-Ville (p. 4); admission for non-subscribers to the Cursaal 
3 fr. (Hoilette de ville\ i.e. a black coat). The Gercle International, a club 
instituted in 1880, contains ball, card, reading, and conversation rooms 
(subscription 20 fr.). 

Water. The drinking-water of Oslend is indifferent. Seltzer-water 
or other aerated waters in 'siphons 1 (50 c.) will be found wholesome for 
drinking, and may be procured at Noppeney's, Rue de Flandre (see above). 

Baths (p. 5). Bathing-time from 7 a.m to 7 p.m. — Tickets must be 
obtained at the office on the beach : machine (for not longer than 40 min.) 
including costume and two towels 1 fr., two additional towels 20c. (re- 
gular bathers should purchase these requisites for themselves). At the 
'Paradis', where a bathing-costume is not obligatory, the charges are the 
same. At the 'Section Est', a bathing-place for the less robust bathers, 
near the old lighthouse (PI, D, E, 2), the use of a machine costs 70 c. — 
Invalids and persons unaccustomed to sea-bathing may procure the ser- 
vices of a '■baigneur' or '■baigneuse' for 50 c. more. The driver of the ma- 
chine generally receives 5c, and 5 c. is given for cleaning the machine. 
Valuables should be left at home. — Tents and 'marquises' for sitting 
on the beach I-IV2 fr. per day, or 6-9 fr. per week. Chairs, 10 c. 

Warm Salt-Water Baths at Tralsaert's, Rue St. Sebastien 26, with 
douche, 3 fr. , per doz. 30 fr. ; fresh-water bath 4 fr. , per doz. 40 fr. ; 
shower-bath ('douche de force') 5 fr. , per doz. 50 fr. ; Hoed's, Rue de 
l'Eglise 23, bath 2>/ 2 fr. , per doz. 24 fr. 

Cabs ( Voitures de place ; stands at the railway-station and in the mar- 
ket-place) 1 fr. per drive in the town; first hour l'/2fr.; each 1/2 hr. addi- 
tional 50 c. ; at night l'/z fr. per drive, 2 3 /4 fr. per hour. The fares for 
'paniers\ carriages of a superior description, are higher: drive in the town 
l'/2fr., 1 hr. 3, each following hr. 2 fr. — There is no tariff for drives 
outside the town. 

Donkeys for hire at the S. end of the Digue, 1 fr. per hour ; Ponies, 
2 fr. per hour. 

Sailing Boats with 2 men for 1/2 hr. 3, 1 hr. 5, 2 hrs. 6 fr. ; with 3 
men 5, 6, 8 fr. ; with 4 men 6, 8, 12 fr. — Previous agreement necessary 
when the party consists of more than 4 persons, as otherwise 1 fr. more 
for each may be demanded. — Beggars are a great annoyance in Ostend. 

Bookseller, Godtfurneau, Rue Longue, near the Rue de Flandre, with 
a reading-room. Newspapers are sold by Daniels-Dubar, Rue de la Cha- 
pelle 25. The Courrier des Bains, which is published once weekly (3 fr. 
for the whole season), is furnished gratis to the subscribers to the Cur- 
saal. A Liste des Etrangers is also published. 

Physicians. Dr. Corbisier, Rue St. Georges ; Dr. de Sondt, Rue de la 
Chapelle 62; Dr. de Jumni, Rue Longue; Dr. Janssens, Marche-aux- 
Herbes ; Dr. van Ope, Rue St. Se'bastien ; Dr.iSchramme, Rue des Capucines; 
Dr. Verschueren, Boul. van Iseghem. 

Bankers. Agency of the Banque Nationale, Rue de Flandre; Bach <£• Co, 
Rue des Capucines 79. 

Post and Telegraph Office, Rue des Soeurs Blanches 10, open 7 a.m. 
to 7 p. m. 

English Church (PI. 9; D, 2, 3) at the E. end of the Rue Longue; ser- 
vices at 11 a.m. and 3.30 p.m. ; chaplain, Rev. II. W. Overslreet Fletcher, M. A. 

Ostend (19,400 inhab.), the second seaport of Belgium, owes 
most of its importance to the great passenger-traffic between Lon- 
don and the continent, of which it has long been one of the prin- 
cipal avenues. It also possesses 160 fishing-boats , manned by 850 
men, being fully one-half the number belonging to the whole king- 
dom ; and of late years it has become a great sea-bathing resort. 

The town was once strongly fortified. In 1601-1604 it sus- 
tained one of the most remarkable sieges on record, and was only 
surrendered to the Spanish general Spinola in consequence of orders 

■j * 



4 Route 1. OSTEND. Digue. 

received from the States General. In the Spanish War of Succes- 
sion, after the Battle of Hochst'adt, Ostend was occupied by the 
allies under Marlborough. In 1745 Louis XV. took the fortress 
after a siege of 18 days, and in 1794 it was again taken by the 
French, who held it until 1814. The fortifications were demolished 
in 1865, and have been converted into promenades. Since then 
many fine buildings have been erected along the beach. 

The main street of the town is the Rue de la Chapelle (PI. C, 
4, 3), leading from the station to the market-place (Place d'Armes), 
where it changes its name to Rue de Flandreiyt Vlaanderstraat (PI. 
0, 2). It has lately been extended hence as iar as the Digue, near 
which the principal shops , including some large emporiums of 
shells, are situated. 

Few of the public buildings of Ostend are worthy of note. The 
Church ofSS. Peter and Paul (PI. 6 ; C, 3, 4) contains a monument 
to Queen Louise (p. 99), who died here in 1850, by Fraikin. — 
The large Town Hall (PI. 7) is in the Place d'Armes (PI. C, 2, 3). 
The ground-floor is occupied by the Societe Litteraire , mentioned 
on p. 2, while the ball-rooms of the Casino (p. 2) are on the first 
floor. The tower is surmounted by an anemometer, or wind-gauge. 
— The new Pare Leopold (PI. B, 3) is tastefully laid out and will 
be a pleasant resort when the trees are larger. 

Ostend is one of the most fashionable and cosmopolitan watering- 
places in Europe. During the season (1st June-15th Oct.) it attracts 
12,000 visitors from all parts of Europe, especially from Belgium 
and France. The chief promenade is the *Digue, a stone dyke or 
bulwark upwards of 3 / 4 M. in length, about 33 yds. wide, and 33 ft. 
in height, extending along the coast from N.E. to S.W. With the 
exception of the carriage-road, 13 yds. in breadth, the whole 
is laid with terracotta bricks. Several approaches ascend to it 
from the town. Along the Digue stretches a row of hand- 
some new buildings , including the hotels and restaurants 
mentioned on pp. 1, 2, and numerous private villas, some of 
which are tasteful structures in the Flemish Renaissance style. 
Near the middle rises the handsome Cursaal (PI. B, 1, 2; p. 2), 
erected in 1876-78 , from the designs of Naert of Brussels. At 
the S.W. end of the Digue, upon a lofty dune, stands the Palais 
du Roi (PI. A, 1), or royal villa. The scene presented by this pro- 
menade and its environs during the height of the season will strike 
the English traveller who witnesses it for the first time as novel 
and amusing. The fact that a very large proportion of the visitors 
are inlanders, who have never seen the sea, and are now for the first 
time in their lives rejoicing in its health - restoring breezes and 
ever-changeful aspect, sufficiently accounts for the popularity of 
a place which affords few other attractions. The traveller, therefore, 
by visiting the Digue on a warm summer-evening, will at a glance 
witness the most characteristic phase of Ostend life. 



Oyster Parks. OSTEND. 1. Route. 5 

The Bathing Places (PI. A, B, 1) adjoin the Digue on the S.W. 
side, and there are about 400 bathing-machines. Most of the visi- 
tors bathe in the morning. There is here, as at French watering- 
places, no separation of the sexes ; but the strictest propriety is ob- 
served, and every bather is provided with a costume. Ladies may 
avoid publicity by bathing at a very early hour. Gentlemen who 
prefer bathing 'sans costume 1 should go to the 'Paradis 1 (PI. A, 1), 
where, as its name imports, they may dispense with a bathing-dress. 
This privileged spot is at the end of the Digue, towards the S.W. 

At the N.E. end of the Digue is the Estacade (PI. E, 2), con- 
sisting of two estaches, or piers (the W. about */3 M. in length, 
the E. a hundred paces longer), which shelter the entrance to the 
harbour and afford a view of the arriving and departing steamers. 
They are provided with seats, and serve as a public promenade. 

The entrance to the harbour (Chenal; PI. E, 2) is 165 yds. in 
length. The Harbour itself consists of the Avant-Port, the Bassin 
du Commerce, and the Arriere-Port. The Bassin de Chasse (PI. E, 
3,4), with its massive gates, was constructed for the purpose of 
sweeping away the sandbanks at the mouth of the harbour , the 
water being confined within it at high tide, and allowed to escape 
suddenly at low tide. The other parts of the harbour and the locks 
of Slykens (p. 6) were constructed under Emp. Josephll. — At the 
upper end of the New Basin lies the Fish Market (Marche aux 
Poissons ; PI. D, 4), a circular building with an open court, where 
the auctions described at p. 6 take place from 7 to 8 a.m. on the 
return of the fishing-boats. 

Beyond the entrance to the harbour and the Bassin de Chasse just 
mentioned, which we skirt for 10 min. , rises the ^Lighthouse 
(Nouveau Phare ; PI. F, 4), 174 ft. in height, which should be in- 
spected by those who have never seen the interior of such a struc- 
ture. (As there is no tariff for excursions by boat to the lighthouse, 
a bargain should be made beforehand ; 25-30 c. , or, there and back, 
50-75 c, is sufficient.) The lantern (fee */2 ' r contains a series 
of prisms, resembling beehives in shape, and Teflectors of copper 
plated with platina, by which arrangement the light is said to be in- 
tensified a thousand-fold, and to be visible at a distance of 45 M. 
The top commands an extensive view in fine weather. Nieuport, 
Furnes, and even Dunkirk aTe seen towards the S.W., the Cursaal 
of Blankenberghe to the N.E., and the towers of Bruges to the E. 

The Oyster Parks (Huitrieres) are extensive reservoirs on the 
N.E. and S.W. sides of the Digue (several near the Bruges Gate), 
where vast quantities of these favourite bivalves are stored through- 
out the greater part of the year. They are imported from the 
English coast , and kept here in prime condition by daily sup- 
plies of clarified sea-water. Their price varies from 5 to 8 fr. per 
hundred, and upwards. Abundant and fresh supplies may there- 
fore always be procured, except in the height of summer, when they 



6 Route 1 . SLYKENS. 

are out of season. Lobsters, brought chiefly from Norway, are kept 
in separate receptacles in the huitrieres , and fetch from 2 to 6 fr. 
each. Fish is generally plentiful, especially in summer, when trans- 
port is difficult. A large turbot may often be bought for 10-15 fr. ; 
soles, cod, haddocks, mackerel, and skate are of course less expen- 
sive. Crabs, shrimps, and mussels are also abundant. Shells of 
every variety may be purchased. 

All these different kinds of fish are sold by public auction 
in the fish-market (p. 5), under the supervision of the muni- 
cipal authorities. The principal sales take place on fast days (Wed. 
and Frid.). The salesman fixes a high price in sous for each 
lot, and then gradually descends, until a bidder calls out i myn' 1 
and thus becomes the purchaser. The great advantage of this 
'Dutch auction' is, that a single bid settles the matter, and much 
confusion is thus prevented. Most of the purchasers are women, 
who afterwards retail the fish in the market. The Flemish lan- 
guage alone is spoken on these occasions, and the spectator has 
an excellent opportunity of witnessing a characteristic scene of Bel- 
gian life. — An immense number of rabbits are killed annually on 
the Dunes around Ostend. 

The luminous appearance of the sea, caused by the presence of in- 
numerable mollusca, almost invisible to the naked eye, is brightest on 
sultry summer-nights, and is a never-failing source of interest to many of 
the visitors. It is best observed when the lock-gates of the Bassin de 
Chasse (p. 5) are opened at low water, provided, of course, the hour be 
suitable. Tide-tables are to be found in the Guide Officiel (p. xvi), and 
may also be purchased at the book-shops. 

Several ecclesiastical and popular Festivals are celebrated at Ostend 
in June, July, and August, on which occasions the Belgian archers, of 
whom there are numerous clubs, always act a prominent part, displaying 
extraordinary strength and skill. The most interesting church-festival is 
the Procession on St. Peter's Day (29th June), when the ceremony of 
blessing the sea is performed before a large concourse of fishermen and 
their families. 

Slykens (Cafe de la Concorde), l'/ 4 M. to the E. of Ostend, a 
village on the road to Bruges, may easily be visited on foot. 

A pleasant walk along the beach may be taken to Mariakerk 
(Zwaan), a village about 2 M. to the S.W., separated from the sea 
by lofty sandbanks. Halfway to it is situated Fort Wellington, 
which formerly protected the entrance to the harbour on this side. 
About 3 M. beyond Mariakerk lies Middelkerk (Hotel des Bains), 
the starting-point of the submarine telegraph cable to the English 
coast. There is nothing to mark the spot except the watchman's 
hut on the sand-hill. Middelkerk is now frequented as a watering- 
place, and from 1st July to Oct. has omnibus communication 
( 3 /4 hr. ) with the station at Ostend (fare 1 fr.). It is much quieter 
and cheaper than Ostend or Blankenberghe (p. 7}. 

Near Plasschendaele (p. 9), the first railway - station on the 
road to Bruges , lies Oudenburg , in the midst of a sandy district, 
with an oasis of productive gardens which supply Ostend with fruit 



BLANKENBERGHE. 2. Route. 7 

and vegetables. Oudenburg is said once to have been a flourishing 
commercial town , and to have been destroyed by Attila about the 
middle of the 5th century. 

2. Blankenberghe and Heyst. 

Blankenberghe. — Hotels. On (he Digue: Grand Hotel des Bains et 
des Familles, to the right of the principal approach to the Digue, con- 
taining upwards of 300 apartments ; 'pension' with R. towards the sea 8-15 fr. , 
towards the land less expensive. Farther on, Hotel du Ruin, with cafe- 
restaurant; Pavillon des Princes; Hotel Continental. — To the left 
of the principal approach , Hotel Godderis , table d'hote at 1 (3 fr.) and 
7 o'clock (2 fr.), 'pension' 7-15 fr. ; Cursaal, with 120 rooms (5-20 fr.), see 
below; Hotel Pauwels d'Hondt, large, 'pens.' 8-15 fr.; Hotel Trooii ; 
Hotel Victoria. D. at 1 and 5 p.m. 3 fr. ; Hotel de l'Ocean, moderate. 
Farther to the W., at the entrance to the harbour, Hotel du Phark, I). 
2V* fr. 

In the Village. In the Rue de l'Eglise, close to the principal approach 
to the Digue: Hotel du Lion d'Or, and Hotel de Bruges, with several 
'de'pendances', well spoken of. Farther on in the Rue de l'Eglise , on 
the way from the Digue to the railway-station: Hotel de Bellkyhe, 
second-class, with restaurant; Hotel d'Allemagne (No. 14); Hotel de la 
Paix, D. at 1 p m. 2'/2, at 5 p.m. 3 fr. ; Hotel de Gand, in a side-street, 
small; "Grand Hotel d'Hondt, Rue de l'Eglise 22, much resorted to by 
Belgians of the middle class, 'pension' 7-10 fr. — Near the station : Hotel 
du Chemin de Fer, Mille Colonnes (D. 2 fr.), Lion Rouge, which may 
all be described as restaurants with rooms to let. 

On the Digue are situated numerous Hotels G-arnis, in which rooms 
facing the sea cost 4-15 fr. per day (with two beds 2 fr. extra). — In the 
village the following Pensions may be recommended: Dr. Verhaeghe, 
Market 32, 'pension' 8-10 fr. ; Dr. van Mullem, Rue de l'Eglise; Dr. Cosyn, 
Rue du Moulin. Private apartments abound in almost every street (2-5 fr. 
per day), but are sometimes all engaged in the height of the season. Those 
who have not previously written for rooms should arrange to reach Blan- 
kenberghe early in the day, so that they may return to Bruges the same 
evening in case of disappointment. 

Restaurants. The above hotels; also the Cursaal, to which sub- 
scribers only are admitted, D. at 1.30 and 5 o'clock 2'/ 2 -3 fr. ; Grand Cave 
de Munich, in the Hotel de l'Uce'an. 

Physicians. Dr. Cosyn, see above ; also, Drs. van den Abeele, van der 
Ghint, Schramme, and others, who come over from Bruges in the season. 

Bathing Machines 75 c, children 40 c. ; the attendants expect a trifling 
fee from regular bathers. — Tents, for protection against sun and wind 
(not against rain), may be hired on the beach for 1 fr. per day. — Bath- 
ing Dresses may be purchased in the town for 5-8 fr. — Warm Baths in 
the Grand Hotel des Bains, see above. 

Boats. For a row of 1-2 hrs. the charge is 5 fr. ; for a party 1 fr. each. 

Donkeys for rides on the beach : per i/ 2 hr. 50 c. ; to Heyst 2-3 fr. 

'•La Vigie de la C6te\ published on Sundays, contains a list of the visi- 
tors , tide-tables, etc. — Balls daily at the Cursaal during the season, for 
subscribers. 

English Church Service during the season at the Chapel in the Rue 
Breydel. 

Blankenberghe, 12 M. to the N.E. of Ostend, and 9 M. to the 
N. of Bruges, a fishing - village with 2800 inhab. , consists of 
small one-storied houses, and resembles Scheveningen (R. 37). It 
first came into notice as a sea-bathing place in 1840, and of late 
has become a rival of Ostend , being visited by 10,000 persons an- 
nually. It is, however, quieter and somewhat less expensive. 



8 Route 2. HEYST. 

The 'dunes' (downs, or sand-hills) are paved so as to form a 
kind of 'digue', like that at Ostend, which affords a promenade 
22 yds. wide and upwards of 1 M. in length, flanked with hotels and 
villas. In the centre is the Cursaal (subscriptions lower than at 
Ostend), with a Music Pavilion in front of it. At the S.W. end of 
the Digue rises the new Lighthouse, situated at the entrance of a 
small Harbour, constructed for the use of the fishing-boats, many 
of which, however, continue as of old to be hauled up on the beach. 
Like that of Ostend the harbour is protected from silting by piers, 
which extend into the sea for about 350 yds. The pier-heads are 
provided with seats. 

Lisseweghe, 41/2 M. to the S.E. of Blankenberghe, has a small station 
on the Bruges railway, from which, however, it is 1 M. distant (see p. 9). 
The Church , a handsome structure of the 13th century in the transition 
style, formerly belonged to an abbey, and has been restored with little 
taste. At the end of the left aisle is a Visitation by J. van Oost the El- 
der. The truncated tower, although two-thirds of it only are completed, 
is a very conspicuous object in the landscape. 

From Blankenberghe to Ostend, by the coast, is a somewhat monoton- 
ous walk (12 M.). The finest point of view is the hut of a 'douanier' on 
the highest hill near Wenduyne. — The walk along the beach to Heyst 
(5 M.) affords the traveller an opportunity of observing the operations 
constantly required for the protection of the dunes (comp. p. xxviii). 

Railway to Bruges and to Heyst, see p. 9. 



Heyst. — Hotels and Pensions. On the Digue: Cursaal, 'pension' 
7-11 fr. ; Grand Hotel; Hotel de la Plage; Hotel Royal, Hotel de 
Flandre, smaller; Hotel du Phare, 'pension' from 6'/2 fr., well spoken 
of; Hotel Garni de 1'Ocean, adjoining the Cursaal. — A little back from 
the sea, near the Cursaal : Hotel do Pavillon des Dunes and Hotel du 
Rivage. — In the Village, 3 min. walk from the beach: Hotel Pauwels, 
near the church , Hotel des Bains , 'pension' 5>/2 fr. , Hotel Ste. Anne, 
Hotel Leopold II., these four unpretending. — Bath 75 c. ; arrangements 
somewhat deficient. — Donkeys 1 fr. per hour. — The Railway Station lies 
a little to the N. of the village. Railway to Blankenberghe O/4 hr.) and 
Bruges, see next page. 

Heyst, a village with 1700 inhab. , 4V 2 M. to the N.E. of 
Blankenberghe, is also visited as a sea-bathing place, and possesses 
tolerable hotels, bathing-machines, etc. The number of visitors 
is about 3000. At Heyst, as at Ostend and Blankenberghe , there 
is a long Digue, 22 yds. broad, paved with brick, and flanked 
with lodging-houses and restaurants, besides the above-mentioned 
hotels. The beach is studded with fishing-boats, all of exactly the 
same size, and ranged at equal distances from each other. On their 
return from fishing the boats and their crews present a busy and 
picturesque scene. — The village possesses a large brick Roman 
Catholic Church, in the Gothic style. 

About 1 / 2 M. to the S.W. of Heyst are the mouths of two ca- 
nals (Canal de derivation de la Lys, constructed in 1857-63), which 
drain an extensive plain at two different levels, and are closed by 
huge lock-gates. The unpleasant odour from the canal-water is 
noticeable even at Heyst during a W. wind. 



SLUYS. 2. Route. 9 

A favourite walk from Heyst is to Knokke, 2 M. to the N.E a village 
with a life-boat station and a lighthouse. — Thence by Westcapelle and 
Bint Anna ter Muiden , a village of Dutch character , to (6 M ) Sluvs 
French VEcluse (Hdtel de Koornbeurs, second-rate), a small fortified sea- 
port, situated beyond the Dutch frontier, and connected with (3 hrs ) 
Bruges by a canal (comp. p. 11). — A favourite way of making an ex- 
cursion from Heyst to Bruges and Sluys is to take the train to Bruges 
and walk thence along the canal, which is bordered with trees and plea- 
sure-grounds , to Damme (p. 25) and Sluys. The shadeless walk between 
Sluys and Heyst is thus left to the evening. — A steamer plies daily (ex- 
cept Sun. and Mon.), in 2 hrs., between Sluys and Bruges, leaving the 
lormer in the morning and the latter in the afternoon. Diligence between 
sluys and Westcapelle twice daily. 

3. From Ostend to Brussels by Bruges and Ghent. 

76 M. Railway (Chemin de Fer de VEtai). Express to Bruges in '/-. hr 
to Ghent in li/ 2 hr. , to Brussels in 21/2 hrs. ; ordinary trains in 3/. 2," and 
4 hrs. respectively Fares to Bruges 1 fr. 75, 1 fr. 30, 90 c; to Ghent 4 fr. 
90 3 fr. 60, 2 fr. 45 c. ; to Brussels 9 fr. 25, 6 fr. 95, 4 fr. 65 c ; express 
V4th more. ' ' 

The express-trains in connection with the Dover steamboats 
start from the quay, the ordinary trains from the station in the town. 

At (41/2 M.) Plasschendaele the line crosses the canal diverging 
from the Ostend canal to the S.W., and leading by Nieuport and 
Furnes to Dunkirk. Oudenburg ("p. 6) is visible to the right. — 
83/ 4 M. Jabbeke. 

14 M. Bruges, see p. 10, and Map, p. 7. 

From Bruges to Blankenberghe (91/2 M.) and Heyst (15 M ) by rail- 
way in 25 and 50min. respectively (fares 1 fr. 15, 90, 60 c, and 1 fr 85 
1 fr. 40, 95 c.). The outside seats (3rd class) on the top of the carriages' 
atford a good survey of the rich plain of Flanders, but are very draughty 
— Stations : 2 31. Bruges-Bassin, the port for Bruges, with large timber 
stores and a few ships. — 5 M. Dudzeele, 7 M. Lisseweghe (p. 8), 8 M Blan- 
kenberghe (p. 7), 15 M. Heyst (p. 8). 

To Thourout (Courtrai and Ypres), see p. 29. 

Stations Oostkamp, Bloemendael, (28 M.) Aeltre, Belle, Hans- 
beke, Landeghem, Tronchiennes. 

42 y 2 M. Ghent, see p. 31. From Ghent to Antwerp, see R. 10; 
to ('ourtrai, see R. 8. 

r F ^° M , ( ? HE ^ TO Teeneuz en (22*/2 M.) by railway in l'/ 2 hr. (fares 3 fr., 
j tr. 30, 1 fr. 50 c). The train starts from the Station du Chemin de Fer 
de 1 Etat, stopping at the Porte d'Anvers (see p. 31) , and then follows the 
direction of the canal mentioned at p. 32. Stations Wondelghem (see below) 
Langerbrugge, Gluysen-Terdonck, Ertvelde, Selzaele (junction of the line from 
Bruges to Lokeren, p. 55, and the last Belgian station), Sas (i.e., lock) van 
Ghent (the first Dutch station, where the locks of the above-mentioned ca- 
nal are situated), Philippine, Sluyskill, and Terneuzen ( Sederlandseh Loge- 
ment), a small fortified town at the mouth of the important canal which 
connects Ghent with the Schelde. Steamboat thence twice daily in 1>/- hr. 
to Flushing (p. 208); omnibus from the station at Flushing to the (s/ 4 M.) 
steamboat-pier. 

From Ghent to Bruges there is a private railway (30 M.) the continua- 
tion of the Waesland line (p. 55), as well as the Chemin de Fer de FEtat. 

1 rains run in 65-95 min. (fares 2fr. 70, 1 fr. 80, 1 fr. 35 c), starting from 
the Station d'Eecloo, on the N.E. side of the town. Stations Wondelghem, 
Eeerghem, Sleydinge, Waerschoot, Eecloo (a busy town with 10,400 inhab., 
where the Bruges, Selzaete, and Lokeren line diverges to the right), Bal- 
gerJweke, Adeghem, ifaldeghem, Syseele, Donck, Steeiibrngge, and Bruges (p. 10). 



10 Route 3. ALOST. 

45 M. Melle (p. 54), beyond which a line diverges to the S. to 
Ath (see above), Quatrecht, Wetteren, and Schellebelle, where the 
line to Malines diverges to the left (p. 54). 

56i/ 2 M. Most, Flem. Aalst (Hotel de Flandre; Due de Brabant; 
Mille Colonnes), a town with 21,000 inhab. , on the Dendre , was 
formerly the capital of the county of Keizer- Vlaanderen , and the 
frontier-town of the province in this direction. A considerable trade 
in hops is carried on here. The Church of St. Martin, in the late- 
Gothic style (about 1498), is little more than a fragment, two- 
thirds of the nave, as well as the tower and portal, being entirely 
wanting. It contains an admirable picture by Rubens, said to have 
been painted in 1631 in one week: Christ appointing St. Rochus 
tutelary saint of the plague-stricken. The museum at Ghent pos- 
sesses a copy of this work. A statue by Jos. Geefs was erected in 
1856 in front of the H6tel-de-Ville to Thierry Maertens, the first 
Belgian printer, who exercised his craft atAlost. The beautiful belfry 
of the H6tel-de-Ville was severely injured by fire in 1879. The 
old town-hall, built early in the 13th cent. , is now a meat-market. 

Fkom Alost to Antwerp, 30 M., railway in l 3 /« hr. (fares 3 fr. 65, 
2 fr. 75, 1 fr. 85 c). — 5'/2 M. Opwyck, the junction of the Brussels, Den- 
dermonde, and Ghent railway (p. 55). 10 M. Steenhuffel, with a church con- 
taining stained glass of the 16th century. 12 M. Londerzeel, the junction 
of the Malines and Ghent line (p. 120). — 20 M. Boom, see p. 55. 27 M. 
Hoboken, near the Schelde, with numerous villas of Antwerp merchants 
and a large ship-building yard belonging to the Cockerill establishment 
(p. 188). Branch-line to Oude God (p. 120). — 30 M. Antwerp, see p. 121. 

Stations Erembodeghem , (61 M.) Denderleeuw (where a line 
diverges to Ninove and Ath, p. 61), Esschene-Lombeck, Ternath, 
Bodeyhem-St. Martin, Dilbeek, Berchem-Ste. Agathe, Jette (where 
the Dendermonde line diverges), and Laeken (p. 99), where the 
royal chateau is seen on the left. The train finally stops at the 
Station du Nord at (76 M.) Brussels (p. 63). 



4. Bruges. 

Hotels. 'Hotel de Flandke (PI. a ; F, 6), Rue Nord du Sablon, R. 
& L. 3 fr. and upwards, B. l'/2, A. 3 / 4 , D. 4fr. ; s Ghand Hotel do Commerce 
(PI. c ; E, 5) , Rue St. Jacques 20 , an old-established and comfortable 
family-hotel, frequented by English travellers, B. l>/4, R. 2'/2-4, D. at 
1 p.m. 3, at 5 p.m. 37a fr. ; in both hotels excellent fish-dinners on Fridays. 
— 'Hotel de 1'Univers (PI. d ; G, 6) , conveniently situated for passing 
travellers , R. 2, B. 1, D. 2>/ 2 fr. ; Hotel de Londres (PI. b ; G, 6) ; Comte 
de Flandre; Singe d'Or, all with cafes, opposite the station. Hotel 
St. Amand, Rue St. Amand, well spoken of; Hotel de l'Ours d'Or (PI. f ; 
E, 5), Rue Courte d' Argent; Panier d'Or (PI. e; E, 5), opposite the covered 
market , on the W. side of the large market-place, unpretending. 

Cafes-Restaurants. Caft Foy, in the Grand' Place, at the corner of 
the Rue Philipp Stok ; Aigle d Or (PI. g), Place de la Monnaie 16, and La 
Vache (PI. f), Place des Tanneur3 59, both much visited; Vogel, Grand' 
Place ; Taverns Allemande, Rue St. Amand 14. 

Cabs lfr. per drive; one hour I1/2 fr. , each additional 1/2 hr. 75 c; 
open carriages l'/a, 2, and 1 fr. respectively. 

Post and Telegraph Office, Rue de Cordoue (PI. E, 4). 




]& Madeleine 
U ydtre Dame 

18 des Protestants 

19 (nap. des Avrugles 

20 " des Capadrut 

21 " du St. Sang 
22 Gauranementpraruidcd E -4 1 . 
T& Ha/les f Grande tour) T.f. 
IVEospicP de St. Jean 
l&Motel de -rOU 
26 Jfarc/ie au poissarv 
27 Palais episcopal 

28 * de Justice 

29 Statue de Stevm 

30 Poste et Teleyraphe 

31 i* Jan£yck 
Z2Scmmazre episcopal. 
Z3SaJZe da Concert 
ttrhedtre- 
35 Statue, deJMemlmt. 



Geoprajih Anstalt toil 



BRUGES. BRUGGE 



IJbattafin G.7. 

IJcademze EJ?. 

3 Beguinage- fl.5. 

4? Cam* Hes IWnces . E.6. 

5 Courznt (?<:\- Apo.vtoh'ncr . . D.2, 

6 " " desVamei^hwt. . C.3. 

7 " " de Scdnte. (rodehLcrv. H.6. 

8 " '' desSoeurs cLe. Charite.^ A. 
9>Craen&burg . . . F.5. 

EgKses: 
lO&e^ra^ . . . D.3. 

llrtrffte^aZe (StSazcreztrJ G.5. 
iZStJtonat (St.WaZburge) . E.3. 
nSt.&Olex . C.4-. 

14 c&- tJejitsalem . JX2. 

IB St. Jacques .JE.5. 




* Debes, Leipzig 



History. BRUGES. 4. Route. 1 1 

English Church in the Rue d'Ostende. 

Principal Attractions: Cathedral (p. 12), Hospital of St. John (p. 16), 
Notre Dame (p. 14), Chapelle du Saint Sang (P- 21), Palais de Justice 
(p. 21), Academy (p. 22). — Commissionnaires and beggars are numerous 
and importunate at Bruges. 

Bruges, the capital of W. Flanders, lies 7'/ 2 M. from the North 
Sea, with which it is connected by two broad and deep canals, 
navigable for sea-going vessels of considerable tonnage. One of these 
terminates at Sluys (p. 9), the other at Ostend. There are also canals 
from Bruges to Ghent, Ypres, Nieuport, and Fumes. The broad 
streets and numerous old houses, chiefly of late-Gothic architecture, 
recall its ancient glory ; and of all the cities of Belgium , Bruges has 
best preserved its mediaeval characteristics (p. xli). With the exception 
of the quarter between the large market-place and the railway-sta- 
tion, the town now presents a melancholy and deserted appearance, 
its commerce being quite insignificant. Nearly one-third of the 
44,500 inhab. are said to be paupers. 

The Railway Station, a tasteful Gothic structure, is in the old 
Marche du Vkndredi (PL G, 6). Here, on 30th March, 1128, the 
townspeople, after having elected Count Theodoric of Alsace to be 
Count of Flanders , returned the following spirited answer to the 
deputies of the king of France, who had sent to object to their choice : 
'Go, tell your master that he is perjured; that his creature William 
of Normandy (usurper of the sovereignty of Flanders) has rendered 
himself unworthy of the crown by his infamous extortions ; that we 
have elected a new sovereign, and that it becomes not the king of 
France to oppose us. That it is our privilege alone, as burghers and 
nobles of Flanders, to choose our own master.' 

In the 14th cent. Bruges (which in Flemish means bridges, aname 
due to the numerous bridges crossing the canals) was the great com- 
mercial centre of Europe. Factories, or privileged trading companies 
from seventeen different kingdoms had settled here; twenty foreign 
ministers resided within the walls ; and inhabitants of remote dis- 
tricts, of which the very names were almost unknown , visited the 
renowned city every year. Early in the 13th cent. Bruges became 
one of the great marts of the Hanseatic League and of the English 
wool trade. Lombards and Venetians conveyed hither the products 
of India and Italy, and returned home with the manufactures of 
England and Germany. Richly-laden vessels from Venice, Genoa, 
and Constantinople might be seen simultaneously discharging their 
cargoes here , and the magazines of Bruges groaned beneath the 
weight of English wool, Flemish linen, and Persian silk. In 1301, 
when Johanna of Navarre, with her husband Philippe le Bel of France, 
visited Bruges and beheld the sumptuous costumes of the inhabit- 
ants, she is said to have exclaimed : ' I imagined myself alone to 
be queen, but I see hundreds of persons here whose attire vies with 
my own.' Bruges was long the residence of the Counts of Flanders. 
It attained the culminating point of its prosperity during the 



12 Route 4. BRUGES. Cathedral. 

first half of the 15th cent., when the Dukes of Burgnndy held their 
court here. During this period a hrilliant colony of artists was 
retained at Bruges in busy employment, and their works still shed 
a lustre on the name of the city. 

To the right in the street leading from the railway-station into the 
town is situated the Cathedral (St. Sauveur, PI. 11), an eariy- 
Gothic brick structure of the 13th and 14th cent, (choir, end of 
13th cent. ; nave and transept, 1358-62; the five chapels of the 
choir, 1482-1527; vaulting of the ambulatory, 1527-30). Externally 
it is a cumbrous building, destitute of a portal, disfigured by later 
additions , and surmounted by a W. tower resembling a castle, the 
lower part of which dates back to the 12th cent., while the upper 
part was completed in 1843. 

The ""Interior is remarkable for its fine proportions, and is 
adorned with numerous paintings (sacristan l J2-l fr. , more for a 
party). It measures 110 yds. in length, 41 yds. in breadth, and 
across the transept 58 yds., and is 90 ft. high. The modern poly- 
chrome decoration is by Jean Bethune. 

North Aisle (left). The entrance door, the carved wings of 
which are the work of Ant. Lambrouck (1544), is surmounted by 
Ave groups of carved wood, painted and gilded, representing scenes 
from the Passion, and dating from about 1460. — At the entrance 
of the Baptistery are two monumental *Brasses, the one on the 
right, of excellent design, dating from 1439 , that on the left 
from 1518. This chapel contains a Crucifixion, painted about 1390 
by an unknown master of the Cologne school, and a handsome can- 
delabrum of wrought iron. Another picture (beginning of the 
16th cent.) represents scenes from the lives of SS. Joachim and Anna. 

On the West Wall: Jacob van Oost the Elder (1600-1671; 
in the 17th cent, the chief painter of Bruges, which still contains a 
number of his works), Descent of the Holy Ghost, (left) the portrait 
of the master, (right) that of his son ; Jan van Hoeck, Crucifixion. In 
the square space under the tower: *P. Pourbus, Last Supper, with 
Abraham, Melchisedech, and Elijah on the wings ; on the outside, 
Christ appearing to one of the Popes, and 13 good portraits of bro- 
thers of the Order of the Holy Sacrament (1559). To the right, 
Ant. Claeissens, Descent from the Cross (1530) ; to the left, Mein- 
derhout, Battle of Lepanto (1672). Farther on, Backereel, St. Carlo 
Borromeo administering the Eucharist to persons sick of the Plague. 
Adjacent, a gilded copper relief (Pieta) by P. Wolfganek. Then, 
above the door leading to the Churchwardens' Room (p. 14), Van 
Oost, Triumph of Christ over Time and Death. Farther on, Seghers, 
Adoration of the Magi. — Above the S. entrance door is the wing 
of an altarpiece of the 15th cent., in carved wood and gilded, 
representing the Holy Family and various saints. 

8. Aisle : *Dierick Bouts, formerly ascribed to Memling, Martyr- 
dom of St. Hippolytus (covered). 



Cathedral. BRUGES. 4. Route. 13 

The principal picture represents the saint about to be turn to pieces 
by four horses, mounted, or led by men on toot. The unfounded local 
legend is that these horses were copied by Memling from the famous 
horses of St. Mark at Venice. The most pleasing part of the picture is 
the landscape in the background, which possesses greater depth and a 
better atmosphere than most of the landscapes of the Van Eyck school. 
On the left wing is a scene from the life of St. Hippolytus, on the right 
the donor and his wife in a beautiful landscape. — The saints on the 
outside of the wings are by an inferior hand. 

Farther on in the S. aisle : Lancelot Blondeel (d. 1561 ; of 
Bruges), Virgin with SS. Luke and Eligius. Then, Crucifixion, 
erroneously attributed to Gerard van der Meire. Lastly : Jan Maes 
(18th cent.), SS. Agatha and Dorothea. 

Transept: Modern stained glass by Dobbelaere (1861). A heavy 
marble rood-loft, in the degraded-Renaissance style, constructed 
by Corn, ver Hoeve in 1679-82, separates the transept from the 
choir. The colossal statue of God the Father above it is by A. 
Quellin the Younger (1682). — Two chapels adjoin the transept. 
On the right is the Chapel of St. Barbara, with a handsome door 
(1516-39), and modern Gothic altar. The Chapel of the Shoe- 
makers' Guild (Chapelle des Cordonniers), on the left, possesses a 
finely-carved door dating from the latter half of the 15th cent., and 
contains a carved wooden Crucifix of the 14th cent. , a winged 
picture representing the members of the guild, by Fr. Pourbus 
the Younger (1608), and several interesting brasses (on the left, 
*Walter Copman, 1387, and Martin de Visch, 1453 ; on the Tight, 
the learned Schelewaerts, 1483, and Adr. Bave with his wife and 
son, 1555). 

The Choir contains two large marble monuments of the bishops 
Castillion (d. 1753) and Susteren (d. 1742), both by Pulinx. High- 
altar piece , Resurrection by Janssens ; Van Oost the Elder, Peter 
and John. The Gothic choir-stalls date from the early part of the 15th 
cent., but have been frequently altered. They are adorned with the 
armorial bearings of the Order of the Golden Fleece (Toison d'Or), 
which was founded at Bruges by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy 
and the Netherlands, on 10th Jan., 1429, on the occasion of his 
marriage with Isabella, daughter of John T. of Portugal. 

Ambulatory (beginning at the N. or left transept). 1st Chapel : 
Handsome door of 1513 ; altar of 1517, with a beautiful paintod 
crucifix ; on the wall to the left , two memorial tablets of copper 
(1387 and 1457); opposite, a tasteful coat-of-arms of the 16th 
century. — 2nd Chapel: above the altar, *Unknown Master of the 
15th Century, the Virgin and St. Bernard. By the pillar opposite : 
marble tomb of Jan de Schietere (d. 1575) and his wife, with a 
Crucifixion and figures of the married couple and their patron 
saints, by G. de Witte. — 3rd : Stained glass of the 16th cent. ; 
Jac. van Oost the Elder, The infant Saviour in the workshop of 
his father Joseph , painted for the guild of carpenters ; tomb of 
Bishop Carondelet, 1544; Van Oost, Flight into Egypt. — The 4th 



14 Route 4. BRUGES. Notre Dame. 

Chapel contains nothing worthy of note. — 5th Chapel, at the hack 
of the high-altar : modern stained glass by J. Bethune (1861). — 
6th : J. van Oost, the Saviour predicting his Passion to Ms Mother, 
and His last interview with his Mother before the Passion ; in the 
floor two monumental brasses, the one, richly gilt and enamelled, 
being that of John van Coudenberghe (d. 1525), the other that of 
Bernhardin van den Hoeve (d. 1517). — 7th Chapel : A. Janssens 
(d. 1631), Adoration of the Shepherds; M. de Vos, Consecration of 
St. Eligius. — Farther on in the ambulatory : Jan Er. Quellin, 
St. Simon Stock receiving the scapulary from the Virgin; by the 
pillar opposite, Tomb of 1642, with statuette after Michael Angelo's 
Madonna ; Van Baelen, Assumption. 

The Chambre des Marguilliers, or Churchwardens' Room, at the 
W. end of the S. aisle (p. 12), contains several works of art form- 
erly hung in the church itself. Among these are four small pictures 
by Coninxloo (?) : the Paschal Lamb, Manna, David dancing before 
the Ark of the Covenant, and the Disciples at Emmaus. Then, 
Portrait of Philippe le Bel (son of Maximilian I. and father of the 
Emp. Charles V.) on a gold ground, master unknown (about 1505). 
The inscription below styles him 'Philippus Stok' (a sobriquet ap- 
plied to him by the citizens of Bruges in allusion to his habit of car- 
rying a stick), and mentions him as the founder of the 'JBroeder- 
scap der WeeV (i.e., the 'brotherhood of suffering'), a fraternity 
which still exists. Also a small and fine wooden relief of the 14th 
cent. , representing the crowning of St. Eligius (Sacre de St. Eloi). 
The ivory crozier of St. Maclou (6th cent.), some ancient missals, 
and other relics are preserved in a cabinet here. 

*Notre Dame (Flem. Onze Vrouw, PI. 17), in the immediate 
vicinity, another Gothic structure, was originally erected on the site 
of an earlier chapel in the 12th cent., hut in its present form dates 
from the 13-15th centuries. The tower, 390 ft. high, was restored 
in 1854-58, and provided with turrets at the angles in 1873. The 
small late-Gothic *Addition on the N. side was originally a portal, 
named 'Het Paradys', and is now fitted up as a baptistery (see 
below). The church contains some admirable works of art. 

The Interior (sacristan, who shows the pictures, i /2ti. for 
one person ; additional fee for the burial-chapel, see below) is 80 yds. 
long , 55 yds. broad , and 70 ft. high , and consists of a nave and 
double aisles, without a transept. The outer aisles with their rows 
of chapels date from 1344-60 (N. side) and 1450-74 (S. side). 
Round the choir runs an ambulatory. 

North Aisles. Pictures by J. Maes , J. A. Gaeremyn , and 
other painters of the 18th century. Also, in a niche covered with 
a Gothic canopy, a statue of the Virgin, dating from 1485 (?). The 
Baptistery was once a doorway (see above). The Chapelle de la Ste. 
Croix, at the end of the outer aisle, fitted up in 1437, contains 
some worthless paintings, representing the History of the Cross. 



Notre Dame. BRUGES. 4. Route. 15 

— In the inner aisle: Kr. Quellin, Marriage of St. Catherine of 
Siena with the Infant Saviour. 

West Wall : Be Crayer, Adoration of the Infant Jesus, with 
numerous saints, an excellent work, 1662 ; Francken, Mary Magda- 
lene at the feet of Christ ; Seghers, Adoration of the Magi, with saints 
(considered the painter's masterpiece) ; large winged picture, re- 
presenting in the middle the Crucifixion , and on the wings the 
Bearing of the Cross, the Crown of Thorns, the Descent from the 
Cross, and Christ in Hades, begun by B. van Orley, and restored 
by Pourbus the Younger in 1589 after the iconoclastic outrages. 

South Aisles. By the second pillar : J. van Oost the Elder, 
Virgin, with numerous saints, 1648. — 3rd Chapel : Ant. Claeissens 
(?), Virgin and Child in a landscape, with portraits of the donor 
Nic. van Thienen and his wife, and the Annunciation in grisaille 
on the wings ; to the right, a triptych of the Virgin, Child, and an 
angel, with portraits of Don Diego de Villega, his wife and chil- 
dren, by an unknown painter, 1579. — 4th Chapel: *P. Pourbus, 
Transfiguration, with portraits of the donor Ans. de Boodt and his 
wife, along with their patron-saints, 1573 (the central picture ap- 
pears to be older than the rest and has been ascribed to Jan 
Mostert, 1480) ; Van Oost, The Angel warning Joseph and Mary 
to flee to Egypt. — Adjoining the confessional : Herri met de Bles, 
Annunciation, and Adoration of the Magi, on a gold ground. — 
Farther on, to the right, Copy of Van Dyck's Crucifixion ; tomb of 
Adrian van Haveskerke ; above, P. Pourbus, Last Supper, 1562. 

Over the altar, in the old Chapel of the Host, in a black marble 
niche, stands a small **Statue of the Virgin and Child, a life-size 
marble group of exquisite beauty, ascribed to Michael Angelo, pro- 
bably identical with the statue ordered by Peter Moscron, a mer- 
chant of Bruges, and erroneously spoken of by Vasari as a bronze work. 
It would therefore belong to the great master's early period, and date 
from about 1503. The composition is undoubtedly by Michael An- 
gelo , but the execution , which is delicately and softly rounded, 
was probably entrusted to one of his pupils. The life-size study for 
the head of the Madonna, by Michael Angelo's own hand, is in the 
S. Kensington Museum. Horace Walpole, who was a great admirer 
of art, is said to have offered 30,000 fl. for the statue. The French 
carried it off to Paris during the Revolution. 

Nave. Pulpit of 1743, with reliefs and figures (Wisdom bearing 
the terrestrial globe). The nave is separated from the choir by a 
wooden rood-loft of 1722, above which is a Crucifix dating from 1594. 

Choik. The armorial bearings above the choir-stalls serve as 
a memento of the eleventh Chapter of the Order of the Golden 
Fleece, held here in 1468. High-altar of the 18th century. 

In the Ambulatory, beginning by the above-named Chapel 
of the Host : J. van Oost the Elder , St. Rosalia , after Van Dyck's 
painting in the Belvedere at Vienna. 



16 Route 4. BRUGES. Notre Dame. 

Then in a closed chapel to the right (1 person 1 fr.; for a party 
'/oft. each) the *Tombs of Charles the Bold (d. 1477), Duke of 
Burgundy, and his daughter Mary (d. 1482), wife of the Erap. 
Maximilian, the last scions of the House of Burgundy and of the 
native princes of the S. Netherlands. 

The life-size recumbent figures of the duke and his daughter , in 
bronze, richly gilded, repose on marble sarcophagi ; at the sides are the 
enamelled armorial bearings of the duchies, counties, and estates which 
the princess, the richest heiress of that age, brought to the House of 
Austria on her marriage with Maximilian. The tomb of the Princess, in 
the Gothic style, and by far the more valuable as a work of art, was 
executed by Piter de Seclere of Brussels in 1495-1502, aided by five or 
six assistants. The Duke's tomb , an imitation of the other , was 
erected in 1558 by Philip II., a descendant of Charles the Bold, who is 
said to have paid the sculptor Jongelincx of Antwerp the then very large 
sum of 24,395 fl. The Emp. Charles V. caused the remains of the duke, 
his great-grandfather, to be conveyed hither from Nancy. The tomb of 
Charles bears his motto: 'Je Tay empris, bien en aviengne !' ('I have made 
the venture ; may it prosper !'). The sumptuousness of these tombs, the 
historical associations attaching to the illustrious father and daughter, 
and the touching story of the death of the latter in consequence of a fall 
from her horse while hunting with her husband near Bruges, all combine 
to render these monuments deeply interesting. They were first erected 
in the choir, and only since 1816 have they stood in this chapel, which 
was originally dedicated to P. Lanchals, unjustly beheaded in 1488, whose 
tombstone is still to be seen to the right of the entrance. 

The former Chapel of the Virgin, hehind the high-altar, gau- 
dily ornamented, with an altar hy L. Blanchaert (1863) and stained 
glass by J. Bethune, now contains the Host. On the N. side of 
the choir, to the left, * Unknown Master (according to "Waagen by 
Jan Mostert), The Mourning Mary, surrounded by seven small 
representations of her Seven Somows. Farther on, above, is a 
richly-carved Gothic bench in oak, of 1474, formerly the property 
of the family of Van der Gruuthuus, with whose house, adjoining 
the church on the N.E., it was connected by a passage. Then, Jac. 
van Oost, Triumph of the Church, 1652; De Crayer(f), St. Thomas 
Aquinas released from prison by two angels ; under it (covered), 
Claeissens, Foundation of the church of St. Maria Maggiore at 
Rome ; opposite, Van Oost the Elder, Jesus calling Matthew to the 
Discipleship ; Caravaggio, Christ at Emmaus (1604). — Opposite 
the last-named picture is the Chapel of the Trinity, founded by 
the Breidel family, which was long used as a warehouse, but has 
been restored since 1868. 

A gateway (at which visitors ring on the right) opposite the W. 
side of Notre Dame leads to the ^Hospital of St. John (PI. 24 ; 
G, 5), which has existed foT upwards of five centuries, and where 
the sick are attended by Sisters of Charity. The interesting sculp- 
tures above the gate date from the 13th century. Strangers are ad- 
mitted on week-days, 9-12 a.m. and 1-6 p.m. (fee J / 2 fr.). The 
hospital contains a collection of **Pictures by Memling, which alone 
would amply repay a visit to Bruges (comp. Introd. , p. xliii). These 
are preserved in a building in the court, which was formerly the 



St. John's Hospital. BRUGES. 4. Route. 17 

chapter-room. In the centre, on a rotatory pedestal, is the **Chasse 
of St. Ursula, a reliquary of Gothic design, the scenes painted on 
which form Memling's finest work. It is said to have been ordered 
by the Hospital in 1480, and completed in 1486. 

'The shrine of St. Ursula is a Gothic chapel in miniature, its long 
sides being divided into archings containing six episodes, its cover adorn- 
ed with six medallions; one incident fills each of the gables. In the 
medallions are the coronation of the Virgin, the glory of St. Ursula, and 
four angels ; on the gables, St. Ursula shelters the band of maidens under 
her cloak, and the Virgin in a porch is worshipped by two hospital nuns. 
Of the six designs on the long sides, one represents the fleet arriving at 
Cologne, where Ursula prepares to land with her companions. We re- 
cognize the shape of the old cathedral, the steeples of several chur- 
ches, and one of the city towers, most of them true to nature but not 
in their proper places ; in one of the distant houses Ursula sees the 
vision of the Pope bidding her to visit Rome. Another scene is laid on 
the quays of Bale, where St. Ursula has taken to the shore, whilst a part 
of her suite awaits its turn to disembark. A third shows the Pope sur- 
rounded by his court in the porch of a church awaiting St. Ursula who 
kneels on the steps leading up to the portal. In a gallery close by, the 
British neophytes are baptised and confessed, or partake of the Holy 
Communion. The Pope, in the fourth picture, accompanies the maidens 
on their return to Bale; he sits with his cardinals in the vessel which 
carries St. Ursula, whilst the suite of both still winds through the passes 
leading from the Alps. On the fifth panel, the background is a camp on 
the Rhine shore , where boats have landed some of their living freight, 
and others approach with crowded loads; the knights and virgins are 
set upon by soldiers and are vainly defended by their steelclad cham- 
pions. The sixth picture is that in which St. Ursula is seen in a passive 
attitude of prayer , awaiting the arrow of a executioner ; the men about 
her, armed in proof, or shrouded in mantles , are spectators or actors in 
the massacre of the saint's companions; and the distance is filled with 
tents behind which the Kolner Dom rears its solid walls". 

'The freedom and grace with which these scenes are composed are 
partly due to the facility with which Memling treated groups and figures 
of small proportions , but they tell of progress in the art of distribution 
and arrangement. It would be difficult to select any picture of the Flemish 
school in which the 'dramatis personse' are more naturally put together 
than they are in the shrine of St. Ursula, nor is there a single panel in 
the reliquary that has not the charm of rich and well-contrasted colour. 
... A rich fund of life and grace is revealed in shapes of symmetrical 
proportions or slender make and attitudes of becoming elegance. Nothing 
is more striking than the minuteness of the painter's touch, or the per- 
fect mastery of his finish'. 

Crowe and Cavalcaselle. The Early Flemish Painters. 1872. 

A second picture by Memling, bearing the date 1479, the 
genuineness of which has been questioned, is the 'Marriage of St. 
Catherine' (No. 1), a winged picture. The signature here is written 
MEMELING, and the somewhat unusual form of the initial M gave 
rise to the erroneous belief that the name of the artist was Hemeling 
or Hemling. 

'The Virgin sits on a throne in a rich church-porch; angels hold a 
crown above her; the infant on her lap bends to give a ring to the bride 
kneeling in regal raiment at his feet; to the right and left, the Baptist, 
Evangelist, and St. Barbara stand gravely in attendance; an angel plays 
on an organ ; another holds a missal. Close behind St. Catherine, a monk 
of the order of St. Augustin contemplates the scene ; further back , out- 
side the pillars of the porch, another monk handles a gauge for wine and 
spirits; and in a landscape watered by a river the Baptist prays to God, 

Baeoekbk's Belgium and Holland. 7th Edit. 2 



18 Route 4. BRUGES. St. John's Hospital. 

preaches to a crowd, wends his way to the place of execution, and burns 
— a headless trunk — at the stake; elsewhere, St. John Evangelist 
seethes in boiling oil, and rows in a boat to Patmos. On the right wing 
of the triptych the daughter of Herodias receives the Baptist's head, and 
dances before Herod. On the left wing St. John Evangelist is seated and 
looks towards heaven, preparing to note the vision before him. He sees 
the king of kings, the elders, the lamps of the Apocalypse, the lamb, the 
symbols of the Evangelist, and Death on the pale horse, bursting with his 
three companions on the men who flee ; on the placid surface of the sea, 
the vision is reflected and forms a grand and imposing picture. On the 
outer faee of the wings, Jacques de Keuninck, treasurer, Antoine Seghers, 
director, Agnes Cazembrood, superior, and Claire van Hultem, a nun of 
the hospital, are depicted under the protection of their patron saints.' — Ibid. 

By the entrance is a smaller work (No. 3) by Memling, also with 
wings, the *Epiphany, representing the Adoration of the Magi, and 
the Presentation in the Temple, painted in 1479, and the best ex- 
ample of the master's early manner (under glass). 

The thin, bearded man looking in at the window, with the cap which 
is still worn by the convalescents of the hospital, is said to be a portrait 
of the master himself. To the right, Brother Jan Floreins van der Rjjst, 
the donor, kneeling. On the inside of the shutters, the Xativity, and 
Presentation in the Temple; outside, John the Baptist and St. Veronica. 
In this picture the influence of Roger van der Weyden, Memling's teacher, 
is most distinctly visible, but the heads are more delicate and pleasing, 
and the execution bolder. The picture has unfortunately been much 
injured by cleaning. 

A small picture (No. 4 ; under glass), a diptych , painted in 
1487, represents the Virgin with a red mantle, offering an apple to 
the Child; on the other wing the donor, Martin van Newenhowen. 

'There is no more interesting specimen of portrait by Memling ex- 
tant than this , none more characteristic for the large fair oval of the 
Madonna's face, or for that peculiar clearness which is so surely pro- 
duced by scant shadow and spacious, even light'. — Crowe & Cavalcatelle. 

Another picture by Memling (No. 5) represents a female Bust, 
with high cap and white veil, styled by the modern inscription 
' Sibylla Sambetha'. 

An Entombment (No. 6), with portrait of the donor A. Reins, 
and SS. Adrian, Barbara, Wilgefortis, and Mary of Egypt on the 
wings (the last two on the outside) , also sometimes attributed to 
Memling, but probably by an inferior contemporary, possesses far 
less life and richness of colouring than the other pictures. There 
are also several good pictures by the two Van Oosts (a Philosopher, 
No. 11, is a masterpiece of the Elder), a Madonna ascribed to Van 
Dpck (No. 29), portraits by Pourbus (Nos. 33, 34), the Miraculous 
Draught of Fishes by D. Teniers the Younger (No. 32), the Good 
Samaritan by Nic. Maes (No. 39), several works by unknown mas- 
ters of the 15-16th cent., etc. 

The Hospital itself (containing 240 beds) is well worthy of a 
visit. The large, open hall, divided by partitions into bedrooms, 
kitchen, and other apartments, and remarkable for its cleanliness 
and order, is interesting from having retained its mediaeval aspect 
unchanged. A new and more commodious building, fitted up in 
modern style, has been erected adjacent to the original hospital. 



Belfry. BRUGES. 4. Route. 1 9 

The street from the station to the town passes a small open space 
planted with trees, and adorned with a poor Statue of Simon Stevin 
(PI. 29 ; F, 5), the inventor of the decimal system (d. 1635), and 
leads to the Grand' Place (E, F, 4, 5), or market-place. One side 
of the square is occupied by the Halles (PI. 23), a large building 
erected in the 13th and 14th centuries, and partly altered in 1561- 
66 from designs by Peter Diericx. The building forms a rectangle, 
48yds. broad and 93yds. deep. The E. wing, originally intended 
for a cloth-hall, now contains the municipal offices ; the other has 
been used as a meat-market since 1819. The Belfry (Tourdes Halles, 
or Grande Tour), erected at the end of the 14th cent., 350 ft. in 
height, rises in the centre of the facade and leans slightly towards 
the S.E. It consists of two massive square stories, flanked with 
corner-turrets , and surmounted by a lofty octagon , which was 
erected in 1393-96. The summit commands a very extensive 
view. The chimes date from 1748. (Entrance in the court to the 
right , upstairs ; ring the bell in the gallery ; doorkeeper t/a fr. , 
custodian at the top 72 fr-) 

On the W. side of the market-place, at the corner of the Rue 
St. Amand, is the house called 'Au Lion de Flandre', now a shop, 
a handsome old building in the mediaeval style. According to a 
popular but probably erroneous tradition, it was occupied for a time 
by Charles II. of England, while living here in exile about the 
middle of the 17th century. The citizens of Bruges conferred upon 
him a title of royalty by creating him 'King of the Guild of Archers'. 

In the opposite house , called the Craenenburg (PI. 9), now a 
tavern, the citizens of Bruges kept the German King Maximilian, 
the 'last of the knights', prisoner during twelve days, in the year 
1488, on account of his refusal to concede the guardianship of his 
son Philip, heir to the crown of the Netherlands, to the king of 
France. The Pope threatened them with excommunication, and 
the Imperial army was directed to march against the city, notwith- 
standing which Maximilian was not liberated until, in the presence 
of the guilds and the townspeople, he had solemnly sworn to re- 
nounce his claim to the guardianship of his son, to respect the lib- 
erties of Bruges, and to forget the affront he had received. A few 
weeks later, however, he was released from his oath by a congress of 
Princes convened at Malines by his father, the Emp. Frederick III. 

The Hdtel-de-Ville (PI. 25), in the adjacent Place du Bourg 
(PI. E, F, 4), an elegant Gothic structure with six towers, three in 
front and three at the back , was begun about 1376 (the facade 
was probably finished in 1387), and restored in 1854-1871. The 
48 niches in the principal facade, between the windows, are filled 
with statues of Counts of Flanders, which replace those destroyed 
by the French sansculottes in 1792. The Counts of Flanders, on 
their accession to the throne, were in the habit of showing them- 
selves to the people from one of the windows or balconies in front 



20 Route 4. BRUGES. Chap, du St. Sang. 

of this building, and swearing to maintain the privileges of the 
city (p. 11). 

Interior. A battle-piece in the hall below (Finding of the body of 
Charles the Bold after the Battle of Nancy , in 1477) , by H. Sobbelaare, 
was purchased for Bruges by the citizens with the aid of the government. 
The council-chambers contain some modern pictures and a few objects 
dating from the 17th cent, (ink-stands, the silver chain of the burgomaster's 
hand-bell). Upstairs , in the vestibule of the library, are representations 
of the principal squares of the town ; also a large picture by Dobbelaare, 
representing the Works of Charity. The municipal Library (open from 10 
to 1 and from 3 to 5 o'clock, Sat., Sun., and holidays excepted) in the great 
hall, which occupies almost the entire length of the building, is worthy of 
a visit on account of its fine Gothic roof of pendent wood-work, dating from 
the 14th century. It contains 15,000 vols., numerous interesting old MSS., 
many of them with miniatures, missals of the 13th and 14th cent., and 
the first books printed by Colard Mansion, the printer of Bruges (1475-84). 

Adjoining the H6tel-de-Ville on the left is the Maison de VAn- 
cien Oreffe, or old municipal record office , a Renaissance edifice 
built by J. Wallot in 1534-37 , recently restored and profusely 
adorned with gilding; it is now a court of law. The vaulted passage 
between the H6tel-de-Ville and the Ancien Greffe emerges on the 
bank of a canal, whence a good view is obtained of the back of the 
Palais de Justice (p. 21), the H6tel-de-Ville, and the towers of 
St. Sauveur and Notre Dame. On the other side of the canal is the 
Fish Market. 

In the corner, adjoining the H6tel-de-Ville on the right, is the 
church of St. Basile, usually called *Chapelle du Saint Sang 
(PI. 21 ; F, 4), a small and elegant church of two stories, the lower 
of which dates from 1150, the upper probably from the 15th cent. ; 
the portal and staircase, constructed in 1529-33, in the richest 
Flamboyant style, and seriously damaged by the sansculottes during 
the Revolution, were handsomely restored in 1829-39. The chapel 
derives its appellation from some drops of the blood of the Saviour, 
which Theodoric of Alsace, Count of Flanders (p. 11), is said to 
have brought from the Holy Land in 1149, and to have presented 
to the city. 

The Lower Chapel (entrance at the corner) founded by Theo- 
doric of Alsace and Sibylla of Anjou, and consecrated in 1150, con- 
sists of nave and aisles, with choir of the same breadth as the nave, 
and rests on low round pillars. The carved altar dates from 1536. 

The Upper Chapel , now undergoing restoration , is reached 
from the Place by the staircase mentioned above (open free Sun. 
7-9, Frid. 6-12, fee at other times 50c); it has no aisles. The 
stained-glass windows in the vestibule date from the 16th cent, ; 
those in the chapel itself, comprising portraits of the Burgundian 
princes down to Maria Theresa and Francis I. , were executed in 
1845-47 from old designs. The large W. window, representing 
the history of the Passion and the conveyance of the Holy Blood 
to Bruges , was executed by Capronnier from designs by Jean 
Bethune, 1856. The window with SS. Longinus and Veronica is 



Palais de Justice. BRUGES. 4. Route. 21 

by Jean Bethune. The polychrome decoration of the choir was exe- 
cuted in 1856 from designs by T. H. King, in four compartments. 
The altar, a specimen of modern sculpture in the Gothic style, was 
executed by Michael Abbeloos from drawings by Jean Be"thune. 
The pulpit consists of a half-globe, resting on clouds, with the 
equator, meridian, and a few geographical names. 

On the wall to the left of the entrance : piece of lace of 1684 
(under glass); old Flemish painting of the 15th cent, representing 
Count Theodoric receiving the ' Holy Blood' from Baldwin III. of 
Flanders, King of Jerusalem (?); other pictures of little value. — 
In the opposite wall are three arches opening on to a Chapel, 
where the Holy Blood is exposed to view. Above the arches : De 
Crayer , Pieta ; to the right, an early-Flemish winged painting of 
the Crucifixion, and others. The marble altar of the chapel, bear- 
ing a massive silver crucifix, dates from the 17th cent. ; the pulpit, 
where the Holy Blood is exhibited every Friday from 6 to 11. 30 a.m., 
was constructed in 1866. To the right and left are good portraits 
of members of the Brotherhood of the Holy Blood, painted by P. 
Pourbus (1556). Farther on is a winged picture of the early-Flemish 
school, containing a vast number of figures, and portraying the 
Bearing of the Cross, the Crucifixion, and the Resurrection. 

The most important picture in the church, however, is the*De- 
scent from the Cross, a winged picture by Gerard David. 

The central scene represents the body of Christ supported by the aged 
Nicodemus on the right. Mary, with her hands folded, kneels before 
her son, supported by St. John, who at the same time raises the left 
arm of Christ. On his right are Mary Salome and, in the corner, a man 
with a box of ointment. On the wings are Mary Magdalene with Cleo- 
phas , and Joseph of Arimathsea with an unknown man. In the back- 
ground is Mt. Calvary with the Cross. The picture was probably painted 
late in life by the master, whose merit has only recently been discov- 
ered, and exhibits a brownish tone, attributable to the influence of Quin- 
ten Massys. 

Above the exit: J. van Oost the Elder, Descent from the Cross. 
The Sacristy contains a silver-gilt reliquary (4 ft. 3 in. high, 2 ft. 
broad), studded with gems, which was made in 1617 by Jean 
Crabbe, and presented to the chuTch by the Archduke Albert; the 
miniature crown resting on it is said to have been a gift from 
Princess Mary of Burgundy (p. 16), but is doubtless nearly two 
centuries later in date. 

On the N. side of the H6tel-de-Ville is the Palais de Justice 
(PI. 28; F, 4), formerly the town-hall of the Franc de Bruges, or 
district of the '■Buiten'poorters\ i.e., inhabitants 'outside the gate', 
who were not subject to the jurisdiction of the city. It occupies part 
of the site of an old palace of the Counts of Flanders, which was 
presented by Philippe le Bel to the ' Liberty of Bruges'. The first 
building, erected in 1520-1608, was destroyed by fire, and was re- 
placed by the present edifice in 1722-27. 

The Court Eoom (Chambre Echevinale; castellan in the quadrangle, 
•/a tr.) belongs to the original edifice. It contains a magnificent Renais- 



22 Route 4. BRUGES. Academy. 

sance • Chimney- Piece , occupying almost the entire side of the room, 
executed in 1529-31 by Guyot de Beaugrant, probably to commemorate 
the battle of Pavia, and the peace of Cambrai, by which France was 
obliged to recognise the independence of Flanders. The lower part con- 
sists of black marble; the upper, which is of carved oak, was exe- 
cuted from designs by the painter Lancelot Blondeel, and restored in 
1850 by the sculptor Geerts. The statues, finely carved and nearly life- 
size, represent Charles V. (in the centre), his paternal ancestors Mary of 
Burgundy and Maximilian of Austria on the left, and his maternal an- 
cestors Ferdinand of Arragon and Isabella of Castile on the right of the 
spectator; to the right and left of Charles are small medallions, held 
aloft by children, representing his parents Philippe le Bel and Johanna 
of Castile ; also the armorial bearings of Burgundy , Spain , &c. ; the 
whole decorated with genii and foliage. On the frieze of the chimney- 
piece proper are four reliefs in white marble, of the same period, repre- 
senting the history of Susanna. The tapestry on the walls was manufac- 
tured at Ingelmunster (p. 29) in 1850, in imitation of the original, of 
which portions were found in the cellar. 

Crossing the Place adjacent to the Place du Bourg, -which is 
planted with horse-chestnuts, traversing the Burgstraat, and pro- 
ceeding a little farther in the same direction, we reach the small 
Place Jean van Eyck (PI. D, E, 4), surrounded by mediaeval build- 
ings, and bounded on the E. by a canal. In this Place are situated 
the Ancien Poids Public, of the 15th cent., and the Academy of Art. 
The statue of Jan van Eyck, by Pickery, was erected in 1878. 

The *Academie des Beaux Arts (PI. 2; E, 4) was founded in 
1719 by the painters Jos. van den Kerckhove, J. B. Erregouts, 
Marc Duvenede, and Josse Aerschoot, specimens of whose works are 
frequently encountered in Bruges. The Academy, a Gothic edifice 
of the 14th cent., called De Poorters' Loodse (i.e., Citizens' Lodge; 
'■poorters', those who live within the 'poort or gate), and formerly an 
assembly-hall for the townspeople, was entirely remodelled in 1755. 
The facade is in course of being decorated with statues by sculptors 
of Bruges. The Museum , exhibited in the upper story, is of great 
interest to the student of early Flemish art. (Critical catalogue by 
James Weale, to be obtained at the booksellers', not at the Museum, 
2 fr.) The entrance is in the Rue de l'Academie, at the side (ad- 
mission on Sundays gratis, 11-1 o'clock; at other times i/ 2 fr-)- 

In the first Passage, modern works. — Room I. To the left, /. van 
Oosl the Elder, 26. Portrait of a man ; 28, 29. St. Anthony in his trance, 
St. Anthony resuscitating a dead man. Jan van Goyen, 34. View of Dort ; 
two smaller landscapes. In the centre of the room is a poor statue of Jan 
van Eyck, in marble, by Calloigne (1820). 

Boom II. To the right and left of the entrance : 7, 8. Gerard 
David{1), The sentence of Cambyses against the unjust judge Sisamnes. 
The first picture represents the bribery in the background, and the sen- 
tence of the King in the foreground ; the second the executioners flaying 
Sisamnes. Both pictures (completed in 1498) are boldly painted, with a 
brownish tone of colouring , and admirably finished. The composition is 
well conceived on the whole , and the backgrounds are excellent. Most 
of the heads exhibit a marked individuality, and the hands are drawn 
with perfect accuracy. — Then on the right wall: "4. Memling, Triptych 
(1484). In the central picture is St. Christopher, with a blue garment 
and ample red cloak, looking up with astonishment at the Infant Christ 
sitting on his shoulders , as if unable to comprehend the continual in- 
crease of his burden. In a grotto is the hermit, leaning on a stick, with 



Academy. BRUGES. 4. Route. 23 

a lantern in his hand. To the left is St. Mauru.i reading, to the right 
St. Egidius with the doe. The ground is strewn with violets and other 
flowers. On the left wing is the donor with his five sons and his patron 
St. William, on the right wing his wife with eleven daughters and St. 
Barbara. On the outsides are St. John the Baptist and St. George, in 
grisaille. This picture occupies a high rank among Memling's works. The 
heads of the three saints in the central picture are of great beauty, and 
the reflection of the rocky bank in the water is admirably rendered. 
The picture has unfortunately been much injured by the removal of the 
original varnish. St. George is probably by a different hand. — Above, 
to the right : 9. Jean Prevost (d. 1529), The Last Judgment, a very impres- 
sive picture, notwithstanding several eccentricities. In the upper part the 
heads are very beautiful and varied. To the left : 25. Ant. Claeissens, 
Banquet; 20. P. Claeis, Allegorical representation of the Treaty of Tournai 
in 1584. 

Most of the back-wall is occupied by paintings by P. Pourbus of 
Gouda, who "\ early emigrated to Bruges and died there in 1584. No. 17. 
Last Judgment (1551); 18. Descent from the Cross, with wings in grisaille 
(1570); 15, 16. Portraits (1551). No. 23, the Adoration of the Shepherds 
and the Magi, is by an unknown master. 

Left Wall : 6. Death of Mary, by an unknown master of the Brabant 
School, formerly attributed to Schooreel; a copy in the cathedral. — 3. After 
Jan van Eyck, Head of Christ, with the spurious inscription, 'Joh. de 
Eyck inventor 1420', a reduced copy of the work in the museum at Ber- 
lin. — 2. Jan van Eyck, Portrait of his wife, 1439, evidently unflattered, 
but admirably finished, and faithful in every detail. — : 'l. Jan van Eyck, 
Madonna with the Infant Christ, St. Donatian and St. George, and the 
donor Canon George de Pala. This picture is strongly realistic. The Ma- 
donna is the ugliest ever painted by Van Eyck, the Child, with its aged 
expression (meant to indicate the presence of Deity?), is lean and un- 
attractive , and St. George has much the appearance of a rude common 
soldier. The portrait of the donor, however, is masterly, and St. Do- 
natian is a dignified personage. The figures are two-thirds of life-size, 
being the largest which the master is known to have painted. The mu- 
seum at Antwerp contains a copy of this picture. — "5. Gerard David, 
Triptych, formerly ascribed to Memling. In the central picture the Bap- 
tism of Christ, on the right wing the donor Jean des Trompes and his 
son, with their patron St. John the Evangelist; on the left wing Eliza- 
beth van der Meersch, the first wife of the donor, with her four daugh- 
ters, under the protection of St. Elizabeth of Hungary. On the outsides 
of the wings are the Madonna and Magdalen Cordier, the donor's second 
wife, with her infant daughter and her patron saint. This picture shows 
the great skill of the master in landscape painting. The background of 
the inner pictures, with its rich gradation and varied accessories, is re- 
markably pleasing. The work was executed about the year 1507. — 19. 
Modern repetition (18th cent.) of Jan van Eyck's sketch of St. Barbara 
in the Antwerp Museum (perhaps drawn for engraving). — "12. Gerard 
David, two charming small coloured drawings on parchment: Preaching 
of John the Baptist and the Baptism of Christ. 

Near the Academy is the Marche du Mercredi (PI. D, 4), now 
called Place de Memling, where a Statue of Memling (PI. 35) in 
marble, by Pickery, was erected in 1871. 

Opposite the Pont de la Paille (PI. D, 3), No. 23, is the house 
of Dr. de Meyer, who possesses a collection of good works of the 
Dutch and Flemish schools , which he is always ready to show to 
lovers of art at a day's notice. The forenoon is the time which best 
suits Dr. de Meyer. The house is tastefully fitted up in the rococo 
style. 

The Church of St. Anna (PI. 10; D, 3) was reconstructed in 



24 Route 4. BRUGES. St. Jacques. 

the Renaissance style in 1607-12. The church, which is destitute of 
aisles, has a carved wooden panelling of 1699 ; pulpit of 1675 ; rood- 
loft of 1642; and pictures by the elder Van Oost and L. de Deyster. 

The Eglise de Jerusalem (PI. 14; D, 2; entrance from the 
back, Rue de la Balle, first door to the right) , a small and simple 
late-Gothic edifice of the middle of the 15th cent., contains below 
the high-choir an imitation of the Holy Sepulchre , founded by 
'Messire Anselm Adornes', burgomaster of Bruges, who under- 
took two journeys to Jerusalem with a view to ensure the resem- 
blance. The nave contains a bronze monument to him (d. 1483) 
and his wife (d. 1463). The stained glass dates from the 15th and 
16th centuries. 

In the vicinity, at the "W. end of the town, is the Couvent des 
Dames Anglaises (PL 8 ; C, 2), an English nunnery, with which an 
excellent school is connected. The church of the convent, a Re- 
naisance structure with a dome, was built by Pulincx in 1736-39, 
and contains an altar, executed at Rome, and composed of rare Per- 
sian and Egyptian marbles. — To the right, a little farther on in the 
same street, is the handsome late-Gothic guild-house of the Arque- 
busiers of St. Sebastian (PI. C, 2), with a slender octagonal tower, 
containing portraits from the middle of the 17th cent, downwards, 
and various antiquities. Charles II. of England (p. 19) and the 
Emp. Maximilian were both members of the guild. Close by are the 
ramparts, on which rise several windmills. 

The Hospice de la Potterie (PI. B, 3 ; entrance No. F, 76, Quai 
de la Potterie) , an asylum for old women , established about 
1164, contains old paintings, particularly a good picture by Peter 
Claeissens, representing Mary and the Child beside a tree ('Van't 
Boomtje'), with God the Father, and the Holy Ghost in the form of 
a dove at the top (1608). 

The Church of St. Jacques (PI. 15; E, 5), a late-Gothic brick 
building, erected between 1457 and 1518, also contains several ob- 
jects of interest. 

Of the numerous pictures of the 16th , 17th , and 18th centuries , ar- 
ranged to some extent in rows as in a picture-gallery, and provided with 
the names of the artists and the dates, we can only specify a few. The 
painters mostly belong to Bruges (L. de Deyster, d. 1711 ; Jos. van der 
Kerckhove, d. 1724, among others). Left Aisle. 1st Chapel: Fine chased 
copper monumental tablets of Spanish families , one of which , with the 
date 1461, is to the memory of Catherine, daughter of Coland d , Ault, re- 
presented between her brother and her guardian angel; another, dating 
from 1577, is to the memory of Don Francisco de Lapuebla and his wife, 
and is very elaborately executed ; a third, of date 1615, is in memory of 
Don Pedro de Valencia and his wife. 2nd Chapel : Lancelot Blondeel, Mar- 
tyrdom of SS. Cosmas and Damianus, painted in 1523 for the guild of 
Barber-Surgeons ; P. Pourbus , The Seven Woes of the Virgin , 1556. At 
the end of the left aisle: "Jac. van Oost the Elder, Presentation in the 
Temple. — On the High Altak: J. van Bockhorst (d. 1668), Adoration 
of the Magi. — At the end of the Eight Aisle : to the right , Madonna, 
with the donors, by P. Pourbus, 1556; also a small Chapel, with poly- 
chrome ornamentation (restored in 1876) , containing the tomb of Ferry 
de Gros , Seigneur de Oyenghem , Nieuwenlande, etc. (d. 1544) and his two 



THOUROUT. 5. Route. 25 

wives (the recumbent figure of the second wife is particularly beautiful); 
on the small altar in this chapel is a fine glazed terracotta of the school 
of Delia Robbia, representing Mary and the Child encircled with a chaplet 
of fruits. — The pulpit, rood-lofts, and choir-stalls were put up in the 
latter part of the 17th century. 

The Cour des Princes (PI. 4; E,6), the ancient palace of the 
Counts of Flanders , where the nuptials of Charles the Bold with 
Margaret of York were celebrated in 1468, and where Philippe le 
Bel, father of Charles V., was horn, has entirely disappeared, with 
the exception of a few fragments within the precincts of a private 
house. 

The Beguinage (PI. 3 ; H, 5), at the S.W- end of the town, foun- 
ded in the 13th cent., is inferior to that of Ghent (p. 47). The 
entrance is in the right angle of the Place de la Vigne ; we cross a 
bridge and pass through a gateway of 1776. The low, whitewashed 
houses surround a court shaded by lofty trees. The Church, dedi- 
cated to St. Elisabeth, was founded in 1245 and rebuilt in 1605; 
the altarpiece and some pictures in the left aisle are by the elder 
Van Oost. 

Dante [Inferno xv. , 4-6) compares the barrier which sepa- 
rates the river of tears from the desert, with the embankments 
which the Flemings have thrown up between Sluys (or rather the 
island of Cadzand) and Bruges, to protect the city against the en- 
croachments of the sea : — 

' Quale i Fiamminghi Ira Oazzanle e Bruggia, 
Temendo il fiotto eke inver lor s^avventa, 
Fanno lo schermo, perch'e 'J mar si fuggia\ 

Damme, a village 1 hr. N.E. of Bruges, on the canal leading to Sluys 
(comp. p. 9), was once a considerable and fortified seaport, but has been in 
a state of decadence since the sea began to retire from it in the 15th cen- 
tury. The picturesque Halles were built in 1464-68, and restored with little 
success in 1860 ; in front of the building is a statue of the Flemish poet 
Jacob de Coster van Maerlant (13th cent.) by Pickery (i860). The church 
of Notre Dame, founded in 1180, but never completed, and much altered 
at later periods, and the Hospital of St. John also merit inspection. 

5. The Railways of S.W. Flanders. 

These lines all belong to private companies, and pass so many small 
stations that the speed of the trains is extremely slow. The flat, agricul- 
tural district traversed by them presents the usual Flemish characteristics. 
The towns of this part of Flanders are now dull and lifeless, but more 
than one of them has had a stirring past. Every lover of art will find 
much to interest him in lpres, and the rood-loft of Dixmuiden (p. 28), the 
cloth-hall of Meuport (p. 28), and various edifices of Fumes (p. 28) also 
deserve a visit. 

1. From Ostbnd to Ypres, 35 M., railway in l 3 / 4 hr. (fares 
4fr. 35, 3fr. 25, 2 fr. 20 c). 

Stations: Snaeskerke , Ohistelles (Hotel de l'Europe), often 
visited by strangers from Ostend, Moere , Eerneghem , Ichteghem, 
and Wynendaeie (see below). 

15 M. Thourout (Due de Brabant; Cygne; Union), a town with 
8500inhab., derives its name from a grove once consecrated here 



26 Route 5. YPRE8. From Ostend 

to the worship of the Germanic god Thor (Tkorhout = grove of 
Thor). It contains a seminary for teachers in connection 'with the 
diocese of Bruges, and a handsome new church. In the neighbour- 
hood, iy 2 M. to the W. , is the old castle of Wynendaele, lately 
restored, once the property of the Counts of Flanders. Thourout is 
the junction of the line from Bruges to Courtrai (p. 29). 

19Y2 M. Cortemarck, the junction for the Ghent and Dunkirk 
line (p. 28). — Then Staden, Westroosebeke, Poelcapelle, Langhe- 
marck, Boesinghe. 

35 M. Ypres, Flem. Yperen (*Tete d'Or, in the wide Sue de 
Lille , which begins at the belfry ; Epie Roy ale, Grande Place, 
B. l'/2) D. 2, B. 3 / 4 fr., well spoken of; Chatellenie, Grande Place; 
Hotels Fournier, du Nord, etc., near the station), an old town with 
remains of ancient fortifications, on the Yperlie , situated in a fer- 
tile district, contains 15,500 inhab., who are chiefly occupied in 
the manufacture of linen and lace, and possesses broad and clean 
streets. It was formerly the capital of West Flanders. In the 14th 
cent. Ypres had a population of 200,000 souls, and upwards of 
4000 looms were in constant activity. These days of prosperity, 
however, have long since passed away. A succession of popular ris- 
ings, and the siege of the town and burning of the suburbs by the 
burghers of Ghent in 1383, caused a large number of the weavers 
to migrate to more peaceful abodes, and the industry of Ypres be- 
came almost entirely restricted to lace-making. Its subsequent 
capture by Louis XIV., who converted it into a strong fortress, was 
fatal to all prospect of revival. Ypres thus possesses now but a 
shadow of its former greatness, but it still contains many memorials 
of its golden period, which make it one of the most interesting 
towns in Belgium. Diaper (i.e. d'Ypres) linen takes its name from 
this town. 

From the railway-station we first follow the Rue des Bouchers 
(Vleescherstraat), at the end of which we take the Rue du Temple 
on the left , and then turn to the right into the Marche-au-Beurre 
(Botermarkt), which brings us to the Gbandb Plaob. Here stands 
the *Cloth Hall, the most considerable edifice of its kind in Bel- 
gium, begun in 1201, but not completed till 1304. The facade, of 
simple design, is 460 ft. long, and is pierced by two rows of pointed 
windows, all in the same style. It is flanked by two corner-turrets, 
while in the centre rises the massive, square Belfry (230 ft.), with 
turrets at the angles , the oldest part of the building, the founda- 
tion stone having been laid by Count Baldwin IX. of Flanders 
(p. 153) in the year 1200. The edifice is said to have suggested to 
Sir Gilbert Scott the idea of his successful design for the Town 
Hall of Hamburg. The 44 statues which adorn the facade, exe- 
cuted by P. Puyenbroeck of Brussels in 1860, replace the original 
figures of 31 sovereigns who bore the title of 'Count of Flanders', 
from Baldwin of the Iron Arm (d. ca. 879) to Charles V., with their 



to Ypres. YPRES. 5. Route. 27 

consorts. The Town Hall, a charming Renaissance structure from 
designs by Jan Sporeman (1575), was attached to the E. part of 
the Cloth Hall in the beginning of the 17th century. The ground- 
floor consists of an elegant open hall , 20 ft. in width , boldly 
supported by columns. Entrance at the back, No. 1, opposite 
St. Martin's Church. The former Salle Echevinale, now the Salle 
des Manages , is adorned with frescoes by Ouffens and Swerts, 
painted in 1869 (Festal Entry of Philip the Bold of Burgundy and 
his wife, the last Countess of Flanders, in 1384, and other scenes 
from the town's history) , and contains a fine modern chimney- 
piece by Malfait of Brussels, and some old wall-paintings (restored) 
of the Counts of Flanders from 1322 to 1476. All these are, un- 
fortunately, in a bad light. The whole of the first floor formerly 
consisted of a single large hall , which was used as a cloth- 
market. In 1876-84 the walls were embellished with twelve *Mural 
Paintings by Ferd. Pauwels, representing the chief events in the 
history of Ypres. The series begins with the foundation of the 
Hospital of the Virgin in 1187 and ends with the siege of 1383 
(p. 26). One of the most powerful scenes depicts the ravages of 
the plague in 1316. Fee to the attendant i/z-i fr. 

The *Cathedrai, of St. Martin , behind the Cloth Hall , was 
built in the 13th cent, on the site of an earlier edifice founded in 
1083; the choir dates from 1221 , the nave and aisles from 1254. 
The tower was added about 1254 by Master Utenhove. The finest 
parts are the choir and the portal of the S. transept with its magni- 
ficent rose-window and handsome gable. The doors are good 
examples of rich late-Gothic carving. Between the pillars of the 
W. porch is a triumphal arch, constructed in 1600 by Urban 
Taillebert of Ypres. The interior contains some fine Renaissance 
choir - stalls, carved by C. van Hoveke and Urban Taillebert in 
1598; old frescoes in the choir, unskilfully restored in 1826 ; in 
the left aisle, a winged picture of the Fall of Man and his Re- 
demption, dating from 1525 (covered); a brazen font; late-Gothic 
organ loft. In the Sacristy are some flue old ecclesiastical vessels. 
A flat stone in the late-Gothic cloister marks the grave of Janse- 
nius (d. 1638) , Bishop of Ypres , founder of a sect named after 
him, and still existing in Holland (see p. 299). 

The Meat Market, a double-gabled house in the Marche'-au- 
Beurre, nearly opposite (to the S.W. of) the Cloth Hall, contains 
the Museum (entrance at the back, 1/2 ' r 0> consisting of a col- 
lection of antiquities, ancient and modern pictures, and drawings 
of several of the numerous picturesque dwelling-house of the 
14-17th cent., of which Ypres still possesses a few. — Ypres is 
the seat of the Belgian Ecole de Cavalerie, or army riding- school. 

From Ypres to Rosselaere, see p. 29. 

Fbom Ypkes to PopeRinghe, I2V2M., railway in >/a hr. Intermediate 
station Vlamertinghe. — Poperinghe, a town with 11,200 inhab., possesses 
a church of about 1300 with an interesting W. portal and a carved oaken 



28 Route 5. FURNES. 

pulpit. — Beyond Poperinghe the line crosses the French frontier and 
joins the Lille and Calais railway at (7 M.) Hazebrouck (p. 57). 

Beyond Ypres the line is continued to Comines (p. 31), Warne- 
ton, Le Touquet (Belgian custom-house), Houplines (French custom- 
house), and Armentieres, on the Calais and Lille railway. 



2. From Ghent to Dunkirk via. Lichtervbldb, 67 M., rail- 
way in 31/2-41/2 hrs. (fares 8 fr. 25, 6 fr. 20, 4 fr. 15 c). 

4^2 M. St. Denis - Westrem ; 6 M. La Pinte, where the line 
from Ghent to Oudenaerde, Leuze, and Mons diverges to the left 
(see p. 48); 7V2 M. Deurle; lO 1 ^ M. Deynze, with an old church, 
the junction of the line to Courtrai (p. 49); 14 M. Qrammene; 
16 M. Aerseele. 

20'/ 2 M. Thielt, an old town with 10,300 inhab., formerly a 
busy cloth-making place, as its Cloth Hall and Belfry indicate. 
Branch-line hence to (7 M.) Ingelmiinster, see p. 29. 

23y 2 M. Pitthem ; 26 M. Ardoye. 31 M. Lichtervelde, the junc- 
tion of the Bruges and Courtrai line (see p. 29). — 35 M. Corte- 
marck, the junction of the Ostend and Ypres line (see p. 26). 

Next stations : Handzaeme, Zarren, Eessen. 

42 M. Dixmuiden, Fr. Dixmude, the parish-church of which 
contains a fine rood-loft of the beginning of the 16th cent., in the 
richest Flamboyant style , an Adoration of the Magi by Jordaens 
(1644), and other works of art. Dairy-farming is practised with 
great success in this neighbourhood, and a brisk trade in butter is 
carried on with England. 

Fkom Dixmuiden to Nieuport, 11 M., railway in 1 /v- 3 /t hr. — 5 M. 
Pervyse ; 8 M. Ramscappelle. 

9V:j M. Nieuport (Hotel de l'Esperance), the town, a small and quiet 
place on the Yser, with 3500 inhab., formerly fortified, and noted for its 
obstinate resistance to the French in 1689. The most interesting build- 
ings are the Cloth Hall of 1480, with a Belfry of still earlier date; the Go- 
thic Church; and the HStel-de-Ville, begun in 1513. Outside the town, on 
the side next the sea, is a Lighthouse built in 1289. 

11 M. Nieuport C'HStel de la Digue, 'pens' 7-10 fr.; H6tel des Bains; 
Hdlel de la Mer, unpretending), the watering-place, consists, besides the 
above hotels, of the Cursaal, a row of villas, and a small Roman Catholic 
church. As at other Belgian watering-places a Digue has been constructed 
along the dunes, at one end of which is an Estacade (see p. 5), 3 /i M. long, 
protecting the entrance to the Yser and forming an admirable promenade. 
Fine view of Ostend and Dunkirk. Good sea-bathing. 

48 M. Oostkerke; 49 M. Ave-Cappelle. 

51 Y2 M. Fumes (Hotel de la Noble Rose), Flemish Veuren, 
now a dull town with 4000 inhab., was formerly of much greater 
importance. The Hotel-de-Ville in the market-place, a Renaissance 
structure of 1596-1612, contains some interesting wall-hangings 
of Spanish leather and two finely-carved "doors. Adjacent is the 
old Chatellenie, now the Palais de Justice, dating from the first half 
of the 17th century. The tall Belfry, ending in a spire, was erected 
in 1624. The Church of St. Walburgis is of very ancient origin ; 
the present building was designed at the beginning of the 14th 



ROSSELAERE. 5. Route. 29 

cent, on so extensive a scale that only the choir, with its radiating 
chapels, has been completed. It contains a Descent from the Cross 
attributed to Pourbus and a reliquary of the 15th cent, (in the 
sacristy). The Church of St. Nicholas , with a huge, unfinished 
tower, dates from the 14th century. — Near Fumes is La Panne, 
a small sea-bathing place. 

The next station, Adinkerke, is the last in Belgium. Ghyvelde 
is the first French station. Then, Zuydcote, Roosendael, Tente- Verte. 

67 M. Dunkirk, French Dunkerque (Grand Hotel; Hotel de 
Flandre; Hdtel de la Paix), a strongly-fortified town with 37,400 
inhab., in the Departement du Nord, was taken by the English in 
1388, by the Spaniards in 1583, again by the English during the 
Protectorate in 1658, and was finally purchased by Louis XIV. from 
Charles II. in 1662. It is now a busy commercial place and fishing- 
station. A considerable English community resides here (English 
church). 

3. From Bruges to Courtrai, 33 M., railway in iy 2 -2 hrs. 
(fares 4 fr. 20, 3 fr. 20, 2 fr. 10 c). The first stations are Lophem 
and Zedelghem. 

11 M. Thourout, see p. 25. 

14 M. Lichtervelde, see p. 28. Then Gits and Beveren. 

19 M. Rosselaere, French Roulers (Due de Brabant), a town 
with 16,800 inhab., high above which rises the handsome Gothic 
tower of the church of St. Michael. Rosselaere carries on a busy trade 
in linen goods. Here, on 13th July, 1794, a fierce conflict took place 
between the Austrians under Clerfait, and the French under Piche- 
gru and Macdonald, in which the latter were victorious. This defeat 
was the prelude to that of Fleurus (p. 179), thirteen days later. 

Branch-line to Ypres (14 M.) in 40 min. (fares 2 fr., 1 fr. 40, 90 c). 
Stations Moorslede-Passchendaele, Zonnebeke, Ypres (p. 2G). 

21 M. Rumbeke possesses a fine Gothic church and a chateau 
of Count de Thiennes. 23Y2 M. Iseghem , with 9000 inhab. , con- 
tains numerous linen-factories. Tobacco is extensively cultivated 
in the environs. Between Iseghem and (26 M.) Ingelmiinster, a 
small town with extensive carpet-manufactories, is the handsome 
chateau of Baron Gille's. — From Ingelmiinster branch-lines diverge 
to Thielt (p. 28) and to Anseghem (p. 31) via. Waereghem. — 28 M. 
Le.ndelede ; 30 M. Heule, the Gothic church of which has a clumsy 
tower. Near Courtrai the train crosses the Ley (or Lys). 

33 M. Courtrai, see p. 49. 

6. From Brussels to Courtrai and Ypres. 

Railway from Brussels to Courtrai, 54 M., in 2-2'/z hrs. (fares b fr. 
60, 4 fr. 95, 3 fr. 35 c. ; express 8 fr. 25, 6 fr. 20 c); from Courtrai to 
Ypres, 21 M., in 1 hr. (fares 2 fr. 70, 2 fr., 1 fr. 35 c). — Departure in 
Brussels from the Oare du Nord (p. 63). 

From Brussels to (15 M.) Denderleeuw, see p. 10. The line 



30 Route 6. OUDENAERDE. 

to Ghent and Ostend (R. 3) here diverges to the N.W., and that 
to Grammont and Ath-Jurbise (p. 61) to the S.W. Our line 
enters E. Flanders, and passes Haeltert, Burst (branch to Alost), 
and Herzeele. 27 M. Sotteghem, a small town of 2900 inhab., with 
several boot and shoe manufactories , is the junction of the Ghent 
and Grammont line (R. 20). A line from Sotteghem to Ellezelles 
(p. 62) is in progress. 

The next stations are Rooborst, Boucle-St.-Denis-Nederzwalm, 
and Eenaeme. 

38y 2 M. Oudenaerde, Fr. Audenarde^Pommed'Or, Grand'Place; 
Saumon, Rue Haute, both near the H6tel-de-Ville ; Hdtel de Bru- 
xelles, with cafe, opposite the station), a very ancient town with 
5700 inhab., situated on the Schelde, possesses considerable manu- 
factories of linen and cotton goods. It was the birthplace of Mar- 
garet of Parma (b. 1522), regent of the Netherlands under Phi- 
lip II., a natural daughter of Emp. Charles V. and Johanna van der 
Gheenst. Under the walls of the town, on 30th June, 1708, the 
Allies commanded by Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy 
gained a decisive victory over the French. An hour should be de- 
voted to a visit to the beautiful H6tel-de-Ville, or town-hall. 

The street to the right, nearly opposite the station, leads in 
10 min. to the centre of the town. At the entrance to the town 
stands a monument in memory of volunteers from Oudenaerde who 
perished in Mexico while serving under Emp. Maximilian, by 
Oeefs, erected in 1867. 

We next reach the Place in which is situated the Town Hall, 
a small, but very elegant building, erected in the late-Gothic style 
by H. van Peede and W. de Ronde in 1525-35, and recently restor- 
ed. The ground-floor consists of a pointed hall borne by columns, 
and above it are two stories with pointed windows. The tower 
which rises from the pointed hall in the centre of the facade is 
particularly rich. It consists of five stories, and is covered with a 
crown-shaped roof. The numerous statuettes with which the build- 
ing was once embellished have all disappeared. "We ascend the 
flight of steps opposite the H6tel Pomme d'Or, leading to the Salle 
des Pas Perdus, which contains a late-Gothic chimney-piece. Pass- 
ing through the door beyond, to the right, we find an attendant 
(50 c), who opens the council-chamber. The portal of this room, 
a masterpiece of wood-carving, was executed by Paul van Schel- 
den in the Renaissance style in 1531 ; the handsome late-Gothic 
chimney-piece dates from 1529. 

In the S.E. corner of the Place, to the right as we quit the 
town-hall, is the Chwreh of St. Walburga, partly in the Roman- 
esque style of the 12th cent., and partly in the Gothic style of the 
14th and 15th, with a handsome tower. 

The church of Notre Dame de Pamele, 8 min. farther to the S., 
on the other bank of the Schelde, an interesting example of the 



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GHENT. 7- Route. 31 

transition-style of the 13th cent., with later additions, is under- 
going restoration. It contains two monuments of the 16th century. 

From Oudenaerde to Ghent or Mons, see p. 48. 

The next stations are Peteghem and Anseghem, the first place 
in West Flanders , whence a branch-line runs to Waereghem and 
Ingelmunster (p. 29). Then Vichte and Deerlyck. 

54 M. Courtrai, see p. 49. 

58Y2 M. Wevelghem. 61 V2 M. Menin, Flem. Meenen, a town on 
the Ley with 11,700 inhab. , once fortified, where the Prussian 
General Scharnhorst (d. 1813) first distinguished himself against 
the French. 65 M. Wervicq , with 7000 inhab. , possesses a num- 
ber of tobacco-manufactories; the Church of St. Medardus dates 
from the middle of the 14th century. The right bank of the Ley 
or Lys here is French territory. — 67 M. Comines, formerly a forti- 
fied town, was the birthplace of the historian Philip of Comines 
(d. 1509). Branch-line hence to Armentieres in France, situated 
on the Lille and Calais railway (comp. p. 28). — 69 M. Houthem. 

75 M. Ypres, see p. 26. 



7. Ghent, French Gand. 

Arrival. Ghent has three railway-stations: 1. Station du Ghemin de 
Fer de VEtat (PI. E, F, 3), for the trains of the government-lines to Brussels, 
Antwerp, Malines, Bruges, Courtrai, and Braine-le-Comte. 2. Station d^An- 
vers (PI. D, E, 1), for the trains through the Waesland to Antwerp 
(B. 10). — 3. Station d'Eecloo (PI. C, D, 1), for the trains to Terneuzen 
(p. 9) and Bruges via Eecloo (p. 10). The last two, adjoining each other, 
are on the N.E. side of the town, 1 M. from the government-station, with 
which, however, the Station d'Eecloo is connected by a loop-line. 

Hotels. "Hotel Royal (PI. b; D, 4), in the Place d'Armes, R. 3, 
D. 4 fr.; ''Hotel de la Poste (PI. c; D, 4), Place d'Armes 13, R. from 
2'/2. L. 1/2, A. 3 /i, B - V«i D - ifr -> Hotel de Vienne (PI. a; C, 3), in the 
Marche-aux-Grains, R. from 2'/2, B. I1/2 fr., table d'hote at 1.30 p.m. 3 fr., 
at 5 p.m. 4 fr. — Hotel de l'Etoile (PI. e; C, 3), Rue de l'Etoile 27, near 
the Marche-aux-Grains ; Hotel du Hon d'Or (PI. g; G, 3), Place du Lion 
d'Or 9 ; Hotel d'Allemagne, Marche-aux-Grains, unpretending, well spoken 
of, R. & B. 3, D. 2 fr. — At the Government Station : Gkand Cour Royale, 
Rue de la Station 3 ; Cour d'Autriche, opposite the station, etc. 

Restaurants. Mottez, Avenue Place d'Armes 3 ; Bouard, Rue Courte de 
la Croix 2, near the cathedral ; Rocher de Cancale, corner of the Marche- 
aux-Oiseaux and the Rue Courte du Jour ('plat du jour', 75 c); Taverne 
St. Jean, Marche-aux-Oiseaux 2 ; Taverne du Thddtre, opposite the Theatre, 
at the corner of the Place d'Armes. — "Cafi des Arcades (PI. h; D, 3), in 
the Place d'Armes; Cafe' Royal, in the Theatre (see below), etc. Uylzet, 
a kind of strong beer brewed in Ghent, is famous. 

Cabs per drive 1 fr. ; first hour l'/s, each following hour 1 fr. ; after 
11 p.m., per drive l 1 /* fr. — Tramway, see Plan. 

Theatre (PI. 42), adjoining the Place d'Armes. Boxes and stalls 4, 
parquet 2V2, pit 1 fr. Performances in winter only. Flemish Theatre or 
Schouwlmrg (PI. 43), Rue St. Pierre. 

Post and Telegraph Office (PI. 40; D, 4), adjoining the Theatre, and 
opposite the Palais de Justice. 

English Church in the Rue Digue de Brabant ; services at 11 and 7. 

American Consul, Mr. C. T. Wilson. 

Principal Attractions: Cathedral (p. 34), view from Belfry (p. 39); 



32 Route 7. GHENT. History. 

H6tel-de-Ville, exterior only (p. 40) ; Marche du Vendredi (p. 40), March^- 
aux-Herbes, Marche-aux-Grains (p. 42), Beguinages (p. 47). 

Ghent, the capital of E. Flanders, with 131,500 inhab, lies on 
the Sckelde and the Ley (Lys), as well as on the insignificant Lieve 
aniMoere, which flow through the city in numerous arms. The city 
is of considerable extent, being upwards of 6 M. in circumference, 
and covering an area of 5750 acres, part of which, however, is 
occupied with gardens and bleaching-grounds. A canal, originally 
constructed in order to protect the town from inundations, 11 yds. 
in width, and 16 ft. in depth, and falling into the Schelde at Ter- 
neuzen (p. 9), connects the city with the sea, but since the se- 
paration of Belgium from Holland has been comparatively little used 
on account of the heavy imposts levied by the latter on vessels 
passing through. Another canal connects the Ley with the canal 
from Bruges to Ostend. Corn, rape-oil, and flax are important 
articles of commerce, but the commodities for which Ghent has 
long been famous are cotton and linen goods and lace. Of late years 
its engine-factories have become considerable. 

Ghent is mentioned in history as early as the 7th century. At 
the beginning of the 13th cent., when the County of Artois was 
united to France, Ghent became the capital of Flanders and the 
usual residence of the Counts. At a very early period a spirit of 
independence developed itself among the inhabitants, more especi- 
ally the weavers ; and they succeeded in obtaining from their 
sovereigns those concessions which form the foundation of consti- 
tutional liberty. At one period the citizens had become so power- 
ful and warlike that they succeeded in repulsing an English army 
of 24,000 men, under Edward I. (1297), and a few years later 
they were the principal combatants in the 'Battle of Spurs' (p. 50), 
to the issue of which their bravery mainly contributed. Their sub- 
jection to the Counts of Flanders and the Dukes of Burgundy 
appears to have been little more than nominal ; for whenever these 
princes attempted to levy a tax which was unpopular with the 
citizens, the latter sounded their alarm-bell, flew to arms, and ex- 
pelled the obnoxious officials appointed to exact payment. On these 
occasions the citizens , who were always provided with arms , wore 
white bandages on their arms , or white caps , as a species of 
revolutionary badge. During the 13th, 14th, and 15th centuries 
revolutions seem almost to have been the order of the day at Ghent. 
John of Gaunt (d. 1399) was born here. 

One of the most remarkable characters of his age was Jacques 
Van Artevelde, the celebrated 'Brewer of Ghent' fborn 1290), a 
clever and ambitious demagogue, who, though of noble family, is 
said to have caused himself to be enrolled as a member of the Guild 
of Brewers in order to ingratiate himself with the lower classes. 
Owing to his wealth, ability, and remarkable eloquence, he acquired 
immense influence, and in 1337 was appointed ' Ruwaerd' or Pro- 
tector, of Flanders. He was an ally of Edward III. in the war 



History. GHENT. 7. Route. 33 

between England and France (1335-45), in which the democratic 
party of Ghent supported the former, and the Counts of Flanders 
the latter ; and it is recorded that Edward condescended to flatter 
him by the title of 'dear gossip'. For seven years Artevelde 
reigned supreme at Ghent, putting to death all who had the mis- 
fortune to displease him, banishing the nobles and those who 
betrayed symptoms of attachment to their sovereign, and appoint- 
ing magistrates who were the mere slaves of his will. Artevelde 
at length proposed that the son of Edward should be elected Count 
of Flanders, a scheme so distasteful to the Ghenters that an insur- 
rection broke out, and Jacques was slain in his own house (Ka- 
landerberg No. 19, between the Place d'Armes and the Cathedral, 
marked by an inscription in French), 17th July, 1345, by Gerard 
Denys, the leader of his opponents. During this period, in conse- 
quence of the alliance with Ghent, the manufacture of wool became 
more extensively known and practised in England. Ghent also rea- 
lised vast profits from its English trade, a circumstance which in- 
duced the citizens to submit so long to the despotic rule of Jacques, 
to whom they owed their advantageous connection with England. 

Philip Van Artevelde, son of Jacques, and godson of Queen 
Philippa of England, possessed all the ambition but little of the 
talent of his father. He was appointed dictator by the democratic 
party in 1381, during the civil war against Count Louis of Flan- 
ders, surnamed 'van Maele', and his administration was at first 
salutary and judicious, but he soon began to act with all the caprice 
of a despot. In 1381, when Ghent was reduced to extremities by 
famine, and the citizens had resolved to surrender, Philip counselled 
them to make a final venture, rather than submit to the humiliating 
conditions offered by the Count. He accordingly marched at the 
head of 5000 men to Bruges, and signally defeated Louis, who 
sallied forth to meet them. Elated by this success, Philip now 
assumed the title of Regent of Flanders, and established himself at 
Ghent in a style of great magnificence. His career, however, was 
brief. In 1383 war again broke out, chiefly owing to the impolitic 
and arrogant conduct of Philip himself, and Charles VI. of France 
marched against Flanders. Philip was soon afterwards defeated and 
slain at the disastrous Battle of Roosebeke, where 20,000 Flemings 
are said to have perished. The city was obliged to submit to the 
Count, and after his death came into the possession of Burgundy. 

The turbulent spirit of the Ghenters ultimately proved their 
ruin. In 1448, when Philippe le Bon of Burgundy imposed a heavy 
tax on salt, they openly declared war against him ; and the best 
proof of the vastness of their resources is that they succeeded in 
carrying on the war for a period of five years (1448-53). The day 
of retribution and humiliation, however, at length arrived, and the 
burghers, brave but undisciplined, were compelled to succumb. 
On 23rd July, 1453, they were defeated at Gavre on the Schelde, 

Baedeker's Belgium and Holland. 7th Edit. 3 



34 Route 7. GHENT. Cathedral. 

and lost no fewer than 16,000 men. Philip now levied enormous 
contributions on the city ; the corporation and principal citizens 
were compelled to maTch out at the gate with halters round their 
necks , and to kiss the dust at the feet of their master and con- 
queror ; and the most valuable privileges of the city were suspended 
or cancelled. A complete stagnation of commerce was the dis- 
astrous consequence of this war. 

In the year 1400 Ghent is said to have boasted of 80,000 men 
capable of bearing arms; the weavers alone, 40,000 in number, 
could furnish 18,000 fighting men from their guild. A bell was 
rung several times daily to summon the weavers to their work and 
their meals ; and as long as it continued to ring no vessels were 
permitted to pass the drawbridges, and no one ventured into the 
streets lest they should encounter the vast living stream which was 
hurrying in every direction. The same peal is rung to this day, 
but the times have changed in all other respects. 

In 1477 the nuptials of the Archduke Maximilian were celebrated 
at Ghent with Mary of Burgundy, heiress of Charles the Bold, who 
by her marriage brought the wealthy Netherlands into the power of 
Austria (see p. 16). Here, too, on 24th Feb., 1500, the Emperor 
Charles V- was born in the Cour des Princes, a palace of the Counts 
of Flanders long since destroyed, but the name of which survives 
in a street (see p. 45). During his reign Ghent was one of the 
largest and wealthiest cities in Europe, and consisted of 35,000 
houses with a population of 175,000 souls. Charles V. is said to have 
boasted jestingly to Francis I. of France : ' Je mettrai voire Paris 
dans mon Oand\ The turbulent spirit of the citizens having again 
manifested itself in various ebullitions, the emperor caused a Citadel 
(Het Spanjaerds Kasteel) to be erected near the Antwerp Gate in 
1540, for the purpose of keeping them in check. No trace of the 
structure now remains. Counts Egmont and Hoorne were im- 
prisoned in this castle in 1568 for several months before their 
execution. Within its precincts lay the ancient Abbey of St. 
Bavon, of which Eginhard, secretary and son-in-law of Charle- 
magne, is said once to have been abbot. The ruins of the Chapel 
of St. Macaire, which was connected with the abbey, and dates 
from the 12th cent., are interesting to architects. The moats of the 
old citadel have recently been filled up, and the remains of the 
ramparts removed in order to make room for new streets. 

The "Cathedral of St. Bavon, or Sint Baefs (PI. 16 ; D, 3), ex- 
ternally a cumbrous and unattractive Gothic structure, is in the 
interior one of the most richly - decorated churches in Belgium. 
The crypt was consecrated in 941, the W. portions about 1228; 
the choir was founded in 1274, and completed in 1300; the late- 
Gothic chapels date from the 15th cent. ; and the nave and transept 
were completed in 1533-54. During the same century it suf- 
fered severely from Puritanical outrages. 



Cathedral. GHENT. 7. Route. 35 

The Interior is of noble proportions, and rests on massive 
square pillars with projecting half-columns. (The Cathedral is open 
for the inspection of its art-treasures from 10 a. m. ; between 12 
and 4 admission is obtained by knocking loudly on the side-door 
to the left of the principal entrance ; fee to the sacristan who opens 
the chapels, 1 fr. for each person.) 

On the walls of the Nave are the names and armorial bearings 
of Knights of the Golden Fleece, the last chapter of which was held 
here by Philip II. in 1559. The Pulpit, by Delvaux, half in oak, 
half in marble, represents the Tree of Life, with an allegory of 
Time and Truth. 

North Aisle. 1 st Chapel : Rombouts, Descent from the Cross ; 
A. Janssens, Pieta. — The 3rd Chapel is embellished with taste- 
ful modern ornamentation in the Gothic style. — 4th : De Crayer, 
Assumption. A marble slab opposite records the names of the 
priests who refused to recognise Bishop Lebrun, appointed by Na- 
poleon in 1813. 

Transept. To the right and left of the entrance to the choir are 
statues of the Apostles by C. van Poueke, 1782. The N. arm con- 
tains the font in which Charles V. was baptised in 1500. — Ten 
steps lead up to the choir. 

S. Aisle. 1st Chapel: O. de Crayer, Beheading of John the Bap- 
tist (1657). 3rd, behind the pulpit: De Cauwer, Baptism of Christ. 

Choir. The walls are partly covered with black marble, and 
the balustrades are of white or variegated marble. The high-altar is 
adorned with a Statue of St. Bavon in his ducal robes, hovering 
among the clouds, by Verbruggen (17th cent.). The choir-stalls are 
of carved mahogany. The scenes in grisaille from the Old and New 
Testament are by Van Reysschoot (1774). The four massive copper 
Candlesticks bearing the English arms are believed once to have de- 
corated St. Paul's in London, and to have been sold during the Pro- 
tectorate of Cromwell. On each side of the choir, adjoining the 
altar, are two monuments to bishops, with large sculptures of the 
17th and 18th cent., the best of them being that of Bishop A. Triest 
by Duquesnoy, the first to the left. 

Retro-Choir, beginning by the S. transept. 1st Chapel : *Pour- 
bus , Christ among the doctors ; most of the heads are portraits : 
left, near the frame Alva, Charles V., Philip II., and the master him- 
self; on the inner wings the Baptism and Circumcision, on the 
outer the Saviour and the donor of the picture, 1571. — 2nd : Mon- 
ument to the brothers Goethals, by Parmentier, 1846. — 3rd : Ge- 
rard van der Meire (p. xlii), Christ between the malefactors, with 
Moses striking water from the rock and the Raising of the brazen 
serpent on the wings, the whole of mediocre merit. — By the choir- 
screen, monument of Bishop Van Srnet (A. 1741). — 4th and 5th : 
Nothing worthy of note. — We now ascend the steps. 

6th : **Jan and Hubert van Eyck, Adoration of the Immaculate 

3* 



36 Route 7. GHENT. Cathedral. 

Lamb, ' prsestantissima tabula, qua representatur triumphus Agni 
Dei, etsi quidam improprie dicunt Adami et Evse, opus sane prae- 
clarum et admirandum' {Guicciardini, 1560 ; comp. also p. xl). This 
work originally consisted of twelve sections, but has been dismem- 
bered , and is in part only in its original place, the wings being 
now, with the exception of the Adam and Eve (at Brussels, p. 79), 
in the gallery of Berlin. 

'In the centre of the altarpiece, and on a panel which overtops all 
the others, the noble and dignified figure of Christ sits enthroned in the 
prime of manhood with a short black beard, a broad forehead, and black 
eyes. On his head is the white tiara, ornamented with a profusion of 
diamonds , pearls, and amethysts. Two dark lappets fall on either side 
of the grave and youthful face. The throne of black damask is em- 
broidered with gold; the tiara relieved on a golden ground covered with 
inscriptions in semicircular lines. Christ holds in his left hand a sceptre 
of splendid workmanship, and with two fingers of his right he gives his 
blessing to the world. The gorgeous red mantle which completely 
enshrouds his form is fastened at the breast by a large jewelled brooch. 
The mantle itself is bordered with a double row of pearls and amethysts. 
The feet rest on a golden pedestal, carpeted with black, and on the dark 
ground, which is cut into perspective squares by lines of gold, lies a 
richly-jewelled open-worked crown, emblematic of martyrdom. This 
figure of the Redeemer is grandly imposing; the mantle, though laden 
with precious stones, in obedience to a somewhat literal interpretation 
of Scripture, falls from the shoulders and over the knee to the feet in 
ample and simple folds. The colour of the flesh is powerful, brown, 
and glowing, and full of vigour, that of the vestments strong and rich. 
The hands are well drawn, perhaps a little contracted in the muscles, 
but still of startling realism. — On the right of Christ the Virgin sits 
in her traditional robe of blue ; her long fair hair, bound to the forehead 
by a diadem, flowing in waves down her shoulders. With most graceful 
hands she holds a book, and pensively looks with a placid and untroubled 
eye into space. On the left of the Eternal, St. John the Baptist rests, 
long-haired and bearded, austere in expression, splendid in form, and 
covered with a broad, flowing, green drapery. On the spectator's right 
of St. John the Baptist, St. Cecilia, in a black brocade, plays on an 
oaken organ supported by three or four angels with viols or harps. On 
the left of the Virgin a similar but less beautiful group of singing 
choristers standing in front of an oaken desk, the foremost of them dressed 
in rich and heavy red brocade. (Van Mander declares that the angels 
who sing are so artfully done that we mark the difference of keys 
in which their voices are pitched.) — On the spectator's right of St. 
Cecilia once stood the naked figure of Eve, now removed to the Brussels 
museum — a figure upon which the painter seems to have concentrated 
all his knowledge of perspective as applied to the human form and its 
anatomical development. Counterpart to Eve, and once on the left side 
of the picture, Adam is equally remarkable for correctness of proportion 
and natural realism. Here again the master's science in optical perspective 
is conspicuous, and the height of the figure above the eye is fitly con- 
sidered. (Above the figures of Adam and Eve are miniature groups of 
the sacrifices of Cain and Abel and the death of Abel.).' 

'Christ, by his position, presides over the sacrifice of the Lamb as 
represented in the lower panels of the shrine. The scene of the sacrifice 
is laid in a landscape formed of green hills receding in varied and 
pleasing lines from the foreground to the extreme distance. A Flemish 
city, meant, no doubt, to represent Jerusalem, is visible chiefly in the 
background to the right; but churches and monasteries, built in the 
style of the early edifices of the Netherlands and Rhine country boldly 
raise their domes and towers above every part of the horizon and are 
sharply defined on a sky of pale grey gradually merging into' a deeper 



Cathedral. GHENT. 7. Route. 37 

hue. The trees, which occupy the middle ground, are not of high growth, 
nor are they very different in colour from the undulating meadows in 
which they stand. They are interspersed here and there with cypresses, 
and on the left is a small date-palm. The centre of the picture is all 
meadow and green slope, from a foreground strewed with daisies and 
dandelions to the distant blue hills." 

'In the very centre of the picture a square altar is hung with red 
damask and covered with white cloth. Here stands a lamb, from whose 
breast a stream of blood issues into a crystal glass. Angels kneel round 
the altar with parti-coloured wings and variegated dresses, many of them 
praying with joined hands, others holding aloft the emblems of the pas- 
sion, two in front waving censers. From a slight depression of the 
ground to the right, a little behind the altar, a numerous band of female 
saints is issuing, all in rich and varied costumes, fair hair floating over 
their shoulders , and palms in their hands •, foremost may be noticed St. 
Barbara with the tower and St. Agnes. From a similar opening on the 
left, popes , cardinals , bishops , monks , and minor clergy advance , some 
holding croziers and crosses, other palms. This, as it were, forms one 
phase of the adoration. In the centre near the base of the picture a 
small octagonal fountain of stone, with an iron jet and tiny spouts, 
projects a stream into a rill , whose pebbly bottom is seen through the 
pellucid water. The fountain and the altar, with vanishing points on 
different horizons, prove the Van Eycks to have been unacquainted with 
the science of linear perspective. Two distinct groups are in adoration 
on each side of the fountain. That on the right comprises the twelve 
apostles, in light greyish violet cloaks kneeling bare-footed on the sward, 
with long hair and beards, expressing in their noble faces the intensity 
of their faith. On their right stands a gorgeous array of three popes, 
two cardinal monks, seven bishops, and a miscellaneous crowd of church 
and laymen. The group on the left of the fountain is composed of kings 
and princes in various costumes, the foremost of them kneeling, the rest 
standing, none finer than that of a dark bearded man in a red cloth cap 
stepping forward in full front towards the spectator, dressed in a dark 
blue mantle, and holding a sprig of myrtle. The whole of the standing 
figures command prolonged attention from the variety of the attitudes 
and expressions, the stern resolution of some, the eager glances of others, 
the pious resignation and contemplative serenity of the remainder. The 
faithful who have thus reached the scene of the sacrifice are surrounded 
by a perfect wilderness of flowering shrubs , lilies , and other beautiful 
plants, and remain in quiet contemplation of the Lamb.' 

'Numerous worshippers besides are represented on the wings of the 
triptych , moving towards the place of worship. On the left is a band 
of crusaders, the foremost of whom, on a dapple grey charger, is clad in 
armour with an undercoat of green slashed stuff, a crown of laurel on 
his brow, and a lance in his hand. On his left two knights are riding, 
also in complete armour, one on a white, the other on a brown charger, 
carrying lances with streamers. Next to the third figure, a nobleman in 
a fur cap bestrides an ass, whose ears appear above the press; on his 
left a crowned monarch on a black horse; behind them a crowd of kings 
and princes. In rear of them, and in the last panel to the left, Hubert 
Van Eyck with long brown hair , in a dark cap , the fur peak of which 
is turned up, ambles forward on a spirited white pony. He is dressed 
in blue velvet lined with grey fur; his saddle has long green housings. 
In the same line with him two riders are mounted on sorrel nags, and 
next them again a man in a black turban and dark brown dress trimmed 
with fur, whom historians agree in calling John Van Eyck. The face is 
turned towards Hubert, and therefore away from the direction taken by 
the cavalcade; further in rear are several horsemen. The two groups 
proceed along a sandy path , which yields under the horses' hoofs , and 
seems to have been formed by the detritus of a block of stony ground 
rising perpendicularly behind , on each side of which the view extends 
to a rich landscape, with towns and churches in the distance on one 
hand, and a beautiful vista of blue and snow mountains on the other. 



38 Route 7. UUJSJNT. Cathedral. 

White fleecy clouds float in the sky. There is not to be found in the whole 
Flemish school a picture in which human figures are grouped, designed, 
or painted with so much perfection as in this of the mystic Lamb. Nor 
is it possible to find a more complete or better distributed composition, 
more natural attitudes, or more dignified expression. Nowhere in the 
pictures of the early part of the 15th century can such airy landscape 
be met. Nor is the talent of the master confined to the appropriate 
representation of the human form, his skill extends alike to the brute 
creation. The horses, whose caparisons are of the most precious kind, 
are admirably drawn and in excellent movement. One charger stretches 
his neck to lessen the pressure of the bit; another champs the curb 
with Flemish phlegma; a third throws his head down between his fore 
legs; the pony ridden by Hubert Van Eyck betrays a natural fire, and 
frets under the restraint put upon it.' 

'On the right side of the altarpiece we see a noble band of ascetics 
with tangled hair and beards and deep complexions, dressed in frock 
and cowl , with staves and rosaries , moving round the base of a rocky 
bank , the summit of which is wooded and interspersed with palms and 
orange trees. Two female saints, one of them the Magdalene, bring up 
the rear of the hermit band, which moves out of a grove of orange trees 
with glossy leaves and yellow fruit. In the next panel to the right, and 
in a similar landscape, St. Christopher, pole in hand, in a long red cloak 
of inelegant folds , overtops the rest of his companions — pilgrims with 
grim and solemn faces. Here a palm and a cypress are painted with 
surprising fidelity.' 

'The altarpiece, when closed, has not the all-absorbing interest of 
its principal scenes when open. It is subdivided first into two parts, in 
the upper portion of which is the Annunciation, in the lower the portraits 
of Jodocus Vydts and his wife , and imitated statues of St. John the 
Baptist and St. John the Evangelist. In the semicircular projection of 
the upper central panel are the Sibyls, whilst half figures of Zachariah 
and Micah are placed in the semicircles above the annunciate angel and 
Virgin. With the exception of Jodocus and his wife and the Annun- 
ciation, the whole of this outer part of the panels may have been executed 
under supervision by the pupils of the Van Eycks/ — Crowe <fc Cavalcaselle. 
The Early Flemish Painters. 2nd Ed. 1872. 

This work, the most extensive and imposing of the Flemish 
School, has undergone various vicissitudes. Philip II. endeavoured 
to obtain possession of it, but at length was obliged to be satisfied 
with a copy executed for him by Coxie. In 1566 it was with 
difficulty rescued from Puritanical outrage, and in 1641 saved from 
dangeT of burning. An expression of disapproval by the Emp. 
Joseph II., in 1784, regarding the nude figures of Adam and Eve 
induced the churchwardens to keep the picture under lock and key. 
In 1794 it was taken to Paris, and when it was restored in 1815 
the central pictures only were replaced in their original positions, 
while the wings were ignorantly, or from avaricious motives, sold 
to a dealer, from whom they were purchased by the museum of Berlin 
for 410,000fr. The two wings with Adam and Eve were kept con- 
cealed at Ghent, as being unsuitable for a church, down to 1861, 
when they were removed to the museum at Brussels in return for 
copies of the wings. The work was begun by Hubert van Eyck for 
Jodocus Vydts, an important patrician of Ghent, and his wife Isa- 
bella Burluut, about the year 1420, and finished by John in 1432. 

The share which each of the brothers took in this work cannot 
be precisely ascertained. The central piece, and the figures of 



Belfry. GHENT. 7. Route. 39 

God the Father, Mary, John, Adam, and Eve, are usually attributed 
to Hubert, and the rest of the work to his brother. 

7th Chapel: Honthorst, Christ on the Cross; at the side, De 
Crayer , Crucifixion. — 8th: Monument of Bishops Ph. E. and 
A. van der Noot, of the 18th cent., with a Scourging of Christ and 
a Virgin, by Helderenberg and Verschaffelt. — 9th. The altarpiece, 
representing the so-called Betrothal of St. Catherine with the Infant 
Christ, and the Virgin with the holy women, is by Roose, surnamed 
Liemaeckere. — 10th : *Rubens, St. Bavon renounces his military 
career in order to assume the cowl. The figure of the saint is said 
to represent the master himself in the upper part of the picture, 
where he is received on the steps of the church by a priest, after 
having distributed all his property among the poor. To the left are 
two women, said to be portraits of the two wives of Rubens, both in 
the costume of that period ; one of them appears to be disengaging 
a chain from her neck, as if she would follow the example of the 
saint. At the altar : O. Vaenius, Raising of Lazarus, adjoining which 
is the monument of Bishop Damant (d. 1609). — We now descend 
the steps to visit the rest of the chapels, which, however, contain 
little of special merit except M. Coxie's Seven Works of Mercy (in 
the 15th and last). 

Of the Crypt beneath the choir the W. parts only, resting on 
low pillars, belong to the original structure, which was consecrated 
in 941. The E. part, with its numerous chapels, is Gothic. 
Hubert van Eyck and his sister Margaret are said to be buried here. 

The Tower (446 steps) affords a fine prospect, similar to that 
from the Belfry (fee 2fr. for 1-4 persons). 

The Episcopal Palace is a modern building on the E. side of 
the Church. 

The Belfry [Belfrood, or Beffroi ; PI. 4 ; D, 3), a lofty square tower 
which has attained two-thirds only of the projected height, rises near 
the cathedral, almost in the centre of the city, of which it commands 
a fine panorama. In 1839-53 it was provided with an iron spire. 
According to a note written upon the original design, which is pre- 
served in the city archives, the construction was begun in 1183 ; in 
1339 the works were suspended. Etymologists differ as to the 
origin of the word 'belfrood' or belfry, but the most probable 
derivation is from bell (Dutch bellen , to sound, to ring) and frood 
or fried (jurisdiction). One of the first privileges usually obtained 
by the burghers from their feudal lords was permission to erect 
one of these watch or bell-towers , from which peals were rung on 
all important occasions to summon the people to council or to arms. 

The concierge, who accompanies visitors to the top of the tower 
(1 pers. 1 fr., more for a party), lives in the tower itself, entrance 
in the St. Jansstraat. The third gallery, at a height of 270 ft., is 
reached by 386 steps ; the total height to the point of the spire is 
375 ft. The staircase is dark and rather steep. The spire is sur- 



40 Route 7. GHENT. Marche du Vendredi. 

mounted by a vane, consisting of a gilded dragon, 10 ft. in length, 
which was taken by Count Baldwin VIII. from the chuTch of St. So- 
phia at Constantinople in 1204, and presented to the Ghenters. 

The "View embraces a great portion of Flanders, as well as an ad- 
mirable survey of the city. When the Duke of Alva proposed to Charles 
V. that he should destroy the city which had occasioned him so much 
annoyance, the monarch is said to have taken him to the top of the 
belfry, and there to have replied: 'Combien faudrait-il de peaux d'Espagne 
pour /aire un Gant de cetle grandeur?' — thus rejecting the cruel sug- 
gestion of his minister. 

The mechanism of the Chimes may be examined at the top of the 
tower. They are played by means of a cylinder, like that in a barrel- 
organ, the spikes on which set the tongues and hammers of the bells in 
motion. They may also be played by a musician who uses an apparatus 
resembling the keyboard and pedal of an organ. The tower contains 
44 bells. A hole in one of them was made by a cannon-ball fired at the 
belfry by the Austrians from the old citadel in 1789, in order to prevent 
the citizens from ringing the alarm. The ball did not miss its aim, but 
failed to effect its purpose, for the tone of the bell continued unimpaired. 
One of the oldest and heaviest bells, which was recast in 1659, bears the 
inscription: '■Myn naem is Roeland; als ick hlippe dan, is't brandt; als ick 
luyde, dan is't storm in Vlaenderland" (My name is Roland; when I am 
rung hastily, then there is a fire; when I resound in peals, there is a 
storm in Flanders). 

All unfinished Gothic building in the Rue St. Jean , adjoining 
the Belfry, erected in 1325, and formerly the Cloth Hall, is archi- 
tecturally worthy of notice. 

The lower part of the Belfry, used as a town-prison, is called 
'Mammelokker', a Flemish word applied to the colossal statue over 
the entrance to the place of the H6tel-de-Ville , representing a 
woman giving sustenance from her own breast to an old man in chains 
at her feet, and expressive of the filial act she is performing ('Chariti 
Romaine'). The portal and figures belong to the 18th century. 

In the same place is situated the *H6tel-de-Ville (PI. 32; 
C, D, 3) , which consists of two entirely-different parts. The pic- 
turesque facade towards the Rue Haut-Port, constructed in 1481- 
1533, in the florid-Gothic (Flamboyant) style, from designs by 
Dominicw van Waghemakere and Romboudt Keldermans , was 
restored in 1829, and again quite recently; it is perhaps the most 
beautiful piece of Gothic architecture in Belgium. The E. facade, 
towards the market-place, with its three tiers of columns, was con- 
structed in 1595-1628, in the Renaissance style. The 'Pacification 
of Ghent', a treaty drawn up by a congress of the Confederates who 
assembled here in 1576 with a view to expel the Spaniards from the 
Netherlands, was signed in the throne-room. In the lofty Council 
Chamber, now the Salle des Manages, are some modern paintings 
and portraits of Austrian princes. The Archives are very important 
containing documents reaching back to the 13th century 

Opposite the N. facade of the H6tel-de-Ville is the Rue des 
Grainiers, ending in the Rue Basse, which we cross obliouelv 
to the Rue du Serpent, leading to the *Marche du Vendredi 
(Vrydagmarhet; PI. C, 3), an extensive square, surrounded by 



St. Jacques. GHENT. 7. Route. 41 

antiquated buildings. The most important events in the history 
of Ghent have taken place here. Homage was here done to 
the Counts of Flanders on their accession , in a style of magni- 
ficence unknown at the present day, alter they had sworn , ' all 
de bestaende wetten , voorregten , vryheeden en gewoonten van't 
graefschap en van de stad Gent te onderhouden en te doen onder- 
liouden' (to maintain and cause to be maintained all the existing 
laws, privileges, freedoms, and customs of the county and city 
of Ghent}. Here the members of the mediaeval guilds, ' ces tetes 
dures de Flandre 1 , as Charles V. termed his countrymen, frequently 
assembled to avenge some real or imaginary infringement of their 
rights, and here the standard of revolt was invariably erected. One 
of the most disastrous civic broils took place here in 1341, when 
Gerard Denys at the head of his party, which consisted chiefly of 
weavers, attacked his opponents the fullers with such fury that 
even the elevation of the host failed to separate the combatants, of 
whom upwards of 500 were slain. Jacques van Artevelde, the 
famous 'Brewer of Ghent' (see p. 32), then in power, was after- 
wards assassinated by Denys. This fatal day was subsequently 
entered in the civic calendar as ' Kwaede Maendag ' (Wicked 
Monday). Under the rule of the Duke of Alva his auto-da-fe's 
were enacted in the Marche du Vendredi , and many thousand 
Ghenters were then compelled to emigrate, thus leaving the city half 
untenanted. A statue of Charles V. stood here down to 1796, 
when it was destroyed by the French sansculottes. It is now re- 
placed by a bronze (Statue of Jacques van Artevelde (PI. 41), over 
life-size, executed in bronze by Devigne-Quyo, and erected in 1863. 
The powerful demagogue is represented fully accoutred, in the act 
of delivering the celebrated speech in which he succeeded in per- 
suading the citizens of Ghent and the inhabitants of Flanders to 
enter into an alliance with England against the will of the Count of 
Artois. The three reliefs on the pedestal have reference to the 
three most important treaties concluded by Artevelde in behalf of 
Flanders. — A view of the principal towers of the city is obtained 
from the N. side of the market. The Pont du Laitage (p. 44) lies 
to the N.W. of this point. 

At the corner of a street on the W. side of the Marche' du Ven- 
dredi is placed a huge cannon , called the ' Dulle Griete ' (Mad 
Meg), 19 ft. long and 11 ft. in circumference (resembling 'Mons 
Meg', a similar cannon cast at Mons, and now in the Castle of 
Edinburgh). Above the touch-hole is the Burgundian Cross of 
St. Andrew, with the arms of Philippe le Bon ; the piece must there- 
fore have been cast between 1419 and 1467. 

At the back of the E. side of the Marche du Vendredi rises the 
Church of St. Jacques (PI. 20; C, 2, 3), said to have been founded 
in 1100. The present edifice dates from the end of the 15th or 
beginning of the 16th cent., but the towers are perhaps older. 



42 Route 7. GHENT. St. Michael's Church. 

The Interior, which has recently been restored, contains several pic- 
tures by Jan van Cleef. In the left aisle are two paintings by G. de 

Crayer : Members of the Order of the Trinity ransoming Christian captives, 
and the Virgin. In the right aisle is the Departure of the youthful To- 
bias, by Jan Maes-Canini. The two pictures of Apostles in the choii 
are by Van Huffel. Near the pulpit is a statue of the Apostle James bj 

Van Poucke. 

The Botanic Garden {Plantentuin, PI. 33 ; C, 2), in the im- 
mediate vicinity, is the finest in Belgium. (The entrance is at 
No. 21 Rue St. Georges, a street traversed by the tramway-cars 
running to the Antwerp Gate.) It was founded in 1797, and is 
commonly known as the Baudeloohof. The hot-houses are extensive. 
— The suppressed Baudeloo Monastery contains the University 
Library (100,000 vols. ; 700 MSS., some of them very rare). The 
reading-room is open to the public. 

In the Makche-atjx-Ghains (PI. C, 3) rises the Church of St. 
Nicholas (PI. 24), the oldest in Ghent. It was founded in the 10th 
cent., hut the greater paTt of the present building, which in the 
main is in the early-Gothic style, probably dates from the beginning 
of the 15th century. The ten turrets on the lower tower have given 
rise to the 'bon mot' : ' L'eglise a onze tours et dix sans (same 
pronunciation as cents) cloches'. 

The Interior has been modernised. Most of its venerable treasures 
of art disappeared from the church during the religious wars and the 
wild excesses of the iconoclasts, but have been partly replaced by 
modern works. High-altarpiece by N. Roose (Liemaeckere), Call of St. Ni- 
cholas to the episcopal office. 2nd Chapel, to the right: Maes-Canini, 
Madonna and Child with St. John. 3rd Chapel, on the left : Steyaerl, 
Preaching of St. Anthony. An inscription under a small picture on an 
opposite pillar in the nave records that Oliver Minjau and his wife are 
buried here, l ende hadden tezamen een en dertich kinderen? (i.e., they had 
together one-and-thirty children). When Emp. Charles V. entered Ghent, 
the father with twenty-one sons who had joined the procession attracted 
his attention. Shortly afterwards, however, the whole family was carried 
off by the plague. — The other pictures include specimens by J. van 
Cleef and Van den Heuvel. The stained glass in the windows of the choir 
is by Capronnier and Laroche, 1851. 

On the Oarslei, or Quai-aux-Herbes (PI. C, 3, 4), behind theW. 
side of the Corn Market, there are several interesting old buildings. 
The handsome Skipper House (No. 15) was erected in 1531 by the 
Guild of the Skippers. 

St. Michael's Church (PI. 23 ; C, 4), a handsome Gothic edifice 
begun in 1445 (nave completed 1480, tower unfinished), was em- 
ployed in 1794 as a ' Temple of Reason', and lost most of its trea- 
sures of art at that period. The pictures which it now contains are, 
with the exception of a few by Van Dyck, De Crayer, etc., pro- 
ductions of the first half of the present century. The modern 
stained-glass windows are by Capronnier. (Sacristan 1 fr., more 
for a party.) 

N. Aisle, first entered in approaching from the bridge : 4th Chapel : 
Vaenius, Raising of Lazarus. 2nd : De Crayer, St. Bernhard, St. Joseph, 
and St. George worshipping the Trinity. 1st: Van Balen, Assumption. 



Oudeburg. GHENT. 7. Route. 43 

— The 'Pulpit by Franck, 1746, a masterpiece of taste and execution, rests 
on the trunk of a fig-tree in marble; Christ healing a blind man forms 
the principal group below ; the staircase railings are of mahogany. — 
South Aisle. 3rd Chapel : Model of the tower as originally designed. Van 
Bockhorsl, Conversion of St. Hubert. 

S. Transept. Francois, Ascension; Lens, Annunciation. 

N. Transept: - Van Dyck's celebrated Crucifixion, said to have been 
painted for this church in six weeks, for 800 fl. A horseman extends the 
sponge to the Saviour with his spear ; John and the Marie3 below, weep- 
ing angels above. Paelinclc, Finding of the Cross by the Empress Helena. 

Choir. To the right, 2nd Chapel: Van der Plaelsen, The Pope ex- 
horting Louis XI. to submit to the will of God, painted in 1838; Spagno- 
letlo, St. Francis. 3rd : "Be Grayer, Assumption of St. Catherine, one of 
the master's best works. 4th: Ph. de Champaigne, Pope Gregory teaching 
choristers to sing. 5th: Van Mander, St. Sebastian and S. Carlo Borromeo. 
6th, at the back of the high -altar: Van Boclchorst, Allegory, Moses and 
Aaron typical of the Old Testament; St. John, St. Sebastian, and the 
Pope typical of the New. 7th : Maes-Canini, Holy Family. 9th : Seghers, 
Scourging of Christ. 10th : Th. v. Thulden, Martyrdom of St. Adrian. 
11th: De Grayer, Descent of the Holy Ghost. 

Adjoining the Marche-aux-Grains, on the N., lies the Marche- 
aux-Herbes (Groenselmarkt), on the left of which rises the exten- 
sive Grande Boucherie [Groot Vleeschhuis, PL 6; C, 3) erected in 
1408-17, but of no architectural interest; it is unused at present. 
An interesting mural painting in oil , executed by Nabor Martins 
in 1445 (freely painted over), was discovered in the old chapel of 
the building in 1854. The iron rings and collars on the wall to the 
right are mementoes of the public executions and tortures which 
formerly took place here. The same association is commemorated 
in the name of a small adjacent cafe, Cafe de la Potence or (Galgen- 
huis. — The members of the Ghent Guild of Butchers were known 
as 'Prince Kinderen' (Prince's children), being the descendants of 
Charles V- and the pretty daughter of a butcher, who secured for 
her son and his descendants the sole right of slaughtering and selling 
meat in the city. The son of the emperor had four sons , the an- 
cestors of the four families of Van Melle, Van Loo, Minne, and 
Deynoot, of whom alone the guild consisted down to 1794. 

Crossing the bridge to the left, we reach the Place dbPharailde, 
which is surrounded with quaint mediaeval buildings. The Gateway 
iu the corner to the left, erected in imitation of one on the same 
site by Arthus Quellin , which was burned down in 1872, and 
adorned with sculptures by De Kesel (Neptune, the Schelde, and 
the Lys), leads to the Marche-aux-Poissons (PI. 35). — On the 
N. side of the Place, at the corner of the Rue de la Monnaie, the 
Oudeburg (s 1 Gravenkasteel, Gravensteen, Chateau des Comtes ; PL 
12; C, 3), a massive old castellated-looking gateway, with loop- 
holes , rises among a number of modern houses. It is a remnant of 
the ancient palace of the Counts of Flanders, where Edward III. 
with his Queen Philippa were sumptuously entertained by Jacques 
van Artevelde in 1339, and where their son John of Gaunt (i. e., 
Gand or Ghent) was born in 1340. Here, too, the beautiful Jac- 
queline, Countess of Holland, was kept a prisoner for three months 



44 Route 7 GHENT. Academy. 

by Philippe le Bon of Burgundy in 1424. The palace was built in 
868, but the gateway not before 1180. A subterranean passage, 
2i/ 2 M. in length, leading to a point outside the city, and probably 
employed for admitting soldiers to the palace in case of an emer- 
gency, has recently been discovered here. — The adjacent Rue du 
Vieux Bourg, at the end of the Pont du Laitage (p. 41), a bridge 
which crosses to the Marche du Vendredi, contains two interesting 
houses of the 17th cent., embellished with numerous terracotta 
reliefs (one of them called 'den vliegenden Hert')- 

In the Rue Ste. Marguerite (No. 5), which forms a continuation 
of the Rue de la Monnaie, is situated the Royal Academy of Art 
(PI. 2; B, 3), established in the old Augustine Monastery, adjoin- 
ing the inconsiderable Augustine Church (PI. 15), and containing 
a Musee with about 250 pictures. There are no works of pre-eminent 
merit, but the collection is worth a visit. Among the old works, 
besides a specimen of Rubens, are several by O. de Crayer, who 
migrated from Brussels to Ghent in the latter part of his life, and 
died here in 1669 at the age of 87. The collection is arranged on 
the second floor, and is open to the public, Sun. 10-1 free, at other 
times 50 c. (concierge at No. 7). 

Boom I. To the left : *94. Fr. Pourbus, Isaiah announcing to Heze- 
kiah his recovery, with the miracle of the sun going ten degrees back- 
ward; on the wings a Crucifixion and the donor, the Abbot del Eio; on 
the outside, Raising of Lazarus, in grisaille. 95. Fr. Pourbus, Large winged 
altarpiece, with 22 scenes from the life of Christ; on the back, the Last 
Supper. 51. M. de Vos, Holy Family. Also several good works by un- 
known masters. — To the right — 

Room II. (large, and lighted from the roof). To the left: 47. Peter 
Neefs the Elder, Peter liberated from the prison; 15. De Crayer, St. John 
in Patmos; 45. G. Maes, St. Nicholas (1689); "18. De Crayer, Solomon's 
Judgment, one of the artist's masterpieces; 1. Th. Boeyermans, Vision of 
St. Mary Magdalene de' Pa/.zi ; 75. Th. van Rombouts, Allegorical represen- 
tation of Justice, formerly in the Hotel-de-Ville; 2 Th. Boeyermans, S. 
Carlo Borromeo dispensing the Sacrament to persons stricken with the 
plague; 39. Jan van, Cleef, Holy Family, with the Infant Saviour crown- 
ing Joseph with a wreath of roses ; 19. De Crayer, Martyrdom of St. Bla- 
sius (his last work, painted in 1668 at the age of 83): 38. Peter Thys, St. 
Sebastian receiving the martyr's palm from angels ; 13. De Crayer, Tobias 
with the Archangel Raphael; 56. W. Heda, Still-life; 17. De Crayer, Re- 
surrection; No number, Artois , Landscape; 10. Adr. van Utrecht, Fish- 
monger; "9. Rubens, St. Francis receiving the stigmata, painted in 1632 
for the Franciscan Church at Ghent, and similar to the picture in the 
Museum of Cologne; * 14. De Crainr, Coronation of St. Rosalia; 11. 
Duchatel , Procession in the Marche du Vendredi , at the reception of 
Charles II. of Spain as Count of Flanders (1666; in the middle of the 
foreground is a portrait of the artist, holding a paper); 12. Verhaghen, 
Presentation in the Temple; 22. De Crayer, The Virgin handing the sca- 
pulary to St. Simon Stock; *76. Th. van Rombouts, The five senses; No 
number, Van Dyck, Portrait of himself, in grisaille; 4. Jordaens, St. Am- 
brose; No number, Hondekoeter, Pelican and other foreign birds; 82. P. 
van den Avont, Holy Family in a landscape , surrounded by angels. — 
In the middle of the room: Filicien Bouri, Boy lying in wait for a lizard 
(marble); J. Joris, 'Mon Cavalier'; P. Comein, Girl with a doll (marble); 
Devigne-Quyo, Eve and the Serpent (plaster). 

On the other side of the entrance-hall are two rooms with modern 
pictures. Room III. 172. II. Pille, Festival in Brittany; P. Parrot, Spring; 



Casino. GHENT. I. Route. 45 

A', de Cock, Cows; Josselin de Jong, The petition; M. Miiller (Diisseldorf), 
Norwegian landscape; Devigne, Mediaeval fair; C. Richter, 'Truands et 
Ribaudes' (after Victor Hugo; 18S2); Gabriel, Canal; Gerard, 'A la sante 
du Pasteur!'; 152. Verboekhoven, At pasture (1799); A. Roll, Bacchic dance; 
Gussow (Berlin), Return of the soldier; Coosemans, 'La mare aux corbeaux'; 
Veritas, The little painter; Maes-Canini, Juno; Ilosseels, Moonlight-scene. 
Room IV. To the left, if. Coxie, Last Judgment; Prion, Bacchante 
;ind young satyr; Meunier, Lamentation for Stephen the martyr; 155. 
Robert, 'Un regret' (1849); J. van Luppen, Scene in Luxembourg ; Tytgadt, 
Death of St. Stephen; Karel de Kesel, Maiden entering her bath; Delvin, 
Fishermen on the beach; Sigard, Servant plucking a goose; Cogen, Stranded 
ship ; 178. De Braekeleer, Peasants quarrelling ; Vanaise, St. Livinus giving 
sight to the blind ; Source, Cherries ripe ; De Bi'efve, Widow of Count 
Egmont ; Meckel, Eastern landscape ; VHermite, Grandmother's precepts ; 
Picque, Hebe. 

The neighbouring street, Cour des Princes (PI. B, 4), derives 
its name from the old palace of the Counts of Flanders (p. 34). — 
A little farther on is the Rue du Rabot , leading to the city-gate 
called he Rabot (PI. B, 4). Here in 1488 the army of Emperor 
Frederick III., advancing to support the claims of his son Maxi- 
milian (p. 19), made an assault which was successfully resisted. 
The old Flemish inscription on the outside of the gate records 
the bravery of the guilds which fought under Count Philip of Cleve. 

The extensive Beguinage, which formerly existed in this neigh- 
bourhood, has been removed to a site outside the town. 

Near the site of the old Beguinage, on the right bank of the Cou- 
pure, a canal completed in 1758, connecting the Ley with the great 
Bruges Canal (pleasant promenade in the evening), is situated the 
handsome Casino (PI. 11; C, 5), built in 1835 by L. Roelandt. 
Open-air concerts are held in summer in the large garden. The 
Casino belongs to a horticultural society (Maatschappy van Kruid- 
kunde), and is employed for the famous flower-shows of Ghent, 
which were established in 1808 and occur twice a year. Ghent, 
which is not unfitly surnamed 'La Ville de Flore', has a specialty 
for horticulture, and annually exports whole cargoes of camellias, 
azaleas, orange-trees, and other hot-house plants to Holland, Ger- 
many, France, Russia, and America. There are upwards of eighty 
nursery-gardens in the environs of the city, the most important, of 
which are those of the Compagnie Continentale d' Horticulture, Rue 
du Chaume 52 (PI. D, 4, 5), and of L. van Houtte, in Gentbrugge 
(visitors readily admitted). 

Nearly opposite the Casino, on the other side of the canal, rises 
the Maison de Force (PI. 37 ; B, C, 5), a prison formerly of European 
celebrity. The building was begun under Maria Theresa in 1772, 
but not completed until 1825. A new wing has lately been erected, 
which contains 158 cells for solitary confinement, on the Auburn, 
or silent system. Its present inmates are mostly prisoners to whom 
the strict silent system is unsuited. — Near this is a new prison, 
the Maison de S&rete, with 325 cells, accommodating 420 convicts. 

Belgium has perhaps done more for the reform of the Prison System 
than any other country. The strict separation of the convicts by. day 



46 Route 7. GHENT. Router. 

and night, at work , at meals, at church , in the schools, or at exercise 
in the prison court, has been adopted throughout the land. The efforts 
made for the mental and moral improvement of the inmates merit all 
praise. The most important establishments next to those at Louvain 
and Ghent are the prisons at Antwerp, Mons, Arlon, Tournai, and Malines. 
Visitors (with the exception of superior prison officials) are not admitted 
without permission from the Minister of Justice at Brussels. 

The Kouter, or Place d'Armes (PI. D, 4), is a large open space 
planted with a double row of lime-trees, where a military band plays 
on Sunday and Wednesday evenings in summer. On Sunday morn- 
ings an abundantly supplied flower-market is held here. On the 
E. side of the KouteT is the Cafe des Arcades (PI. h), occupying 
the site of the house of the brothers Hubert and Jan van Eyck, 
where they painted their celebrated picture. — The S.W. corner is 
occupied by the Theatre (PI. 42), erected by Roelandt in 1848. 

The Palais de Justice (PI. 38 ; D, 4), an imposing edifice by 
Roelandt, completed in 1844, is bounded on two sides by the Ley. 
The chief facade to the N. has a peristyle of the Corinthian order, 
and is approached by a lofty flight of steps. 

The Salle des Pas Perdus (85 yds. long, 25 yds. wide), usually entered 
by a flight of steps from the Rue du Commerce, contains a few pictures. 
On the principal wall, opposite the entrance: 0. de Crayer, Francis I. of 
France surrendering his sword to the knight Lannoy after the Battle of 
Pavia (1525), Charles V. landing in Africa, Charles V. and his son Fer- 
dinand, three large pictures painted for the decoration of a triumphal 
arch, which the city erected at the entry of the Infante Ferdinand. In 
spite of the slightness of their execution, they are of great interest as bearing 
testimony to the pomp and luxury that were customary on occasions of 
this kind during the 16th century. Also some modern paintings: Math, 
van Brie, Conclusion of the Pacification of Ghent in the H6tel-de-Ville ; 
h. de Gaeye, Charles MartePs victory over the Saracens near Poitiers 
(7S2) ; Van Severdonck, Cavalry-skirmish between Flemings and Spaniards. 

The University (PI. 39 ; D, 3) , another edifice by Roelandt, 
has its facade , with a Corinthian peristyle , towards the Rue des 
Foulons or de l'Universite'. The Aula, reached through a covered 
court and a vestibule, which is adorned with frescoes by Be Cluy- 
senaar (Henry IV. at Canossa, Leaders of the Reformation, Renais- 
sance, and French Revolution), is a rotunda supported by marble 
columns in the style of the Pantheon, and capable of containing 
1700 persons. The inscription on the chief facade records the foun- 
dation of the building under William I., in 1826. The Natural 
History Museum is a collection of some merit ; there are also cabi- 
nets of Coins, Medals, and a few Roman antiquities. — An Ecole 
du Oenie Civil and an Ecole des Arts et Manufactures are connected 
with the university. The number of students is about 600. 

The new Jesuit church of Ste. Barbe (PI. 17; E, 4), to the S. of 
the Kouter, on the opposite bank of the Ley, built by Steyaert in 
the Renaissance style, has a finely-proportioned interior. 

The Church of St. Pierre (PI. 25 ; F, 4), picturesquely situated 
on a height at the S. extremity of the town, is said to have been 
founded in 610 on the si*," « f a temple of Mars. It has been several 



Beguinages. GHENT. 7. Route. 47 

times renewed, and after its destruction by the iconoclasts in 1578 
■was restored in 1629-1718 from plans by Van Sante. The interior 
contains a few pictures. 

South Aisle: N. Roose (De Liemaeckere), Nativity of Christ; Br. Quel- 
lin the Younger, Triumph of the Catholic religion. — North Aisle : Van 
Thulden, Pictures representing the triumph of Roman Catholicism. — 
Retko-Choir, to the right: Janssens, Liberation of Peter; Van den 
Avont, Holy Family, with dancing angels ; A. Janssens, Miraculous Draught 
of Fishes, as an accessory to a large landscape. Also five small pictures 
by Van Dourselaer. of the period of the Spanish supremacy, illustrative 
of the virtues of the miraculous image of the Virgin on the altar. On 
the other side : Seghers, Raising of Lazarus ; De Crayer, St. Benedict re- 
cognising the equerry of the Gothic King Totilas ; Reysschoot (d. 1795), 
Landscape, the healing of a blind man as accessory ; Janssens, Land- 
scape with two hermits. — Isabella, sister of Charles V., and wife of 
Christian 11. of Denmark, is interred in this church, but no monument 
marks the spot. 

The open space in front of the church has been formed by the 
demolition of part of the old abbey-buildings. Another part serves 
as a barrack. 

Ghent, like Antwerp and Brussels, possesses its Jardin Zoo- 
logique (PI. F, 3, 4), situated near the station of the government rail- 
way (admission 1 fr. ). The interior of the neighbouring Church of 
St. Anne (PI. 14; E, 2), erected from Roelandt's designs in 1853, is 
gaudily decorated by Canneel. 



The Beguinages (Beggynhofen) of Ghent, two extensive nun- 
neries, founded in 1234 and 1235, are exceedingly interesting 
establishments. 

The name is derived by some authorities from St. Begga, the mother 
of Pepin of Heristal, and by some from Le Begue, a priest of Liege (end 
of the 12th cent.) ; while others connect it with beggen, to beg. The ob- 
jects promoted by the Biguinages are a religious life, works of cha- 
rity (tending the sick), and the honourable self-maintenance of women 
of all ranks. These institutions have passed almost scathless through the 
storms of centuries. Joseph II. spared them, when he dissolved the other 
religious houses, and they also remained unmolested during the French 
Revolution, their aim having steadfastly been the 'support of the needy 
and the care of the sick.' 1 There are at present about twenty Beguinages 
in Belgium , with about 1300 members, nearly 1000 of whom are in 
Ghent. With the exception of those at Amsterdam and Breda, these nun- 
neries are now confined to Belgium, though at one time they were com- 
mon throughout the districts of the lower Rhine. 

The members of the Beguinages are unmarried women or widows of 
unblemished character, and pay a yearly board of at least 110 fr., besides 
an entrance-fee of about 150 fr. for the maintenance of the dwellings and 
the church. Two years of novitiate must be undergone before they can 
he elected as sisters. They are subject to certain conventual regulations, 
and are bound to obey their superior, the Groot Jufrouw or Grande Dame 
(whom they elect themselves), but are unfettered by any monastic vow. 
It is, however, a boast of the order that very few of their number avail 
themselves of their liberty to return to the world. (When a member 
leaves the order, her entry-money is returned to her.) 

Lb Grand B^guinage, the removal of which from its former 
position near the Porte de Bruges was necessitated by the con- 
struction of some new streets, was transferred in 1875 to the site 



48 Route 7. GHENT. Beguinage), 

secured for it on the N.E. of the town through the influence of the 
Due d'Arenberg. [To reach it take one of the tramway-cars plying 
from the Church of St. Jacques to the railway-stations for Eecloo 
and Antwerp (8 min. ; 20 c); about 3 min. walk from the termi- 
nus of the tramway-line the narrow Oostacker-Straat diverges to 
the right, by following which for 5 min. we arrive at the entrance ; 
comp. PL D,l.] The Beguinage forms a little town of itself, enclosed 
by walls and moats, with streets, squares, gates, 18 convents, and 
a church , the last forming the central point of the network of 
streets. The houses, though nearly all two-storied Gothic brick 
buildings , present great variety of appearance and form a very 
picturesque ensemble. The Beguinage was planned by the architect 
Verhaegen. 

This Be'guinage contains about 700 members. The younger 
Sisters live together in the convents. After having been members 
for six years, however, they have the option of retiring to one of 
the separate dwellings, which contain rooms for two to four occu- 
pants. The doors of these houses are inscribed with a number and 
the names of tutelary saints. In many cases the Beguines have 
the society of other women who are not members of the order, 
such as an aged mother, or other friend or relative, whose board 
forms a small addition to their funds. Lace -making is the 
principal occupation of the Beguines, beautiful specimens of whose 
work (Kanten) may be obtained from the Groot Jufvrouw, opposite 
the entrance of the church, at much more reasonable prices than 
in the town. 

The Sisters must attend divine worship twice or thrice a day, 
the first service being at 5 a.m., and the last at Vespers. The 
latter presents a very picturesque and impressive scene, when the 
black robes (failles) and white linen head-gear of the Sisters are 
dimly illuminated by the evening light and a few lamps. Novices 
have a different dress, while those who have been recently admitted 
to the order wear a wreath round their heads. 

Lb Petit Beguinage (entrance Rue des Violettes ; PL E, F, 3) 
is similarly arranged, and contains about 300 members. 



8. From Ghent to Courtrai and Tournai. 

Railway from Ghent to Courtrai (27</ 2 M.) in l'^hr. (fares 3 fr. 35, 
2fr. 50, lfr. 70 c.) ; from Courtrai to Tournai (19 M.) in 1 hr. (2fr. 15, 1 fr. 60, 
lfr. 10c). From Tournai to Brussels, see R. 11. 

From Ghent to (6 M.) La Pinte, see p. 28. The line to Oude- 
naerde, Leuze, and Mons here diverges to the left. 

From Ghent to Oddenaerde, 17 M., railway in 50 min. (fares 2fr. 5, 
1 fr. 55, 1 fr. 5 e.) ; to Leuze, 36>/2 M., in 13/ 4 hr. (4 fr. 50, 3 fr. 35, 2 fr. 
25 c.); via St.. Ghislain to Mons, 58 M., in 3'A hrs. (7 fr. 15, 5 fr. 40, 3 fr. 
60 c). — Stations : Mecke- Nazareth, Gavre-Asper, Synghem, Eyrie, and 
Oudenaerde (p. 30), the junction of the line from Brussels to Courtrai 
(R. 6). Then Leupeghem, Etichove , Benaix (where branches diverge to 



COURTRAI. 8. Route. 49 

3ourtrai and Bassilly, p. 62), Jnvaing, Frames, levte (junction of the 
Brussels-Lille line, p. 61), Basecles, Blaton (p. 62), Pommeroeul, SI. Ghit- 
lain (p. 160). 58 M. Moris, see p. 158. 

772M. Deurle; 10 M. Deynze (route thence to TMelt and Iugel- 
miinster, see p. 28); 14 M. Machelen; 15^2 M. Olsene; 19 M. Waere- 
jhem, junction for the connecting line between Anseghem (p. 31) 
md Ingelmunster (p. 28); 22 M. Desselghem; 24 M. Haerlebeke, 
where tobacco is extensively grown. 

27^2 M. Courtrai, Flem. Kortryk (*Lion d'Or, moderate; Hotel 
iu Darnier, both in the Grand' Place ; Hdtel Royal and H$tel du 
Midi, at the station; opposite, Hotel du Nord ; Rail. Restaurant; 
Cafe Beige and Cafe Franfais, in the market-place), a manufacturing 
town with 27,000 inhab., situated on the Ley (Lys), is famous 
for its table-linen and its lace, in the manufacture of which 
5000-6000 women are employed. The flax of Courtrai enjoys a 
liigh reputation, and is manufactured in various districts of Belgium, 
is well as in the town itself. It is prepared with great care and 
skill. After being cut, it is carefully sunned and dried, stored 
for a year, then steeped in the water of the Ley, and sent to the 
factory. About one-twentieth of the soil in the environs produces 
flax. There are also extensive bleaching-grounds in the vicinity. — 
Two or three hours suffice for seeing the town. 

The street (Rue du Chemin de Fer) running straight from the 
station, and then turning to the right , leads to the large market- 
place (Groote Markt or Grande Place) where the town-hall rises on 
the left and the belfry on the right. 

The * Town Hall, erected in 1526-28, has been completely 
restored since 1846, and the facade embellished with statues in 
the original style. Two richly-decorated *Chimney-pieces in the 
interior are worthy of notice. One of them , in the Salle Eche- 
vinale on the ground-floor, is adorned with the coats - of-arms of 
the allied towns of Ghent and Bruges, the standard-bearers of the 
knights of Courtrai, a figure of the Virgin, and statues of Archduke 
Albert and his wife. This room has been embellished with well- 
painted frescoes from the history of Flanders by Ouffens and 
Swerts, completed in 1875. The principal of these represent the 
Departure of Baldwin IX., Count of Flanders, at the commence- 
ment of the fourth Crusade, and the Consultation of the Flemish 
leaders in the Court Room the day before the Battle of the Spurs, 
1302 (see p. 50). — The other and more interesting Chimney- 
piece , in the Council-Chamber upstairs , in the richest Flamboyant 
style, was completed before 1527. Two rows of well-executed sta- 
tuettes represent the different Virtues and Vices ; in the upper sec- 
tion we see faith , humility , liberality , chastity , brotherly love, 
temperance, patience, and watchfulness; in the middle section, 
idolatry, pride, avarice, voluptuousness, envy, gluttony, anger, and 
sloth. The reliefs below indicate the punishments which follow in 
the train of these vices. On corbels are placed statuettes of Charles 



50 BowtfcS. COURTRAI. 

V.", the Infanta Isabella (on the right), and Justice (on the left). — • 
The walls are covered With large plans of the town and its juris- 
diction Qca$tel<my'\ painted in oil (1641). 

Nearly opposite the Town-Hall rises the Belfry. — "We next 
proceed to St. >Lybtin'8 Church, the Gothic tower of which is 
visible from the Grande Place; the nave was erected in 1390-1439, 
the transept about 1415. In 1862 the church was struck by lightning 
and partly burned down, but it has since been restored. Beautiful 
W. portal. The handsome pulpit of carved wood and the beautiful 
ciborium in. stone (in the choir, to the left), executed in 1385, were 
saved .from, the fire. The left aisle contains a winged picture by B. 
de Ryckere (of Courtrai ; 1587), representing the Descent of the Holy 
Ghost, the Creation, and Baptism. 

Theliue Notre Dame leads from the market-place, opposite the 
Lion d'Qr, to the church of Notre Dame, founded by Count Bald- 
win IX. of Flanders, and completed in 1211. The choir, which is 
decorated with marble, and the portal underwent restoration in the 
18th century. The chapel behind the choir contains the *Raising of 
the Cross , one of Van Di/cfc's best pictures , unfortunately badly 
lighted; resembling a Rubens in boldness of design, it is inferior 
in freshness of colour, but the profound expression of tenderness 
and pain depicted in the countenance of the Crucified are unsur- 
passed. The altars to the right and left are adorned with good reliefs 
in marble, of the 18th cent., by Lecreux, representing St. Rochus 
among the plague -stricken, and Mary Magdalene with angels. The 
Chapel of the Counts on the right , added to the church in 1373, is 
adorned with wall-paintings of the 14th cent., representing the 
counts and countesses of Flanders, recently restored by Van der 
Platz, who continued the series down to Emp. Francis II. The Last 
Judgment, on the W. wall of the chapel, is also by Van der Platz. 

Farther to the left, on the Ley, are two massive old bridge- 
towers. — In the Rue du Beguinage (No. 14), which leads from 
Notre Dame to St. Martin's, is a Museum containing several good 
modern pictures (fee 25 c). The following are among the best: 
De Keyser, Battle of the Spurs (see below) ; L. Verboeckhoven, Sea- 
piece ; Robbe, Cattle ; Van Dewin, Grey horse ; Steinicke, Tyrolese 
landscape ; Dobbelaare , Memling in St, John's Hospital at Bruges 
(see p. 17). 

Below the walls of Courtrai , on 11th July , 1302 , was fought the 
famous Battle of the Spurs, in which the Flemish army, consisting chiefly 
of weavers from Ghent and Bruges , under Count John of Namur and 
Duke William of Juliers , defeated the French under the Count of Ar- 
tois. Upwards of 1200 knights and several thousand soldiers fell. The 
victors afterwards collected 700 golden spurs, an appendage worn by the 
French knights alone, and hung them up as trophies in a monastery- 
church which has since been destroyed. A small Chapel outside the 
Ghent Gate, erected in 1831, marks the centre of the battle-field. 

From Courtrai to Brussels and to Ypres, see E. 6. — Courtrai is also 
connected by a hranch-line with Renaix (p. 48). 

At Courtrai the Tournai line quits the flat land and enters an 




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Hotels. TOURNAI. 9. Route. 51 

undulating and pieturesque district. The Flemish language gives 
way to the French. 31 M. Lauwe ; 35 M. Mouscron (the a mute), 
the Belgian douane for travellers arriving from France. 

Fbom Mouscron to Lille, 11 M., railway in 37 min. (fares 2 fr. 20, 1 fr. 
65, 1 fr. 20 c). — 2 ! /2 M. Tourcoing, a busy manufacturing town of 52,000 
inhab., with a monument commemorating the defeat of the English and 
Austrian.? by Pichegru in 1794. — 5 M. Roubaix (H6tel Ferraille), another 
important manufacturing town, the population of which has risen during 
the present century from 8000 to 92,000. — Near Croix- Wasquehal the 
train crosses the Roubaix Canal, which connects the Deule with the 
Schelde. — 11 M. Lille, see p. 57. 

The next station, Herseaux - EstaimpuU , is connected by a 
branch-line with the railway from Renaix (p. 48) to Courtrai. Be- 
tween Nichin and Templeuve the Belgian line quits the province of 
West Flanders for that of Hainault (Germ. Hennegau). To the left 
rises Mont St. Aubert (p. 54), 325 ft. in height, also called Ste. 
Trinite, from the small church on its summit. It is 4M. distant 
from Tournai, and is much visited for the sake of the fine view it 
commands. Near Tournai the train crosses the Schelde, and finally 
stops on the handsome quay constructed by Louis XTV. 

9. Tournai. 

Arrival. The New Station (PI. D, 2, 3), opened for traffic in 1879, is 
a handsome building by Beyaert of Brussels. The old station (PI. C, 2) 
is now used for goods-traffic only. 

Hotels. Hotel de l'ImpEratrice (PI. a; A, 3), Eue de Maux 12; Hotel 
de la Petite Hef (PI. c ; B, 2), Rue du Cygne 35 ; Hotel de Bellevue 
(PI. d; C, 2), Quai Dumon 6, K. I 1 /* fr. •, Hotel du Commerce, Rue du 
Four Chapitre 15, opposite the Cathedral (PI. B, 3), moderate, good cuisine. 
— Table-d'hote in all at 1 p.m. 

Restaurants. Taverne Alsacienne and Taverne de Strasbourg , in the 
Grand' Place ; Tav. du Globe (English beer) and Cafi Vlnitien, in the Rue 
Royale, near the new station; all with good cuisine. 

About 3-3'/2 l»rs. will suffice for a visit to the Cathedral, the Church 
of St. Quentin, and the pictures in the Hotel-de-Ville. 

Tournai, Flem. Doornik, with 32,600 inhab., the most important 
and prosperous town of Hainault, and one of the most ancient in Bel- 
gium , was the Civitas Nerviorum of Caesar, afterwards called Tur- 
nacum. In the 5th and 6th centuries it was the seat of the Mero- 
vingian kings. At a later period the town belonged to France, but in 
1525 it was united with the Spanish Netherlands in accordance with 
the Peace of Madrid. In 1581 Tournai was heroically defended 
against Alexander of Parma by the Princess d'Epinoy, who, al- 
though wounded in the arm, refused to quit the ramparts, and did 
not surrender the fortress until the greater part of the garrison had 
fallen. In 1667 the town was taken after a protracted siege by 
Louis XIV., who caused it to be fortified by Vauban, and in 1709 
it was captured by the Imperial troops under Prince Eugene and 
the Duke of Marlborough. In 1745 Tournai again fell into the 
hands of the French, and in 1748 it was assigned to the Nether- 
lands by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. The fortifications were de- 
molished by Joseph II. in 1781, but were renewed in 1815-69. 

A* 



52 Route 9. TOURNAI. Cathedral. 

The numerous sieges it has undergone have greatly altered the ex- 
ternal appearance of the town, and have left little trace of its ven- 
erable age, with the exception of a few interesting mediaeval houses. 
The old walls have been converted into promenades. — The preten- 
der, Perkin Warbeck, was born here. 

The Schelde (Eseaut) divides the town into two nearly equal 
parts , of which that on the left bank is by far the busier and more 
important ; but considerable improvements have taken place on the 
right bank since the completion of the new railway-station. The 
handsome , broad Quays , planted with trees , contribute to render 
Tournai one of the pleasantest-looking towns in Belgium. The river 
is generally crowded with barges, most of which are laden with coal 
from the mines of Mons, and are bound for Ghent and other impor- 
tant places on the river. 

The *Cathedral {Notre Dame; PL 4 ; B, 3), a noble example of 
the Romanesque style , rises conspicuously above the houses on the 
left bank. It is a cruciform basilica borne by pillars, with a retro- 
choir and a series of chapels, and has five towers. The nave, which 
was not vaulted until the 18th cent., dates from the middle of the 
12th, and was probably consecrated in 1171. The transept was 
erected in the 13th cent, by French masters , on the model of the 
Cologne churches. The beautiful Gothic choir is of later date, and 
was consecrated in 1338, and the facade, originally Romanesque, 
was altered and provided with a porch in the pointed style about the 
same period (comp. p. xxxviii). Among the sculptures in the porch, 
which were executed at various periods from the 13th to the 17th 
century, are interesting reliefs representing the Creation, Fall, and 
Expulsion from Paradise, by sculptors of Tournai, dating from about 
the year 1200 (see p. xl). 

The Interior was purged in 1852 of the unsuitable additions 
with which it had been disfigured in the course of centuries, and is 
now strikingly impressive. It consists of nave and aisles 136 yds. 
in length ; nave 78 ft. wide and 78 ft. high ; breadth of transept 
73 yds. ; height of choir 107 ft. The walls above the aisles are 
relieved by a triforium. The large chapel adjoining the left aisle 
was added in 1516-18. The capitals of the pillars, which are asso- 
ciated with columns, are particularly rich and varied. The propor- 
tions of the transept are more graceful, and the galleries lower. 

The church contains a few pictures. In the first chapel of the S. (right) 
Aisle, on the posterior wall, a Crucifixion by Jordaens. The chapel of 
the N. Aisle contains some stained glass of the 16th century. — In the 
Teansept, right, a Holy Family with a glory of angels, painted by M. de 
Itkgre in 1650. Most of the stained-glass windows were executed by 
Stuerbout of Haarlem about the year 1456. Their subjects refer to the 
history of the bishopric of Tournai, which received important privileges 
in the 6th cent, from King Chilperic for services rendered in his war 
against his brother, the Austrasian monarch Sigebert (right transept) and 

in the 12 th cent, from Pope Eugenius III. (left transept). The richly 

sculptured rood-loft, which separates the choir from the nave executed 
by Corn. Floris in the Renaissance style, was erected in 1566- it is sur- 



St. Quentin. TOURNAI. 9. Route. 53 

mounted by a large group in bronze by Lecreux, representing St. Michael 
overcoming Satan. — The stained glass of the Choik by Capronnier is 
modern. 

Retko-Choir, beginning on the left side of the rood-loft : Lancelot Blon- 
deel, Annunciation, Visitation, Nativity, etc. ; Oallait, Christ restoring the 
blind to sight, one of the master's earliest works. Farther on, adjoining 
the high-altar, is the Gothic Reliquary of St. Eleulherius, the first Bishop 
ofTournai (6th cent.), elaborately executed in gilt silver in the year 1247, 
and adorned with the figures of the Twelve Apostles. At the back of the 
high-altar a monument by Duquesnoy (17th cent.) has been erected to the 
memory of all the bishops and canons of Tournai. On the other side of 
the high-altar is the Reliquary of St. Piat, of about 1280. — Then in the 
Chapel to the left, which is adorned with stained glass commemorating 
the Council of 1870, is a large picture by Rubens, Rescue of souls from 
Purgatory, a bold composition. 

The Sacristy contains a very valuable crucifix in ivory by Duquesnoy. 

The adjacent Belfry (PI. 3; B, 3) dates from 1187, but was 
partly rebuilt in 1391 and restored in 1852. The spire is modern. 
A set of chimes, placed in the tower in 1878, plays every half-hour. 
The ascent is recommended, particularly for the sake of the view of 
the cathedral (260 steps to the platform ; door - keeper at the en- 
trance and custodian at the top, 25 c. each.). 

The triangular Grande Place (PI. B, 3) in the centre of 
the town is embellished with a statue of Marie de Lalaing, Prin- 
cess d'Epinoy (PI. 20), in bronze, designed by Dutrieux. The heroic 
lady is represented in complete armour, with a battle-axe in her 
hand, leading her fellow-citizens against the enemy (see p. 51). 

On the N. side of the Place is situated the church of *St. Quentin 
(PI. 12), sometimes called 'La Petite Cathedrale', a remarkably-ele- 
gant structure, erected about the same period as the cathedral. The 
facade and interior form an excellent example of the transitional 
style. The large paintings in the nave represent the Foundation 
of the Order of the Trinitarians for the purpose of ransoming 
Christian captives (1198), and the Battle of Lepanto (1571). The 
stained glass is by Bethune (1858). 

The priory-buildings of the suppressed Monastery of St. Martin, 
situated in a garden on the S.W. side of the town, now serve as 
an Hdtel-de-Ville (PI. 15; A, 3, 4), the tympanum of which eon- 
tains the arms of the town, a tower with three lilies. The small pic- 
ture-gallery (fee '/2-1 fr.) contains a Virgin and a Descent from the 
Cross, wrongly ascribed to Jan van Eyck\ portraits attributed to 
Rembrandt , Rubens , and Van Dyck ; and an equestrian portrait of 
Louis XIV. by Lebrun. Among the modern works are : Oallait (b. 
1810, at Tournai), Dead bodies of Counts Egmont and Hoorne ; Van 
Severdonck, Defence of Tournai by the Princess d'Epinoy. 

The church of St. Jacques (PL 6; B, 2), dating from the 13th 
and 14th cent, and now in process of restoration, somewhat resem- 
bles that of St. Quentin. The pulpit is in the form of a huge trunk 
of oak, wreathed with vines, and adjoined by a grotto, all carved 
in wood. The side altarpiece to the left is a copy of Rubens' Pur- 
gatory in the Cathedral (see above). 



54 Route 10. DENDERMONDE. From Ghent 

St. Brice (PI. 5; C, 3, 4), a church of the 12th cent. , on the 
right bank of the Schelde , once contained the tomb of Childeric 
(d. 480 ; father of Clovis), King of the Franks. 

A number of interesting curiosities , now preserved in the National 
Library at Paris, were found in a coffin here in 1655; among them were 
upwards of 300 small figures in gold, resembling bees, with which the 
royal robes are said to have been decorated. Napoleon, on the occasion 
of his coronation, preferred them to the fleurs-de-lyi as insignia of the 
imperial dignity. These relics were the property of Archduke Leopold 
William (A. 1662), stadtholder of the Netherlands. After his death they 
were presented by Emp. Leopold I. to the Elector of Mayence, who in 
1664 sent them as a gift to Louis XIV. 

Near the church of St. Brice are a few medisval houses. — 
The new Palais de Justice and the Theatre also deserve mention. 

The old bridge called Pont des Trous (PI. C, 1), which crosses 
the Schelde at the lower end of the town in three pointed arches, 
was built in 1290. Both ends are defended by strong towers. 

Stockings and carpets are the staple manufactures of Tournai. 
The latter are generally known as Brussels carpets. The art of wear- 
ing carpets is said to have been brought to Europe by Flemings, 
who learned it from the Saracens at the time of the Crusades. Most 
of the carpets are made by the work-people in their own dwellings, 
and as there are few large factories in the town , it presents a much 
cleaner and pleasanter appearance than the other large industrial 
towns of Belgium. The largest manufactory is the Manufacture 
Roy ale. 

Mont St. Aubert(p. 51), sometimes called Ste. Trinite from the 
small church of that name on the top, commands a very extensive 
panorama, although only 325 ft. in height, being the only eminence 
in the district, and is well worthy of a visit. The summit is about 
4 M. distant. Carriage in % hr. (3-4 fr.). 

10. From Ghent to Antwerp. 

a. State Railway via Dendermonde and Fuers. 

42 M. Railway in li/a-2>/4 hrs. (fares 5 fr. 15, 3 fr. 90, 2 fr. 60 c). 

Ghent, see p. 31. — The line crosses the Schelde. 2*/ 2 M. 
Meirelbeke. 4 M. Melle, the junction of the line to Charleroi and 
Braine-le-Comte (R. 20). 6 M. Quatrecht. The train follows the 
winding course of the Schelde. 8 M. Wetteren. At (10 M.) Schelle- 
belle our line diverges from that to Brussels via Alost (R. 3). 12'/2 M. 
Wichelen ; 14 M. Schoonaerde ; 16 M. Audeghem, beyond which the 
train crosses the Dendre. 

18 M. Dendermonde, Fr. Termonde (Plat d'Etain; Aigle; 
Demi-lMne), a small fortified town (8300 inhab.) at the confluence 
of the Dendre and Schelde. Louis XIV. besieged this place in 1667, 
but was compelled to retreat, as the besieged, by opening certain 
sluices, laid the whole district under water. The Emp. Joseph II. 
caused the fortifications to be dismantled in 1784, but they were 



to Antwerp. ST. NICOLAS. 10. Route. 55 

reconstructed in 1822. The old chuTeh of JVotre Dame possesses 
two good pictures by Van Dyck, a Crucifixion, and Adoration of 
the Shepherds ; also a work hy De Crayer, and a Romanesque font 
of the 12th oentury. The Hdtel-de- Ville, which was originally the 
cloth-hall, dates, with its belfry, from the 14th century. Adjacent 
is the Qrande Oarde, or guard-house, with an octagonal tower and 
a rococo portico of the 18th century. 

From Dendermonde to St. Nicolas, via Hamme, 12'/2 M., by railway 
in 38-45 min. (see p. 56); to Lokeren, 8 3 /4 M., in >/2 hr. (see below); to 
Alost, 7 '/a M., in 22 min. (p. 10); and to Brussels, 20 M., via Opwyck 
(p. 10) and Jette (p. 10), in »/«-l hr. 

At (21 M.) Baesrode the line to Malines diverges (see p. 120). 
24 M. St. Amans-lez-Puers ; 27 M. Puers, where our line crosses 
that from Terneuzen to Malines (p. 120). The train now traverses 
a marshy district and crosses the Rupel. 

31 M. Boom, a town with 14,000 inhab., where our line crosses 
the line from Alost to Antwerp (see p. 10). 3372 M. Reetz. 36 M. 
Contich, and thence to Antwerp, see p. 120. 

b. Waesland Eailway. 

31 M. Railway in l'/4 2 hrs. ; the crossing of the Schelde at Antwerp 
takes V* hr. more (fares 41/2, 3, or 2 fr.). Carriages bad. This is the di- 
rect route. Travellers from Ostend or Bruges intending to take this route, 
book to Ghent only, where they take a fresh ticket at the station of the 
Waesland line, 1 M. from that of the state-railway. 

The train starts from the Station d'Anuers. Immediately on the 
right is the new Beguinage (p. 47). This line traverses the Waes- 
land, or Pays de Waes, one of the most populous (about 700 pers. 
to the sq. M.), highly-cultivated, and productive districts in Europe. 
During the civil wars in Flanders, the Waesland was a sterile moor, 
but at the present day every square yard is utilised. The train tra- 
verses arable land, pastures, gardens, woods, and plantations in 
rapid succession, while comfortable farm-houses and thriving vil- 
lages are seen at intervals. It is said that the attention usually de- 
voted to a garden or a flower-bed is here given to every field ; for the 
natural soil, being little better than sand, requires to be artificially 
covered with garden-soil. The agriculture of this tract is therefore 
worthy of the notice of farmers. In other respects the country is 
uninteresting. 

4 M. Loochristy, with an old chateau ; 7 M. Beirvelde. 12 M. 
Lokeren (II6tel du Miroir, in the Grand' Place ; Hotel des Stations) 
is a manufacturing town with 17,500 inhabitants. The Church of 
St. Lawrence contains some ancient and modern works of art. Ex- 
tensive bleaching-grounds in the vicinity. Lokeren is the junction 
of the lines to Dendermonde and Alost (see above), and to Selzaete 
(p. 9). 15y 2 M. Mille-Pommes. 

I91/2 M. St. Nicolas ( Quatre Sceaux , in the market; Miroir), 
a pleasant -looking town with 25,600 inhab., is the busiest 
manufacturing place in the Waesland. In the market-place, V2 M. 



56 Route 11. CALAIS. 

from the station, are situated the new Hotel-de-Ville, a handsome 
building in the Flemish Renaissance style, containing a collection 
of antiquities from the Waesland, and several mediaeval dwelling- 
houses. The Church of St. Nicolas was completed in 1696. The 
church of Notre Dame, built by Overstraeten in 1844, contains 
well-executed mural paintings by Guffens and Swerts , the first 
attempts at frescoes in Belgium (p. 69). — A branch-line runs from 
St. Nicolas to Hamme and Dendermonde (p. 55). Near St. Nicolas 
the train crosses the Malines and Terneuzen railway (p. 120). 

22 M. Nieukerken. 25 J / 2 M. Beveren , a wealthy village with 
7000 inhab. and an interesting church, is noted for its lace. 28y 2 M. 
Zwyndrecht, where the train passes the outlying fort of that name 
on the right and a rampart extending to Fort Ste. Marie on the left. 
At Vlaamsch-Hoofd or Tete de Flandre, the tete-de-pont of Ant- 
werp, on the left bank of the Schelde, a steam ferry-boat awaits the 
arrival of the train (p. 121). 

During the Siege of Antwerp (1832) the Dutch succeeded in cutting 
through the embankment above Tete-de-Flandre, in consequence of which 
the entire surrounding district, lying considerably helow high-water mark, 
was laid under water to a depth of 4ft., and remained so for three years. 
Twelve Dutch gunboats cruised over the fields and canals, cutting off all 
communication with the city in this direction. The rise and fall of the 
tide covered a vast area with sand ; and the once productive soil, becom- 
ing saturated with salt-water, was converted into a dreary waste. Those 
parts from which the water was not thoroughly drained became un- 
healthy swamps, a disastrous result of the war felt most keenly in the 
environs of the city, where land was of great value. Enormous sums 
were expended on the work of restoration; the repair of the embank- 
ment alone cost 2 million francs. Almost every trace of the calamity is 
now happily obliterated. 

31 M. Antwerp, see p. 121. 

11. From London to Brussels via Calais. 

Vi& Dover and Calais, Brussels is reached in J^A hrs. ; sea-passage 
ls/4-2 hrs. (fares 21. 10s. 6d. and U. 17s. fid.). Luggage registered at London 
is not examined till the traveller arrives at Brussels. — [From London to 
Brussels via Dover and Ostend 21. 6s. 9<2. and ll. 13s. 3d. — Comp. RR. 1, 
3. — Brussels may also he reached from London via Antwerp by the Gen. 
Steam Nav. Co. 'a steamers twice or thrice weekly, direct from London to 
Antwerp ; or hy the Great Eastern Rail. Co.'s steamers six times weekly 
from Harwich.] 

Calais (Hdtel du Buffet, at the station, conveniently situated ; 
Hotel Meurice, in the town ; Hotels de Paris, de Londres, de Flandre, 
etc., of the second class. Two English Churches, one at Calais itself, 
the other in the Basse Ville), a fortified town with 12,850 inhab., 
is an unattractive place, where few travellers will make a voluntary 
stay. The N. side is bounded by the Bassin d. Flot, the Fort de 
I'Echouage, and the Bassin du Paradis. To the right of the latter 
is situated the suburb of Courgain, inhabited exclusively by a fish- 
ing and sea-faring community. The Quai de Marie affords a pleasant 
walk. The white cliffs of the English coast are visible in clear 
weather. The English residents at Calais still number nearly 2000, 



LI LLE 



l.^cademie deJhtsique 

2. jfrchbres departemenlaUs 

3, tioMege- Si Joseph. 
4*. Banijue de France. 

5. Bourse 

6. Colotine. commem.de I 
"i. Scale denotation. . 

Etflises: 

S.Jr.D.dela TreiUe 
9. StJndri . 
.0; S? Cdtfierwe 
ji^StEliennf , 



12. S? Madeleine 

13- StMartin 

14. St Maurice . . 

1$. S* Pierre etS? Paul 

16. ST Scantier 

B. StYincentdePaxd 

18. Chapclle des Jtsuites 

19. Eglise (cnglicaiw 

20. .TVmpZr protestant . 
2\.EtatJqpjr de la Place 
22. SaUes centrales . . 
22 * Poodle- de, Medeone- 




Geogr"a.-ph .Aatst t7oh_ 




X 



Wagner i: Debes Leipzig 



LTLLE. 11. Route. 57 

although they have comparatively deserted the town since the days 
of railways. Many of them are merchants and lace-manufacturers. 
St. Omer, the first important station, is an uninteresting forti- 
fied town with 25,000 inhab. ; environs flat and marshy, but not 
considered unhealthy. The Cathedral is a fine structure in the 
transitional style. The English Roman Catholic Seminary here, at 
which O'Connell was educated, is now almost deserted. A number 
of English families reside at St. Omer for purposes of retrench- 
ment and education. English Church and resident chaplain. Stat. 
Hazebrouek is the junction of this line with the railways N. to 
Dunkirk, N.W. to Ypres (p. 26), and S. to Amiens and Paris. 

Lille. — Hotels. Hotel de l'Europe, Rue Basse 30-32; Hotel de 
France, Rue Esquermoise 77; Hotel de Flandre et d'Angleterre, Place 
de la Gare; Grand Hotel de Lton, Grand Hotel de Lille, both in the 
Rue de la Gare ; Singe d'Or, Place du Theatre 36-38. Rooms may also be 
obtained at the station (de'pendance of the Hotel de l'Europe). 

Restaurants. Grand Cafi, Rue de la Gare 2; Disire, to the right of 
the theatre, opposite the Rue de la Gare, first floor. 

Cafes. Grand Cafi, see above; Richard, in the Hotel de Lyon, see 
above; Cafe du Grand Hdtel, to the right of the Hotel de Lille; Bellevue, 
in the Grande Place; Gafi du Boulevard , corner of Rue Rationale and 
Boulevard de la Liberte. — Taverne de Strasbourg, in the Grande Place. 

Cabs: per drive l 3 /4 fr., per hr. 2 fr., each succeeding hr. l 3 /4 fr. 

Post Office (PI. 28; E, 3), Boulevard de la Liberte, near the Prefecture. 

English Church. Resident chaplain. 

Lille, originally L'Isle, Flem. Ryssel, the capital of the French 
Departement du Nord, with 178,000 inhab., formerly belonged to 
Flanders, but was taken by Louis XIV. in 1667, and was finally 
awarded to France by the Peace of Utrecht in 1713. It is a fortress 
of the first class, and is situated in a well-irrigated and fertile plain 
on the Deule , a navigable river with which numerous canals are 
connected. In 1856 the population numbered 78,000 souls, but 
has more than doubled since the extension of the fortifications in 
1858. Since that period numerous handsome streets and squares 
have sprang up , particularly on the S. side of the town , to the 
right of the station. Lille is a very important manufacturing place. 
Its staple commodities are linen and woollen goods , cotton , cloth, 
machinery, oil, sugar, and chemicals. 

Leaving the station (PI. F, 3), we proceed in a straight direction 
to the Theatre (PI. 29 ; E, 3), turn to the left through the Rue des 
Mameliers, passing the Bourse (PI. 5), the court of which contains 
a bronze statue of Napoleon I. by Lemaire (1854), and soon reach the 
Grand' Place, a Column in the centre of which commemorates the 
gallant defence of the town against the Austrians in 1792. On the 
side of the Place opposite the Rue des Mameliers rises the — 

H6tel-de-Ville (PI. 23; E, 3), erected since 1846 in the Re- 
naissance style, and containing the Bibliothique Communale (open 
daily), a valuable *Picture Gallery, and a * Collection of Drawings, 
the last of which is the most important in France after that of the 
Louvre. The collections are on the 2nd floor, and are open to the 



58 Route 11. LILLE. From London 

public daily, 10-5 in summer, and 10-4 in winter (Tues. 2 to 4 or 5). 
Entrance on the left side of the building, where a staircase ascends. 
Catalogue of the picture-gallery II/4 fr. ; of the drawings 13/ 4 fr. 

Room I. Italian Schools. To the left, 830. After Raphael, Madonna 
with the fish (original at Madrid); above, 487. Blanchet, Copy of Raphael's 
fresco of the Battle of Constantine, in the size of the original (1746); 
98. Paolo Veronese, Martyrdom of St. George; 450. Tintoretto, Portrait of 
a Senator; 829. After Raphael, Holy Family (original in the Louvre); 
500. Andrea Schiavone, Esther before Ahasuerus ; 650. L. Zustris (pf Am- 
sterdam, a pupil of Titian), Christ appearing to Mary Magdalene after 
his resurrection; Jac, Bassano, 420. Crown of Thorns, 422. Feasant wed- 
ding; Allori, Madonna and Child with the young John the Baptist, the 
composition by Andrea del Sarto; 546. Andrea del Sarto, Same compo- 
sition. — 117. Cignaroli (Verona, d. 1770), Death of Rachael; 649. Zustris, 
Judith. — 414. Piazetta (Venice, d. 1754), Assumption; 545. After Andrea del 
Sarto, Madonna and Child, with four angels; 423. Leandro Bassano, Christ 
driving the money-changers from the Temple; 364. Mignard, Punishment 
of Midas, on a gold ground; 310. Lanfranco, Pope Gregory the Great; 
824. Ricci, Last Supper; *233. Dom. Ghirlandajo, Madonna and Child, a 
finely-executed school-piece; !! 179. G. Dughel, surnamed Poussin, Scene in 
the Campagna. 486, 488, 489. Copies of the frescoes of Raphael in the 
Vatican, size of the originals. 

Room II. Flemish and Dutch Schools. "462. Rubens, Madonna and 
the Infant Christ appearing to St. Francis ; 245. /. van Goyen, River-scene ; 
267. Barth. van der Heist, Portrait; Jordaens, Huntsman and hounds; 
'460. Rubens, Descent from the Cross, formerly an altarpiece in the convent 
of the Capuchins. 465, 466. School of Rubens, Abundance and Providence, 
from the decorations of a triumphal arch (comp. p. 139); 796. Holbein, 
His wife and children, old copy of the original in Bale Museum, here 
with the title 'Caritas', and the inscription: 'Die Liebe zu Gott heisst 
Charitas, wer Liebe hatt der tragtt kein Hass' (Love toward God is called 
Charity; he who has love bears no hate); 543. A. van Utrecht, Fighting 
cocks ; 814. Nenchatel, Portraits of Neudorfer and his son ; 268. Barth. van 
der Heist, Portrait of a lady (1645) ; "197. A. van Dyck, Assumption ; 110. C. 
Janssens, Portrait of Anna Maria von Schurmann (1660); "257. Fr. Hals, Girl 
laughing, erroneously called 'Hille Bobbe'; 278. Honthorst, Triumph of Si- 
lenus; 292. Jordaens, Christ and the Pharisees; 194. Van Dyck, Miracle of 
St. Anthony of Padua ; 375. Moucheron, Landscape, with figures by Adrian 
van de Velde; "550. W. van de Velde, Sea-piece; Rembrandt, The angel 
leaving Tobias (copy ; the original is in the Louvre) ; 527. Teniers (? or 
Gonzales Coques), Portrait of a woman, in a painted architectural frame; 
"G. Camphuysen, Two horsemen in a wood, a masterpiece ; "193. Van Dyck, 
Crucifixion; 557. J. Victor, Poultry-yard; 191. Duveau, Perseus and An- 
dromeda; "526. Dav. Teniers the Younger, Temptation of St. Anthony; 
143. G. de Grayer, Martyrs buried alive (1642); 293. J. Jordaens, The Pro- 
digal Son (a similar picture of this master is in the Dresden gallery) ; 90. 
J. Brueghel, Garland of flowers, surrounding a Madonna by S. Franck; 815. 
A. van Ostade, Children at dinner; W. de Geest, Full-length portrait (1650). 

Room III. 685-688, 609-613. Unknown Masters, Portraits of princes, of 
historical interest only ; 428. N. Poussin, Finding of Moses (replica of a 
picture in the Louvre) ; G. de Grayer, The Messiah ; 591-608. Unknoum 
Masters , Portraits of princes ; 352. Mignard, Fortune ; 879. J. J. Weeris, 
Legend of St. Francis of Assisi. — 144. G. de Crayer, The Miraculous 
Draught of Fishes ; 231. Claude Lorrain ('?), The Roman Forum ; 225. Gal- 
lait, Portrait of Ch. Cousin the painter, in the dress of an Arab ; 771. J. 
Both, Edge of a forest; 808. N. Maes (?), Portrait; 475. /. van Ruysdael, 
Forest-stream; 148. Benj. Cuyp, Portrait; 113. Phil, de Champaigne, The 
Good Shepherd ; 49. Boilly, Series of 27 portrait-studies for his picture of 
Isabey's studio (1800). — In the middle of the room : 755. Sanson, Su- 
sanna , a statue in marble ; 723. Cast of Michael Angelo's Madonna oi 
Bruges. — The side-doors of this and the succeeding hall lead to the 
Collection of Drawings (see below). 



to Brussels. LILLE. 11. Route. 59 

Room IV. Louis and Francois Watteau, whose works occur so often 
in this room, were the nephew and grand-nephew of the celebrated An- 
toine Watteau of Valenciennes, of whom, however, the gallery possesses 
no specimen ; their works are far inferior to those of their kinsman. 437. 
J. van Eavfsteyn, Portrait of a lady; above, 411. Parrocel, Landscape; 222. 
F. Francken, Bearing of the Cross; 382. Muziano, Christ washing his dis- 
ciples' feet; 852. Dutch Scliool of the 17th cent., Portrait of a man with an 
open Bible; 311. Largilliere, Portrait of the landscape-painter Jean Forest; 
172. Donvi , Portrait of the painter Sauvage ; 513. /. van Son, Flowers ; 
above , 299. Jouvenet , Raising of Lazarus ; * 153. /. L. David , Belisarius 
asking alms (1785); 689. XJnknovin Master, Portrait; 434. A. de Pujol, Jo- 
seph in prison (1822); 637. Wicar, Christ raising the son of the Widow 
of Nain; 436. J. van Ravesleyn, Portrait. 

Boom V. Modern Painters. 872. Butin, The Vow; 182. Duran, 
Scene from Italian peasant life (monks with the body of a murdered man); 
308. Lami and Dupres, Battle of Hondschoote, between the French and 
English (1793); on either side of the last, Goya, 243. Faded beauty, 242. 
Girlhood; 272. Hoeckert (Swedish painter), Preaching in Lapland; 58. Bon- 
nat, Death of Abel; 540. Trot/on, Landscape; 339. F. D. Laugie, Feeding 
the poor (1880); 737. ft Duran, Portrait; 87. Breton, Erection of a 'Mont 
de Calvaire' ; above, 66. Bouchot, Silenus ; 778. B. Constant, The Harem ; 
157. Delacroix, Medea (1838); 139. Courbet, After dinner. 

Room VI. Various Schools. 570. S. de Vos, Resurrection; 202. /. 
ran Es, Oysters and fruit; " Barth. van der Heist, Family-portraits; 
874. V. Gilbert, Fishmarket in the morning; '131. P. de Coninck , Gallic 
boy committed to the Rhine; 114. Ghardin, The learned ape ; 227. Gautier, 
Surprised at the bath ; 78. Brandon, Roman improvisatore ; 254. Guillaumet, 
Arab market in the desert; 211-213. Flandrin, Tower of Babel, Samson, 
Baruch, three sketches for the mural paintings in the church of St. Ger- 
main-des-Pres in Paris ; 413. O. Penguilly VHaridon , Landscape in the 
stone-age; 244. Goya, On the scaffold; 813. Nattier, Portrait of a lady; 
802. Le Nain, 'Scene d'interieur'. 

Room VII. 691. Venetian School, Portrait of a woman (1500); Ascribed 
to Patinir, Preaching of John the Baptist ; 5. Alma Tadema, Roman girl ; 
812. Ascribed to Q. Massy s, Tarquin and Lucretia; 122. (above the door) 
Colas, Raising of the Cross; 828. ft Sosselli, Mary Magdalene; 317. Le- 
compte-Dunouy, Appeal to Neptune; 342. School of Siena, St. Catharine of 
Siena in prayer; 67. Boulanger, Procession on Corpus Christi Day in 
Rome; 196. Van Dyck, Portrait of Marie de Medicis; 871. E. de Boisle- 
comte, Diogenes ; 348. (above the door) Van der Meulen, Battle of Dole in 
1668 (painted as a design for Gobelins tapestry, hence the weapons in 
the left hand); E. Salome, Roman woman; 795. Barth. van der Heist, 
Venus; 69. Jean de Boulogne, Crown of Thorns. — 863. G. Crauk, Portrait- 
bust in marble of General Faid'herbe. 

Room VIII (Cabinet). Early Masters of the Italian and Northern 
Schools (mostly of the 15th and 16th cent.). 876. Israel van Meckenen, 
Assumption ; 91. P. Brueghel the Elder, Paying tithes ; 523. Stuerbout (?), 
The fairy-well ; 811. (in the middle) Ascribed to Stuerbout, Two portraits. 
On the other side of Room VII lies — 

Room IX, a spacious saloon, opened in 1880. 777. L. Comerre, Death 
of Timophanes; 290. Jeanron, Limoges; 827. W. Boelofs, Forest-scene; 
208. Feyen, Children kissing each other; 125. A. Colas, Gregory the Great 
freeing Anglo-Saxon slaves; 30. Berthilemy, Rescue of shipwrecked people ; 
34. Billet, Fisherwomen of Boulogne ; Merson, 'Le loup d'Agubbio', the wolf 
converted by St. Francis of Assisi in the streets of Gubbio; L. Comerre, 
Samson and Delilah; 801. Mad. La Villette, French coast-scene; 789. Gon- 
zales, In the manager's room ; 189. Duval, Birth of Venus ; 256. N. Halle, 
Silenus with a crew of revellers ; 807. Lievens , Head of an old man in 
prayer; 185. C. Duran, The sleeper; 455. Eoqueplan, Death of Morris the 
Spy (from Scott's 'Rob Roy') ; 799. Lansyer, Coast of Finistere ; 68. /. dr 
Boullongne, Soldiers dividing the garments of Christ. — 762. Benvignal, 
Bombardment of Lille in 1792; above, 323. R. Lehmann, Pope Sixtus V. 
blessing the works in the Pontine marshes; 190. Dureau , Perseus and 



60 Route 11. LILLE. From London 

Andromeda; 459. Rousseau, Kitchen; G. Netscher, Portrait; 372. Motlei, 
The Athenians recoiling with horror from Melitus, one of the accusers of 
Socrates; 346. Mersan, A nun beholding a vision of the Saviour; 151. Dau- 
bigny, Sunrise on the banks of the Oise; 325. Leleux, Threshing-floor in 
Algiers; 377. C. L. Muller (in Paris), The ruined gambler; "18. Baudry, 
Punishment of a fallen Vestal (1857); 376. G. L. Muller, Haidee (from 
Byron's 'Don Juan'); 337. Maillart, Hero killing a Syren; 508. J. Siber- 
echts, Forest-scene (1663); Koninck, Portrait; 566. Voilles, Portrait of a 
lady ; *538. Tilborgh, Village-festival ; 797. J. van Goyen, Landscape with 
houses ; 921. Maignon, The Venetian admiral Carlo Zeno ; '■'389. A. de New- 
ville, Skirmishers in the Crimea (1869). 

The two succeeding rooms contain Ethnographical Collections, and the 
next after these Coins and ancient Gobelins Tapestry. The last room is 
occupied by pictures bequeathed by A. Leleux in 1873: 288. Janssens, 
Minuet on a terrace ; 331. Leys, Faust and Margaret ; 279. P. de Hooch, 
Interior ; 551. W. van de Velde , A dead-calm ; 344. Vermeer (of Delft), 
Kitchen; :, 300. Th. de Keyser, Family-group; s, 519. Jan Steen, Peasant- 
dance (1670); 403. /. van Ostade, Stable (1645); 645. Wynants, Hawking; 
418. Poelenburg, Bacchus, Pomona, and Venus, with Cupids; 84. Brekelen- 
kamp, Lady and gentleman (1662); 25. J. van der Bent, Italian landscape, 
sunset; '386. A. van, der Neer, Moonrise; 520. J. Steen, A merry company; 
283, and, opposite, 282. Hurtrel, National Guard of 1849; 498. Ary 
Scheffer, 'The dead ride fast', from Burger's Leonore. — 509. Siberechts, 
The ford (1670); 528. D. Tenters the lounger, Landscape with figures; 25S. 
Dirk Hals, Backgammon-players; S: 247. Greuze, Psyche crowning Cupid; 
476. J. van Ruysdael, Landscape; 533. Terburg, Portrait; 199. G. v. Eeckhout, 
Continence of Scipio on conquering Carthage (1669); 26. N. Berchem (?), 
Italian landscape; 634. O. Weber, Going to church. 

From Room IV. we enter the — 
Musee Wicar, a collection of upwards of 1400 drawings by the most 
celebrated masters, chiefly of the Italian school, formed by the painter 
J. B. Wicar (b. at Lille 1762, d. at Rome 1834), and bequeathed by him 
to his native city. It is arranged in schools , the masters of each being 
placed in accordance with the dates of their birth, and their names 
being in most cases inscribed on the frames. Beside the most important 
sketches are placed engravings from the corresponding pictures, afford- 
ing an opportunity for most instructive comparisons. This collection is 
open at the same hours as the picture-gallery. 

On the stands in the middle of the First Room are placed the most 
important drawings of Raphael (the authenticity, however, not in all cases 
certain). On the walls are sketches of the later Florentine and Roman 
Schools. On the end-wall are a few reliefs, among which is the Daughter 
of Herodias, by Donatello. — In the Passage, in a niche to the left, is a 
famous "Head of a girl , in wax , long ascribed to Raphael but now re- 
cognised as ancient; the drapery of the bust is of terracotta. This unique 
work was probably found in a Roman tomb. — Large SALOon : Stand I. 
Late-Byzantine miniatures and early-Florentine drawings (Fra Bartolom- 
meo and others). Stand II. Michael Angela and Baccio Bandinelli. Stands 
III and IV. Architectural drawings. Stand V. Later Florentine artists 
(Santi di Tito, etc.). Stand IV. Venetian and Bolognese Masters ( Veronese, 
Guercino). The drawings on the walls are mostly by second-rate masters 
of the 17th century. — Last Room. Stand I. Early- German Masters 
(Schongauer, Diirer). Stand II. Flemish Masters. Stands III and IV., 
and also the walls, are devoted to the French School. 

Leaving the H6tel-de-Ville, we now cross the large Place in an 
oblique direction to the Rue des DeTms St. Etienne in the opposite 
corner, and proceed by this street, the Rue des Pretres , the Rue 
Basse (right), and the Rue du Cirque (first to the left) to Notre Dame- 
de-la-Treille (PI. 8; E, 2), a church in the style of the 13th cent., 
designed by the London architects H. Clutton and W. Burges, and 



to Brussels. ATH. 11. Route. 61 

begun in 1855. The building was planned on so ambitious a scale 
that little has been completed. 

The Rue Basse leads hence to the Rue Esquermoise (PL E, 2, 3), 
one of the principal streets of the old town, the appearance of which 
has been much altered by the construction of the wide Rue Thiers. 

The Gothic church of Ste. Catherine (PI. 10; D, 2) contains a 
high-altarpiece by Rubens, representing the martyrdom of that saint. 

The handsome Boulevard de la Liberie generally coincides with 
the boundary between the old town and the modern quarters which 
are built in the present Parisian style. In the Place de la Re- 
publique rises the spacious new Prefecture (PI. 26; E, 3). 

The Porte de Paris (PI. 27), belonging to the old fortifications, 
but spared on their removal, was built in 1682 in the form of a 
triumphal arch in honour of Louis XIV. • — The church of St. Mau- 
rice (PL 14; E, 3), near the Grande Place and the railway-station, 
dates from the 15-17th centuries. 

Fkom Lille to Brussels (68 M., in 2 1 / 4 -3 1 / 2 hrs. ; fares 8 fr. 
30, 6fr. 25, 4fr. 15c). About 4 M. totheS.E. of (4M.) Ascq is 
situated the village of Bouvines, where Emp. OthoIV. was defeated 
by Philip Augustus of France in 1214. 5 J / 2 M. Baisieux is the 
last French, and (11 M.) Blandain the first Belgian station, at 
each of which there is a custom-house. 14 M. Froyenne. 

16 M. Tournai, see p. 51 . Thence to Courtrai (3/ 4 hr.), see R. 8. 

Fkom Tocrnai to Mons , via Blaton, 30 M., railway in l'/2-l 3 A hr. 
(fares 3 fr. 75, 2 fr. 80, 1 fr. 90 c). Route via Leuze, (29 M.), see p. 48. 
— Stations: Vaulx, Antoing, Maubray, Callene.lle, Piruwelz (branch to Va- 
lenciennes) , Blaton (where the line from Leuze to Mons is rejoined), 
Harchies , Pommeroeul, La Hamaide, Boussu-Haine, St. Ohislain (p. 49), 
Quaregnon- Wasmuel, Jemmapes; Mons, see p. 158. 

Beyond Tournai the undulating and well-cultivated province of 
Hainault is traversed. Mont St. Aubert (p. 54) long remains con- 
spicuous to the left. 2OV2 M. Havinnes ; 24i/ 2 M. Bary-Maulde. 
28 M. Leuze, a small town on the Dendre, the junction of the Ghent- 
Oudenaerde-Leuze-Blaton line (p. 48). 30 M. Chapelle-a-Wattines ; 
32M. Ligne, which gives a title to the princely family of that name. 

35 M. Ath (Cygne; Paon d'Or; H6tel deBruxelles, near the 
station ; Hotel de V Univers, opposite the station), on the Dendre, 
formerly a fortress, with 9000 inhab., contains nothing to detain 
the traveller. The Hotel-de- Ville was erected in 1600. The church 
of St. Julian, founded in 1393 , was re-erected in 1817 after a fire. 
The Tour de Burbant, the most ancient structure in the town, dates 
from 1150. A monument to Eugene Defacqz, a native of Ath who 
played a prominent part in the events of 1830, was erected in 1880. 
Numerous lime-kilns in the environs. 

Ath is the junction for the line from Denderleeuw (Alosi) to Gram- 
mont, Ath, and Jurbise, 35 M., railway in 2 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 55, 3 fr. 30, 
2 fr. 30 c). — Denderleeuw , see p. 10. The train ascends the left bank 
of the Dender or Dendre. 2'/2 M. Okegem. Then (5 M.) Ninore , an old 
town with 6400 inhab., the seat, as early as the middle of the 12th cent., 
of a Premonstratensian abbey, of which no trace remains; the parish- 



62 Route 11. HAL. 

church contains two paintings by De Crayer. — The next stations are 
Santbergen, Ideghem, and Schendelbeke. 14 M. Grammont, see p. 160. — 
17 M. Acren, the first place in Hainault; 18 M. Lessines, with porphyry 
quarries, is the junction of the Bassilly-Renaix line (see below); Papignies; 
Bebaix. — 25 M. Ath, see above. — Then by ilafflet, MevergnUt - Altres, 
Brugelette (with a large orphan -asylum conducted by nuns), and Lenity 
(35 M.) Jurbise, where the Brussels and Paris line is reached (see p. 158). 

Fkom Ath to Blaton, 12 M., railway in 40 min. (fares 1 fr. 45, 1 ft. 10, 
70 c). — The stations are small and uninteresting,- with the exception of 
(7 M.) Beloeil, a village with the celebrated chateau and estate of the Prince 
de Ligne, which has been in possession of the family upwards of 500 yearj, 
Prince Charles Joseph of Ligne (1735-1814), the eminent general and states : 
man, gives a long account in his letters of this estate with its park and 
gardens. Delille, in his poem 'Les Jardins,' describes Beloeil as 'fOMda 
la fois magnifique et champetreS The chateau contains numerous curiosities 
of artistic as well as historic interest ; a considerable library, with many 
rare MSS.; admirable pictures, including works attributed to Surer, Bob 
bein, Van Dyck, Velazquez, Leonardo da Vinci, Michael Angelo, and SaUia- 
tor Rosa, and also specimens of many modern artists ; relics (fragment; 
of the "True Cross' and the 'Crown of Thorns'), and numerous gifts pre- 
sented to the family by emperors and kings, from Charles V. to Napoleon I. 
Admission to the chateau is rarely denied by the proprietor. 

Blaton is the junction for the lines to Leuze and Tournai (see p. 61), 
Pirnwelz-Tournai (see p. 61), and St. Ghislain-Mons (p. 48). 

Beyond Ath are several small stations at which the express does 
not stop. From (44 M.) Bassilly a branch-line diverges to Lessines 
(see above), Ellezelles (p. 30), and Renaix (p. 48). 

50 M. Enghien, the next important place, a town with 3900 in- 
hab., many of whom are occupied in lace-making ('point de Paris') 
possesses a chateau of the Due d'Aremberg , with park and gardens 
(branch-line to Braine-le-Comte to the S., and to Grammont and 
Ghent to the N. , p. 9). The train now quits the province of 
Hainault, and enters that of Brabant. 

59M. Hal ( Oygne ; Trois Fontaines ; Univers), a town situated 
on the Senne and the canal of Charleroi, with 9000 inhab., is celr 
ebrated throughout Belgium as a resort of pilgrims , on account of 
the miracle-working image of the Virgin in the church of Notre 
Dame, an edifice in the purest Gothic style, begun in 1341, and 
consecrated in 1409. The church possesses numerous costly trea- 
sures presented by Emp. Maximilian I., Charles V., Pope Julius II., 
Henry VIII. of England, the Burgundian Dukes , and the Spanish 
governors. The *Altar is a fine Renaissance work in alabaster, dating 
from 1533. The font, in bronze, was cast in 1446. A monument 
in black marble, with the figure of a sleeping child, is dedicated to 
the son of Louis XI. , who died in 1460. Another chapel contains 
33 cannon-balls, caught and rendered harmless by the robes of the 
wonder-working image during a siege of the town. — The Hdtel-de- 
Ville, built in 1616 and distinguished by its lofty roof, was suc- 
cessfully restored a short time ago. 

From Hal to Braine-le-Comte and ifons (Brussels and Paris railway), 
see B. 19. 

6OY2 M. Buysingen ; 62 M. Loth. The country traversed is hilly. 
The line runs for some distance parallel with the canal of Charleroi. 



!MTiU£ILjL!§. M' 




Place S? Croi 



Oogranli. Anstalt von 'Warner « Pehes, Leipzig. 



Kiiptrcsiirh v G. A..GejlVI-er 



Explanation of Nos. in the Plan of Brussels. 



1. Abattoirs (Slaughter-houses) B3, F2 

Aoade'mie des Beaux Arts 4 

2. Bains Leopold D 4 

Bain Royal E 3 

3. Bains St-Sauveur E5 

4. Banque Nationale E 3 

5. Bibliotheque Royale (Royal Library) D 4 

6. Bourse (Exchange) 03 

7. Casernes (Barracks) 1.2, E3, EF3, 05 

8. Cathedral (St-Michel et Ste-Gudule) E 3 

9. Chapelle de l'Expiation, or Ch. Salazar D4 

10. Colonne du Congres E3 

1 1 . Conservatoire Royal de Musique D 5 

12. Ecole veterinaire B 5 

13. Eglise du Beguinage C2 

14. — St-Boniface E6 

15. — Ste-Catherine 02 

16. — St-Jacques-sur-Caudenberg E4 

1 7. — St-Jean et St-Etienne D 5 

18. — des Je'suites E2, 04 

19. — St-Joseph F4 

20. — Ste-Marie de Schaerbeek F 1 

21. — St-Nicolas D3 

22. — Notre-Dame de Bon-Secours C 3, 4 

23. de la Chapelle 4 

24. des Viotoires D 5 

25. Entrepot Royal (Custom House) CI 

26. Etablissement Geographique (Van der Maelen's) ... B 2 

27. Galerie St-Hubert (Passage) D 3 

— du Commerce D 2 

Halles Centrales (Markets) 3 

29. Hopital St-Jean (St John's Hospital) E2 

30. Hotel du Gouvernement (Government Offices) . . . D 4 

31. — de Ville (Town Hall) D3 

32. Jardin Botanique (Botanic Garden) E2 

33. - — Zoologique (Zoological Garden) G5 

34. Institut des Aveugles (Blind Asylum) 6 

Lucashuys F 3 

35. Maison du Roi D3 

36. Manneken-Pis (Fountain) 04 

MaTche Couvert or Marche de la Madeleine . . . . D 4 

38. Monument des Martyrs D 2 

39. — of Counts Egmont and Hoorne D 5 

Muse"e des Armures 06 



41. 

42. 
43. 
44. 

46. 
47. 
48. 
49. 
50. 
51. 
52. 
53. 

55. 
56. 
57. 
58. 
59. 
50. 
61. 



63. 
64. 

65. 
66. 
67. 
68. 
69. 
73. 
74. 
75. 



Museum of Natural History on the ground-floor of the Museum 
of Paintings, No. 41. 

— Modern, see Palais Ducal, No. 50. 

— of Paintings (Picture Gallery) D 4 

— "Wiertz G 5 

Observatory F2 

Palais du Due d'Arenberg D 5 

— des Beaux Arts DE4 

— de Justice (old) D4 

(new) D 5 

— de la Nation (Legislative Assembly) E 3 

— du Comte de Flandre (Crown-Prince) E4 

— Ducal or des Academies E4 

— du Roi (Royal Palace) E4 

Prison des Petits-Oarmes DE5 

Porte de Hal (Museum of Antiquities) C 6 

Post Office in the Temple des Augustins, see No. 73. 

Station du Nord El 

— duMidi B5 

— du Luxembourg F 5 

— de l'Alle'e-Verte (Goods Station) D 1 

Statue of General Belliard . . E4 

— of Godfrey of Bouillon E4 

— of Leopold I F6 

— of Prince Charles of Lorraine, in the Palais de l'ln- 

dustrie. 

— of the Astronomer Quetelet E4 

— of the Anatomist Vesalius, in the Place des Barricades * F2 

Synagogue, New D5 

Telegraph, Central Office El 

Theatre Royal de la Monnaie D 3 

— des Galeries St-Hubert D3 

•^•duParc E3,4 

— Moliere E 5 

— des Delassements El 

Temple des Augustins, now General Post Office . . . D2 

University D4 

Vauxhall E4 



Hotels. 



a. Bellevue E4 

b. de Flandre E4 

c. de l'Europe D 4 

d. Mengelle E2 

e. de France E4 

g. Windsor D4 

h. de Suede D3 

i. de rijnivers D2 



k. de l'Empereur D2 

1. de Saxe D2 

n. de Hollande D4 

o. de la Poste D3 

r. du Grand Monarque . . . D3 

a. du Grand Miroir .... D3 

u. de Vienne D3 

<*. Grand Hotel de Bruxelles C D 3 



Hotels. BRUSSELS. 12. Route. 63 

64 M. Ruysbroeck was the birthplace in the 14th cent, of the mystic 
of that name. Near (66 M.) Forest the train crosses the winding 
Serine, which waters a rich pastoral district. The train crosses the 
Boulevards of Brussels, commanding a view of the Porte de Hal 
(p. 97) to the right, and soon stops at the Station du Midi. 
68 M. Brussels, see below. 

12. Brussels. French, Bruxelles. 

Arrival. There are three railway-stations at Brussels : 1. Station 
i>u Nord (PI. E, 1) for Ostend , Antwerp (and Holland) , Louvain, Liege, 
and Germany. 2. Station du Midi (PI. B, 5) for Charleroi, Namur via Bau- 
lers, Braine-le-Comte (entrance by the ticket-office in the principal facade), 
Tournai, and France (entrance by the ticket-office in the Rue Fonsny). 
3. Station du Luxembourg (PI. F, G, 5) for Ottignies, Namur, Givet 
(France), Luxembourg, Bale (and Germany); but most of the trains on 
this line also start from the Station du Nord. A fourth station (PI. C, 

D, 1) is used for goods-traffic only. The Chemin de Fer de Ceinture con- 
nects the several railway-lines, and also carries on a local traffic. — Cab 
with one horse from the station into the town 1 fr., with two horses 
l'/a fr. ; trunk 10 c. ; small articles free ; the driver expects an additional 
fee. The traveller should insist on being driven to the hotel he has 
selected, and disregard any representations of the driver to the contrary. 

Hotels. Upper part of the Town, near the park: Belle vue (PI. a; 

E, 4), Place Royale 9, frequented by royalty and the noblesse, high prices, 
D. 6, B. 2, A. l'/2fr. ; "Hotel de Flandee (PI. b; E, 4), Place Eoyale 
7-8 ; 'Hotel Mengelle (PI. d ; E, 2), Rue Royale 75, to the N. of the Colonne 
du Congres, R. 2'/2-6, A. 1, B. l>/2, de"j. 3-4, D. 5, 'pens.' in summer from 
12, in winter from 10'/2 fr. ; 'Hotel de l'Eueope (PI. c; D, 4), Place Royale 
12; "Hotel de France (PI. e; E, 3, 4), Montagne du Pare 4-8; Grand 
Hotel Britannique, Place du Trone 3 (PI. E, 5), behind the Royal Palace, 
D. 5 fr. All these hotels are good, well situated, and expensive. Table 
d'hote at 5, 5.30, or 6 p.m. — Windsor (PI. g; D, 4), Rue de la Regence 
51, somewhat less expensive, D. 3'/2 fr. 

Lower part of the Town: "Grand Hotel de Bruxelles (PI. a; C,D,3), 
Boulevard Anspach, a large establishment with about COO rooms, of which 
those opening on the glass-roofed court should be avoided ; R. & A. from 5, 
L. 1, B. l : /2, D. at 5.30 p.m. 4 fr. ; cafe and restaurant on the ground-floor. 

— -Hotel de Suede (PI. h; D, 3), Rue de l'Eveque 31, R. from 3 fr., B. 
IV2, D- 4Vs fr. ; "Hotel de l'Univers (PI. i; D, 2), Rue Neuve 38-40, 
D. 4fr; 'Hotel de l'Empereur (PI. k; D, 2), Rue Neuve 63, B. IV2, 
D. 4fr. ; Hotel de Saxe (PI. 1; D, 2), Rue Neuve 77-79, R. from 3 fr., 
L. <fe A. IV2, D. 3'/2 fr. ; "Hotel de Hollande (PI. n; D, 4), Rue de la 
Putterie 61, an old-fashioned house, R. 3, B. l'/2, D. 4 fr. ; Hotel de 
la Poste (PI. ; D, 3), Rue Fosse-aux-Loups 28, R. 2'/2-3 fr. ; "Rocher de 
Cancale, Rue Fosse-aux-Loups 17-19 (PI. D, 3), R. from 2'/2, D. from 2-3 fr. 

— Grand Miroie (PI. s; D, a), Rue de la Montagne 28; Hotel du Grand 
Cafe, Rue des Eperonniers 24-26; "Hotel de Vienne (PI. u; D, 3), Rue 
de la Fourche 24-26, R. 2V2-3, B. l'/ 4 , D. 3 fr. — Grand Monaeque (PI. r; 
D, 3) , Rue des Fripiers 17 ; Hotel dk la Campine , Marche-aux-Poulets 
45 ; "Hotel de Bordeaux, Rue du Midi 135, rather out of the way, R. 2, 
D. with wine 3'/4 tr. ; Hotel Frank, Place des Martyrs 13, quiet; Hotel 
de Cologne , Rue de la Fourche 13-15. — Near the Station du Nord : 
Geand Hotel Gernat, Boulevard Botanique 15 ; Hotel-Cafe des Boule- 
vards, Place des Nations 1; Hotel de Baviere, unpretending; English 
Hotel, Rue de Brabant 44, commercial. — Near the Station du Midi: 
Hotel des Acacias, de l'Eueope, de Calais, de l'Espeeance, and others. 

A number of Pensions like those in Switzerland have also recently 
sprung up: S.Bernard, Rue Belliard 50; Mrs. Wiltcher, Boul. de Waterloo 
2o; Mrs. Bourecoud , Rue Jourdan 6, Avenue Louise; De Boeck, Avenue 



64 Route 12. BRUSSELS. Cafe's. 

de la Toison d'Or 45; Mme. Van Loo, Rue Belliard 22; G. Janssens, Rue 
de Vienne 26 ; Hoffmann, Rue Montoyer 51-53 ; Mme. Gachet, Rue Caroly 10; 
Mme. Mason, Rue de la Concorde 61, Avenue Louise ; Mme. Merlier, Rue 
Veydt 1, Chaussee de Charleroi. Furnished Apartments at Rue du Prince 
Royale 42 (Mrs. Mathys). 

Restaurants. "Freres Provencaux, Rue Royale 40, by the park, D. from 
5 to 7.30 p.m. 5 fr., cheapest wine 3 fr. per bottle, beefsteak 3 fr. ; "Mengelle, 
see above; "Perrin, Rue Fosse-aux-Loups 35, to the N. of the theatre; 
"Dubost, Rue de la Putterie 23; "Cafi Riche, Rue de l'Ecuyer 23, corner 
of the Rue de la Fourche, D. from 5 fr., patronised by the Brussels 'Jeu- 
nesse dore'e'; Mais on Dorie, Rue Le'opold, corner of the Rue des Princes, 
D. from 4fr.; 'Restaurant du Grand Hdtel, Boul. Anspach, sometimes 
overcrowded; "Rocher de Cancale, see above. All these are elegantly fitted 
up, and resemble the leading restaurants of Paris. The viands and wine 
are excellent, but expensive. The portions are generally ample, so that 
one is enough for two persons. 

Next in order to the above houses come the Cafes-Restaurants and 
Tavernes, at which the cuisine is somewhat less elaborate and the charges 
correspondingly lower. Between 11 a.m. and 1-2 p.m. (dejenner) and 
between 5 and 7 p.m. (dinner) a choice of three or four dishes (plats 
du Jour) may always be obtained; the charges are de'j. 3 /t-l fr,, D. 1- 
l'/4 fr. ; soup or cheese (English , Dutch , or 'Gruyere') 40-50 c. extra. 
Dinners a pvix fixe, 2-5 fr., may also be obtained in many of these houses. 
Waiter 15-20 c. The usual beverage is English ale or stout or German 
beer. The former is best obtained in the Tavernes of the upper town 
and in other houses with English names (30 c. per half-pint) , while the 
latter (30-40 c. per glass) is found chiefly in the cafes of the lower town. 
The following are the most conveniently-situated of these establishments. 
In the Uppek Town: "Taverne du Globe, "Taverne de la Rigence, both 
in the Place Royale; "Carter's English Tavern (with rooms to let), Brasserie 
du Musie (R. with 'pens.' 5 fr.), British Tavern, all in the Place du Musee. 
— In the Lower Town , near the Place de la Monnaie : "Restaurant Tar- 
toni, Rue de l'Ecuyer 33; Grand Cafi de V Optra, Rue Leopold 2 and Rue 
de la Reine 13-15; Cafi du Cercle, Rue Le'opold 3; "Taverne Goldschmidt, 
Rue de l'Ecuyer 45; Aux Oaves Rhinanes ('English Restaurant'), Rue Leo- 
pold 9, D. from 2 3 /4fr., including a glass of wine; Taverne de Strasbourg, 
Rue Leopold, at the corner of the RueFoss^-aux-Loups ; Taverne deLondres, 
Rue de l'Ecuyer 15-17; "Taverne Rot/ale, Passage St. Hubert, Galerie du 
Roi and Rue d'Arenberg; Taverne St. Jean, Rue St. Jean, to the W. of 
the Montague de la Cour. In or near the Boulevard Anspach : "Restaurant 
Jean Dubois, Place de Brouckere, to the W. of the post-office; Pare aux 
Huitres , Boul. Anspach 29 ; Restaurant de la Bourse , at the back of the 
exchange. The two following are somewhat inconveniently situated: 
Cafe" Puth, Rue de Stassart 24 (PI. E, 5), D. from 3 fr. ; Duranton, Avenue 
Louise 82, on the way to the Bois de la Cambre. 

The following are good Eating-Houses in the side-streets to the N.E. 
of the Place de l'Hotel-de-Ville , chiefly frequented by natives : Au Gigot 
de Mouton, Au Filet de Boeuf, Rue des Harengs; A la Faille dichirie, 
Rue Chair et Pain; Grand Eperon, March6 aux Herbes 105. Oysters, steaks, 
and chops are their strong points; wine is usually drunk, but beer may 
also be obtained. 

Beer Houses. English Ale and Stout: Prince of Wales, Rue Villa 
Hermosa 8, first cross-street to the right in descending the Montague de 
la Cour (rooms to let); Old Tom Tavern, Place de la Monnaie. — German 
Beer: "Taverne de Vienne, Rue de la Madeleine 60; Trois Suisses, Place 
de la Monnaie ; Taverne Salvator, Rue des Fripiers 14 ; Roi de BavUre, 
Rue des Chapeliers 2. — Belgian Beer (Faro, Louvain, Lambicq, ZTytzet, 
Bock National) is largely consumed by the natives, but will probably be 
found unpalatable by the traveller. The Estaminets, or beer-houses, are 
very numerous. 

Cafes are very numerous and generally good (coffee 30 c, beer 30-35 c, 
ices 70 c). "Mille Colonnes and Grand Cafi Suisse, in the Place de la Mon- 
naie; Cafi du Cercle, Rue Le'opold, see above; "Cafi du Grand Hdtel, 



Theatres. BRUSSELS. 12. Route. 65 

Boulevard Anspach 23, to the N. of the Exchange ; Sesino, Boul. Anspach 3; 
Cafi Central, Boul. Anspach 97, to the S. of the Exchange. — Ices at the 
cafes, and also at the following confectioners: Brias & Co., Rue Cantersteen 
5 (PI. D, 4); "Brosi, Rue Treurenberg 8, Malhis, Rue Treurenberg 25 (at 
these two 50 c. per portion); Marehal , in the Park (Vauxhall), N. K. 
corner, by the Theatre du Pare. 

Baths. Bain Royal, Rue de l'Enseignement 62 (cold and swimming 
baths) and Rue du Moniteur 10-12 (warm baths, 1 fr. 20 c. to 2fr.). Bains 
St. Sauveur (PI. 3; D, 3), Montagne aux-Herbes-Potageres 33; Bains Lio- 
pokl (PI. 2; D, 4), Rue des Trois Tetes 8, both with good swimming 
basins (1 fr.). 

Shops. The best are in the Rue de la Madeleine and Montagne de la 
Cour, the principal streets leading from the upper to the lower part of 
the city; also in the Rue Neuve, the Passages, and Boul. Anspach. 
Prices always fixed. — Money Changers in the Montagne de la Cour 
(No. 81), Marche-aux-Herbes , Rue des Fripiers, etc. 

Brussels Lace. The following are the most important houses for this 
speciality: Verde" Delisle (Gompagnie des Indes), Rue de la Regence 1; Dai- 
meries- Petit jean, Rue Royale 2; BSval it De Beck, Rue Royale 74; Baert, 
Boul. du Nord 23; Junckers, Rue du Midi 132; Robyl, Rue du Midi 40; 
le Roy, Rue de Brabant 96; De Vergnies & Soeurs , Rue des Parois- 
siens 26 ; Des Maris, Rue Chancellerie 15 ; Sacri , Place des Martyrs 20. 
The lace is less expensive than formerly, as the flowers or 'sprigs' 
are now sewn upon a ground of tulle instead of one made by hand. 
The flowers are either manufactured with the bobbin (fleurs en plat) or 
with the needle (flevrs en point). About 130,000 women are employed 
in this manufacture in Belgium , and the value of their work is about 
50 million fr. annually. 

Booksellers. Office de Publiciti (Lebegue & Co.), Rue de la Madeleine 46; 
Kiessling et Co., with lending library, Montagne de la Cour 72; Muquardt, 
Rue de la Regence 45; Armes Successeurs , Rue de Namur 3. — Engrav- 
ings : Goupil et Co., Montagne de la Cour; Geruzet, Rue de TEcuyer ; 
Leroy & Fits, Montagne de la Cour 83; Bernheim, Montagne de la Cour 94. 

Post Office. The central office is now in the old Augustine Church 
(PI. 73; D, 2), Boulevard Anspach; open from 5 a.m. to 8 p.m. There 
are also numerous branch-offices, open from 7. a. m. to 7 p.m., all with 
telegraph-offices. — Pillar letter-boxes in all the principal streets. 

Telegraph Office. Central office (PI. 64; E, 1) at the Station du Nord, 
Rue de Brabant; 'bureaux succursales' at the other railway-stations, the 
above-mentioned post-offices, etc. 

Cabs. The smaller cabs with one horse hold 1-3 persons, and the 
larger with two horses have room for 4 persons. Gratuity of 15-25 c. to 
the driver usual. At present the tariff is as follows. 



Within the City, in- 
cluding the suburbs. 

For 20 min 

For '/it 

Each addit. l /t hv. . . 



From 6, in winter 7 a.m. 
to midnight 

Two Horse 

1 fr. 50 c. 

2 fr. 25 c. 
fr. 75 c. 



One 


Horse 


1 fr. 


c. 


1 fr. 


50 c. 


fr. 


50 c. 



From midnight till 
6, in winter 7 a.m. 



2 fr. c. 

3 fr. c. 
1 fr. c. 



3-4 fr. c. 
1 fr. 50 c. 



Trunk 15 c, small luggage free. Gratuity of 10-25 c. to the driver 
usual. This tariff includes drives in the Bois de la Cambre and the Park 
of Laeken, provided the hirer returns to town in the same cab. If not, 
1 fr. extra is paid as return-money. 

The fares of the 'Voitures de Grande Remise', superior vehicles, with 
coachmen in livery, are higher. 

Tramway (Chemin de Fer Americain). Brussels possesses a very 
complete network of tramways, which are marked in the Plan. The cars 
run every 10 or 20 min. ; fares 10-60 c. according to the distance traversed. 
Numerous Omnibuses also traverse the town in every direction. 

Theatres. Thidtre Royal de la Monnaie (PI. 65; D,3), Place de la Mon- 
naie, for operas only; open daily, except Saturdays, in autumn, winter, 
and spring. Performances begin at 7, and last till 11 or later. Fauteuils 

Baedkkkr's Belgium and Holland. 7th Edit. 5 



66 Route 12. mWbHMLS. Collections. 

d'orchestre and premieres loges 6 fr. ; balcon (reserved seats in front of 
the best boxes) and secondes loges 5 fr. ; parquet (between the stalls and 
pit), and secondes loges, at the side, 4 fr.; troisiemes loges and parterre 
(pit) 2 fr. ; seats previously secured ('en location 1 ) cost l /i-i fr. each ad- 
ditional; bureau de location open daily 12-3 o'clock. — Thidtre Royal des 
Galeries St. Hubert (PI. 66; operas, dramas, comedies, vaudevilles), in 
the Passage of that name (p. 92), with accommodation for 1500 spectators; 
best boxes 5 fr. — Thidtre du Pare (PI. 67; E, 3, 4), comedies, vaude- 
villes , dramas ; best seats 5 fr. — Thidtre Moliere (PI. 68 ; E, 5), Rue 
da Bastion, for dramas and vaudevilles; best seats 5 fr. — Thidtre des 
Fantaisies Parisiennes or Alcazar Royal, Rue d'Arenberg (PI. D, 3; opera 
bouffe) ; best boxes 41/2 fr. — Eden Thidtre, Eue de la Croix de Fer (PI. E, 
F, 3), for spectacular pieces; adm. 2 fr., reserved seats extra. — Thidtre 
Flamand or Allmmbra ('National Tooneel'), etc. 

Concerts in winter in the new Conservatoire de Musique (PI. 11; D, 5), 
Rue de la Regence, at the corner of the Petit-Sablon, given by the mem- 
bers of the Conservatoire Royal de Musique ; admission 1-3 fr. — 'Concerts 
populaires et classiques' generally twice a month , on Sundays at 1 p.m., 
in the Theatre Flamand, Rue du Cirque. — Open-air concerts in the Park 
daily in summer (1st May to 31st August) 3-4.30 p.m. (Sun. 1-2.30 p.m.); 
at the Vauxhall (PI. 75; E, 3,4), at the N.E. corner of the Park, concert 
by the orchestra of the royal theatre at 8 p. m. (1 fr.) ; etc. 

Panorama, Boulevard du Hainaut 8, by the Place Fontainas (PI. C, 4); 
adm. 10-4, 2 fr., Sun. 1 fr. In 1884 the scene was the Destruction of 
Pompeii, by Castellani. 

Circus. Cirque Royal , Rue de l'Enseignement (PI. E , 3) ; boxes 5 fr., 
stalls 3 fr., first gallery 2 fr. 

Popular Festivals. Church festival about the end of July, and anniver- 
sary of the Revolution, 23rd-26th Sept. (Procession in the Cathedral), on 
which occasions Flemish merriment becomes somewhat boisterous. — 
Horse Races, several times annually, at the Hippodrome, on the road to 
Boitsfort (p. 167). 

Embassies. American Minister, Hon. N. Fish, Rue Ducale 47 ; Consul, 
J. Wilson, Esq., Place du Trone 1. — British Minister, Sir E. B. Male), 
Rue du Trone 42. 

English Church Service at the Church of the Resurrection, Rue Stassart 
(PI. E, 6; services at 8.30, 11. 3.45, and 7); at Christchurch, Rue Crespel, 
Avenue de la Toison d'Or (11 a.m. and 7 p.m.); and at the Protestant 
Church in the Rue Belliard (12 noon and 4 p.m.). French Protestant 
services in the last-named church, in the Chapelle du Boulevard de l'Ob- 
servatoire, and in the Chapelle du Musee. German Protestant services 
also in the last-named. Flemish Protestant service at Rue Blaes 70. — 
Synagogue, Rue de la Regence, see p. 88. 

Collections, Museums, etc. : — "Armour and Antiquities at the Porte de 
Hal (p. 97), daily 10-3, Mon. 1-3.. 

Bibliotheque Royale (p. 75), daily 10-3, in summer 10-4. 

Botanical Garden (p. 95), daily till dusk ; admission to the hot-houses 
by payment of a fee, 10-12 and 2-4 (not on Sundays). 

Exchange (p. 94), daily; business-hours 1-3 p.m., corn-exchange later. 

Hdtel-de-Ville (p. 90); interior best seen before 9 a.m. or after 4 p.m. 

Musie Wiertz (p. 96), daily 10-4. 

Natural History Collection (p. 85), daily 10-3. 

"Palais Arenberg (picture-gallery, p. 87), shown on week-days, 10-4, 
in the absence of the Duke; visitors write their names in a book at the 
porter's lodge (strangers are sometimes admitted when the Duke is at 
home on sending in their cards) ; fee 3-5 fr. 

Palais Ducal or des Acadimies (frescoes in the hall; p. 70), daily; 50c. 

Palais Royal (p. 70), shown in absence of the King only, and by 
special permission of the 'marechal du palais', or minister of the household. 

"Picture Gallery (p. 76), daily 10-3, 4, or 5. 

Pictures, see also Musee Wiertz, Palais Arenberg, Palais Ducal. 

Principal Attractions : Park (p. 69) and its environs ; Congress Column 
(p. 72); Cathedral (p. 72); Museum (p. 76); Palais de Justice (p. 88); 



History. BRUSSELS. 12. Route. t>7 

Rue de la Regence (p. 86); Market-place and Hotel -de-Ville (p. 90); 
Mannikin Fountain (p. 91); Rue Neuve and Martyrs' Monument (p. 93); 
the new Boulevards and Exchange (pp. 93, 94) ; Galerie St. Hubert (p. 92), 
in the evening by gaslight; Musee Wicrtz (p. 96); Antiquities at the Porte 
de Hal (p. 97). 

Brussels, the capital of Belgium, the residence of the royal 
family, and seat of government, is situated nearly in the centre of 
the kingdom, on the small river Serine, a tributary of the Schelde. 
The city consists of the lower part on the N.W. side, traversed 
by several canals and ramifications of the Senne , most of which 
are now vaulted over, and the upper part on the S.E. side, covering 
the slope which gradually rises from the river. In 1881 the popu- 
lation was 1(55,350, or including the nine suburbs (named from 
the N. towards the E., Schaerbeek , St-Josse-ten-Noode , Etterbeek, 
Ixelles, St. Gilles, Anderlecht, Koekelberg, Molenbeek-St-Jean, Lne- 
ken) 388,781. There are upwards of 6000 English residents. Most 
of the latter reside in or near the Quartier Leopold (p. 96), the 
highest and pleasantest part of the town. The commerce of Brussels 
is comparatively small in extent, but its manufactures of lace 
[p. 65), furniture, bronzes, carriages, and leather articles are very 
important. 

The chronicles of the 8th cent, make mention of a village named 
'Brucsella' (broek, marsh; broeksele, dwelling on the marsh), and a 
document of Otho the Great proves that there was a church here in 
966. In the 11th cent, the town was considerably extended and 
surrounded by walls, and soon became an important station on the 
great commercial route between Bruges and Cologne. The princes 
and nobility erected their mansions on the heights rising gradually 
from the Senne, among them the Counts of Liege, the sovereign 
lords of the country, who afterwards assumed the title of Dukes of 
Brabant (12th cent.). The Burgundian princes, who subsequently 
resided here (15th cent.), were generally surrounded by a large re- 
tinue of French knights, in consequence of which, even at that period, 
French became the most fashionable language among the nobility of 
the Netherlands. The character of the city and its inhabitants thus 
gradually developed itself, the court and the nobility, with their 
French language and manners, being established in the upper part, 
while the lower quarters were chiefly occupied by the trading com- 
munity and the lower classes, whose language and character were 
essentially Flemish. 

After the Netherlands passed into the possession of the Haps- 
burgs in 1477, Brussels became the seat of a brilliant court, which 
attained the height of its magnificence under Charles V. Philip II. 
made it the official residence of the Stadtholder of the Netherlands, 
and Margaret of Parma (p. xvii) here performed the duties of that office . 
Brussels was the scene of the first rising of the Netherlands against 
the Spanish dominion (1566 ; see p. 87) , but at the end of the 
protracted conflict the city remained in the hands of the Spaniards. 

5* 



68 Route 12. BRUSSELS. History of Art. 

During the wars of Louis XIV. and Louis XV. Brussels had much 
to suffer. Its refractoriness under the galling yoke of the Austrian 
governors was another source of disaster (see p. 89), but a better 
state of affairs was introduced by the mild rule of Maria Theresa 
and her stadtholder, Duke Charles of Lorraine (1741-80). After the 
wars of the French Republic and the First Empire , Belgium was 
united in one monarchy with Holland, and Brussels alternated with 
the Hague as the seat of the States General and the residence of 
the king. The revolution which ended in the separation of Belgium 
and Holland broke out at Brussels in 1830 ; and on July 21st of the 
following year, the new King of Belgium, Leopold of Saxe-Coburg- 
Gotha, entered the city in state. At that time Brussels contained 
about 100,000 inhabitants. 

The half French half Flemish character of the city, of which we 
have spoken above, is still recognisable at the present day. The 
upper part of the city, which was rebuilt after a great conflagration in 
1 731 , contains the Royal Palace, the ministerial offices, the embassies, 
and the mansions of the nobility and gentry. The well-known ball 
given by the Duchess of Richmond on the eve of the Battle of Water- 
loo took place in the house in the Rue Royale nearest to the former 
Porte de Schaerbeek. The lower town, on the other hand, is devoted 
almost entirely to industry and commerce. The spacious market- 
place, with the magnificent H6tel-de-Ville and the mediaeval guild- 
houses, presents a very striking picture, and affords an idea of the 
ancient glory of the city, but the irresistible advance of modern im- 
provement has left few other relics of antiquity. The most recent 
step in this direction has been the construction of the new Boule- 
vards. 

Sketch op Art in Brussels. During the two golden ages of Flemish 
art in the 15th and again in the 17th cent., Brussels held a subordinate 
position, when compared with other Belgian towns, such as Ghent, Bruges, 
and Antwerp; but the appointment of Roger Van der Weyden the Elder 
to the office of civic painter in 1436 (p. xlii) is sufficient proof that art 
was not neglected here. The prosecution of the fine arts, as indeed that 
of liberal pursuits in general, fell entirely into abeyance in the 18th 
century. The name of Brussels, however, again become known in con- 
nection with painting after the year 1815, when Jacques-Louis David, the 
famous head of the modern French school, banished from Paris as a re- 
gicide, took up his abode here. David was too old to found a new school, 
but it was owing to his influence that the classical style remained longer 
dominant in Brussels than in other Belgian art-centres. Naves, Portaels, 
and Mathieu, who flourished here during the third and fourth decades of 
the present century, are good representatives of the correct and careful, 
though at the same time cold and lifeless style which then prevailed at 
Brussels, particularly in the domains of sacred art. 

In the remarkable revolution in taste and practice which took place 
in Belgium after 1830, Brussels took little part, the movement being 
headed by Antwerp. The political importance and wealth of the city, 
however, have assembled here the chief colony of artists in Belgium, 
though it is impossible to class them together as forming a school. 

The most distinguished names about 1840-50 are thosu of Louis Qah 
tail (b. at Tournai, 1810) and Edouard Biifve (b. at Brussels, 1808), whose 
'Abdication of Charles V (p. 84) and 'Compromise of the Belgian ~8o- 



Park. BRUSSELS. 12. Route. 69 

tiles' (p. 85) won them ardent admirers far beyond the confines of Bel- 
gium. Gallait in particular cultivates a careful naturalism, coupled with 
the utmost attention to details, in which, however, he still falls f;:r 
ihort of the technical skill of the present day. The fact of their having 
Kiven expression to national ideas, and celebrated the praises of Egmont 
in particular, has contribnted not a little to the popularity of both these 
masters. At one period Gallait was very partial to a kind of sentimental 
style, which in some cases degenerated into the melodramatic. In a 
later generation the following have acquired eminence as historical and 
•enre painters : Slingeneyer, Markelboch, Wullfaert (a pupil of Gallait), 
be Vriendt, Madou (d. 1877), and Stallaert. Emilie Waulers is the most 
iistinguished living painter who can be said to belong to a properly in- 
digenous school. The French influence, which has already submerged 
the national literature, promises gradually to supersede the national art 
a,s well. This is shown by the increasing resort of Belgian artists to 
Parisian studios, by their not unfrequent migrations to Paris, and lastly 
and mainly by their ready acceptance of the traditions observed^ by Pa- 
risian artists since the time of the Second Empire. Leading represen- 
tatives of this French element on Belgian soil are the genre painters Al- 
fred Stevens and Willems, the first of whom in particular is more at home 
in Paris than in his native country. 

Another style, marked by its correct drawing, and resembling the Ger- 
man school, is exemplified by G. Guffens (b. 1823) and /. Swerts (d. 1879), 
who made many conjoint efforts to naturalise fresco-painting in Belgium 
(Antwerp, p. 147 ; Ypres, p. 27; Courtrai, p. 49). — As a specialist maybe 
mentioned the animal-painter E. Verboeckhoven, with whom the names of 
Robbe and Tschaggeny may be coupled. In landscape-painting Belgium has 
no contemporary artists comparable to those of Holland. 

The eccentric painter Wiertz, nearly all of whose works are collected 
and preserved in a gallery of their own (p. 96), occupies a perfectly unique 
position. Although naturally quite capable of acquiring the technical 
5kill of Rubens, to which indeed he in some measure attained, Wiert/, 
was unfortunately led by personal disappointment and literary quarrels to 
embark on an entirely mistaken career, bordering on madness. 

The art of Sculpture is pursued at Brussels with great success, as is 
proved by such names as Eug. Sirnonis , A. Fraikin, and Jehotte. Still 
happier results have been attained by sculptors of ecclesiastical subjects, 
and particularly in wood-carving , in which Belgium has regained some 
of its 17th cent, reputation. Its chief seats are Brussels and Louvaiit, and 
its most eminent masters Geerts and the brothers Goyers. The works of 
this school are so frequent in new and restored churches, that it is super- 
fluous to adduce examples here. 

In Architf.ctuee the Gallic proclivities of the people are shown by 
the overwhelming number of houses in the so-called French Renaissance 
style (from Louis XIII. to Louis XVI.) which have sprung up within the 
last few years and completely altered the appearance of the old Brabant 
capital. It must be mentioned on the other hand that the Flemish Re- 
naissance style of the 16th cent, has also become extremely popular, and 
has been followed not only in private houses, in which the most striking 
feature is the small proportion borne by the breadth to the height, but 
also in various public edifices. 



The *Park (PI. E, 4), situated in the centre of the upper part 
of the town, originally the garden of the Dukes of Brabant, and laid 
out in its present form in 1774, is an attractive spot, although of 
limited extent (500 yds. in length, 300 yds. in width). Among the 
sculptures it contains are a Diana and Narcissus, at the fountain 
opposite the Palais de la Nation, both by Orupello ; a Magdalene 
by Duquesnoy ; a bust of Peter the Great, presented to the city by 
Prince Demidoff ; two figures of Meleager by Lejeune ; and a Venus 



70 Route 12. BRUSSELS. Palais des Academies. 

by Olivier. The groups at the entrance opposite the Palace, by 
Poelaert and Melot, represent Summer and Spring. The park is a 
fashionable resort in summer on Sundays from 1 to 2.30 p.m., and 
on week-days from 3 to 4.30 p.m., when a military band plays. 
There is also music here on most summer-evenings at 8 o'clock (at 
the Vauxhall, p. 66). The park is closed about an hour after dusk, 
when a bell is rung to apprise visitors of the shutting of the gates. 
During the eventful 23rd-26th of September, 1830, the park was one 
of the chief scenes of the conflict. Prince Frederick of the Nether- 
lands entered Brussels with an army of 10,000 men on the 23rd, 
and occupied the palace and park. He was, however, unable to 
pass the barricades which guarded the streets, and evacuated the 
park on the night of the 26th. 

The streets surrounding the park, the Rue Royale, Rue Ducale, 
Rue de la Loi, and Place des Palais, together with the adjoining 
Place Royale, received their present architectural character at the 
time of the formation of the park (last quarter of the 18th cent.), 
having been mainly designed by the talented architect Ouimard. 
The Rub Royale, which bounds the park on the W., runs along 
the margin of the eminence on which the upper town is situated. 
As in other streets in this quarter, the traffic is comparatively in- 
significant, though several attractive shops have recently been 
opened here. On the "W. the row of houses is often broken by small 
terraces, intended by Guimard to afford views of the lower town, 
but many of them have unfortunately been built up. On the first of 
these terraces rises the marble Statue of Count Belliard (PI. 59 ; 
B, 4), a French general (d. 1832), who was ambassador at the 
newly-constituted court of Belgium in 1831-32, by Geefs. 

The Palais du Roi (PI. 51; E, 4), in the Place des Palais, origi- 
nally consisted of two buildings erected during last century, which 
were connected by an intervening structure adorned with a Corin- 
thian colonnade in 1827. It is at present being entirely remodelled 
from designs by Balat, and two new wings projecting into the royal 
gardens at the back have lately been completed. The interior (adm. , 
see p. 66) contains a number of apartments handsomely fitted up, 
and a considerable number of ancient and modern pictures. The 
best among the former are specimens of Rubens, Van Dyck, Hob- 
betna, and Frans Hals ; among the latter are works of De Braekeleer, 
Coomans, Qallait, Verboeckhoven, and Wappers. A flag hoisted on 
the palace announces that the king is either here or at Laeken. 

Adjoining the Royal Palace, at the corner of the Rue Ducale, is 
situated the Palais Ducal, or Palais des Academies (PI. 50 ; E, 4), 
formerly that of the Prince of Orange. It was erected at the national 
expense, and presented to the Prince, afterwards King William II. 
(d. 1849), in 1829. Since 1842 it has been the property of 
government. The ground-floor now contains a Musee des Pldtres, 
or collection of casts of antique and modern sculptures (open 



Palais de la Nation. BRUSSELS. 12 Route. 71 

daily, 10-4). The upper floor has been occupied since 1877 by the 
Academie Boyale des Lettres, Arts, et Sciences, and the Academie 
Royale de Medecine. The Musee Moderne , formerly in this palace, 
is now united with the old Museum (p. 83). 

The Grande Salle on the first floor, a very handsome room, has been 
decorated by Slingeneyer with twelve finely - executed mural paintings, 
representing the most important events in the political and social history 
of Belgium. 1. The ancient Belgians under Ambiorix swearing to deliver 
their country from the Roman yoke, B.C. 54; 2. Clovis at the battle of 
Ziilpich, vowing to introduce Christianity, A.D. 496; 3. Influence of Char- 
lemagne, the Emperor in the school of Heristal , 768-814 ; 4. The cul- 
minating period of chivalry : Godfrey de Bouillon visiting the Holy Se- 
pulchre after the conquest of Jerusalem , 1099 ; 4. Culminating period of 
civic prosperity : Jacques Van Artevelde advising the Flemish towns to 
remain neutral in the wars between France and England, 1337 ; 6. Cul- 
minating period of the power of the guilds : Anneessens (p. 89), the 
energetic defender of the rights of the guilds against the Austrian supre- 
macy, before his execution, 1719 ; 7. Establishment of the present reigning 
family, 1831 ; 8. The fine arts : Albert and Isabella of Austria, after their 
entry into Louvain, attend the historical teaching of Justus Lipsius ; 
9. Music : Willaert, Clement, Lassus, Gretry, etc. ; 10. Ancient art : Philippe 
lc Bon of Burgundy visiting Jan and Margaret Van Eyck ; on the wall a 
portrait of Hubert Van Eyck; 11. Modern art: Rubens returning to his 
native country, and received by Van Dyck, Snyders, Jordaens, etc. ; 
12. Natural science : Vesalius the anatomist on the field of battle as the 
military physician of Charles V. 

The garden which surrounds the palace is adorned with a marble 
stitue of Quetelet the Astronomer (p. 96), by Fraikin, erected in 
1880 (in front of the palace), and with the Victor, a statue in bronze 
by J. Geefs, Cain, by Jehotte, and a discus-thrower by Kessels (at 
the back). 

In the Rue de la Loi, which skirts the N. side of the park, rises 
the Palais de la Nation (PI. 48; E, 3), erected in 1779-83 from a 
design by Guimard for the assemblies of the old Council of Brabant, 
used as the Palais des Etats Generaux from 1817 to 1830, and now 
for the sittings of the Belgian Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. 
The reliefs in the pediment, by Godecharle (1782), are illustrative 
of the administration of justice. The interior of the main building 
was entirely destroyed by tire in 1883, and the sittings of the Cham- 
ber of Deputies take place at present in the hall of the Senate in the 
right wing. 

The buildings adjoining the Palais de la Nation on the E. and 
W. are occupied by government-offices. — Opposite, in the N.E. 
angle of the park, stands the building known as Vauxhall (PI. 75; 
E, 3, 4 ; comp. p. 66), partly occupied by the Cercle Artistique et 
Litteraire ; near it is the Theatre du Pare (PI. 67). 

At Rue Ducale No. 22, bis (PI. F, 3), Th. Smaelen, the painter, 
has erected a wooden house in the Flemish style of the 16th cent., 
chiefly with original materials. It is called TLueashuys. — Adja- 
cent, No. 22, is the Musee Scolaire de VEtat (open daily, except 
Frid. and Sat., 10-4), containing an extensive collection of edu- 
cational appliances. 



72 Route 12. BRUSSELS. Cathedral. 

In the Rue Royale (PI. E, 4-1), midway between the Rue de la 
Loi and the Boulevard Botanique, is situated the Place du Congfes, 
adorned with the *Colonne du Congres (PI. 10 ; E, 3), a monument 
erected to commemorate the Congress of 4th June, 1831, by which 
the present constitution of Belgium was established, and Prince Leo- 
pold of Saxe-Cobourg elected king. The column, of the Doric order, 
147 ft. in height, is surmounted by a statue of the king in bronze, 
by W. Oeefs. The nine figures in relief below, representing the 
different provinces of Belgium, are by Simonis. The female figures 
in bronze at the four corners are emblematical of the Liberty of the 
Press, the Liberty of Education, both by Jos. Oeefs, the Liberty of 
Associations, by Fraikin, and the Liberty of Public "Worship, by 
Simonis. The names of the members of the Congress and of the 
provisional government of 1830 are recorded on marble tablets. The 
summit, which is reached by a spiral staircase of 192 steps (trifling 
fee to the custodian), commands a magnificent panorama. The two 
bronze lions at the door aTe by Simonis. The foundation-stone of the 
column was laid by King Leopold I. in 1850, and the inauguration 
took place in 1859. At the foot of the flight of steps which descend 
to the lower part of the town are situated two Marches Converts. 

The church of Ste. Marie de Sohaerbeek is the most conspicuous 
object at the N. end of the Rue Royale, beyond the Boulevard 
(comp. p. 96). 

The *Cathedral (Ste. Gudule et St. Michel; PI. 8 ; E, 3) in the 
vicinity, situated on a somewhat abrupt slope overlooking the lower 
part of the town, is an imposing Gothic church consisting of nave 
and aisles, with a retro-choir, and deep bays resembling chapels. 
The church was begun about the year 1220, on the site of an earlier 
building, consecrated in 1047. A few traces of the transitional 
style of this period are still observable in the retro-choir. The 
rest of the choir, the transept, the arcades of the nave, and the S. 
aisle are early-Gothic, and were completed in 1273. The N. aisle, 
and the vaulting and windows of the nave were constructed between 
1350 and 1450. The windows of the high choir and the unfinished 
W. towers date from the 15th cent., the large (N.) chapel of the 
Sacrament from 1534-39, the (S.) chapel of Notre Dame de Deli- 
vrance from 1649-53, and the whole was restored in 1848-56. The 
facade in its principal features rather resembles the German than 
the French Gothic style. The numerous statuettes recently placed 
in the niches and consoles of the portal are unfortunately out of 
keeping with the Gothic character of the building. TheW. entrance 
is approached by a handsome flight of steps, completed in 1861. 

The Interior (the works of art are shown from 12 to 4 only, when 
1 fr., or, If a party, 50 c. each, must be contributed to the funds of the 
church, besides which the sacristan expects a fee for opening the chapels ; 
entrance by the S. transept) is of simple but noble proportions, and 
measures 118 yds. in length by 55 yds. in breadth. The nave rests on 
twelve round pillars and six buttresses, the choir on ten round columns. 

The beautiful "Stained Glass dates from different periods, from the 13th 



Cathedral. BRUSSELS. 12. Route. 73 

cent, down to modern times. The finest is that in the 'CHArEL ok the 
Sacrament (N. ; adjoining the choir on the left), consisting of five windows 
presented in 1540-47 by five of the most powerful Roman Catholic poten- 
tates of Europe, in honour of certain wonder-working Hosts (comp. 
p. 92). Each window bears the portraits of the donors with their patron- 
saints : 1st window (beginning from the left), John III. of Portugal and 
his queen Catherine, a sister of Charles V. ; 2nd, Louis of Hungary and 
his queen Maria, another sister of Charles V ; !! 3rd, Francis I. of France 
and his queen Eleonora, a third sister of Charles V.; 4th, Ferdinand I. 
of Austria, brother of Charles V., and his queen; 5th (above the altar) 
Charles V. and his queen Eleonora Louise. The first two windows were 
executed by Jan Haeck from designs by Michael Coxie, the third is by 
Bernard van Orley, and the fifth is a skilful modern reproduction (1848), 
by Capronnier from designs by Navez, of the old one, which had been un- 
fortunately destroyed. The representations in the upper half of the win- 
dows depict the story of the Hosts, which were stolen by Jews and sacri- 
legiously transfixed in their synagogue. The scoffers were so terrified by 
their miraculous bleeding that they determined to restore them; but their 
crime was denounced and expiated by death. The top of the 5th window 
represents the adoration of the Lamb and the Sacred Hosts. The Gothic 
altar in carved wood (by Goyers, 1849) is beautifully executed. 

The windows of the Chapel of Notre Dame de Delivrance (S. side), 
executed in 165b' by J. de la Baer of Antwerp, from designs by Theod. 
van Thulden, are inferior both in drawing and colouring to those just 
described, but are notwithstanding excellent examples of 17th cent, art 
(school of Rubens). They represent episodes from the life of the Virgin, 
with portraits of Archduke Leopold (d. 1662), Archduke Albert (d. 1621), 
and the Archduchess Isabella Clara Eugenia (d. 1633); then Emp. Ferdi- 
nand II. (d. 1658) and Leopold I. (d. 1705). The same chapel contains a 
-Monument in marble, by W. Geefs, to Count Frederick Merode, who fell in 
a skirmish with the Dutch at Berchem in 1830. The armorial bearings 
of the Merode family have the commendable motto: 'Plus d'honneur que 
d'honneurs\ Over the monument, the Assumption , a large modern pic- 
ture by Navez. This chapel also contains a marble monument to Count 
Philip Merode (d. 1857), an elder brother of the last-named, a well-known 
Belgian statesman, by Fraikin, and one of the Spanish general Count Isen- 
ourg-Grenzau (d. 1664), the last of a noble Rhenish family. 

The five stained-glass windows of the High Choir, dating from the 
middle of the 16th cent., contain portraits of Maximilian of Austria and 
his queen Mary of Burgundy; their son Philippe le Bel and his queen 
Johanna of Castile ; Emp. Charles V. and Ferdinand, sons of the latter ; 
Philip II., son of Charles V., with Ms first wife, Maria of Portugal ; Phi- 
libert, Duke of Savoy, and Margaret of Austria. — Below is the monument 
of Duke John II. of Brabant (d. 1312) and his duchess Margaret of York, 
in black marble, with a recumbent lion in gilded copper, cast in 1610; 
opposite to it, the monument, with recumbent figure, of Archduke Ernest 
(d. 1595), brother of Emp. Rudolph II. and stadtholder of the Netherlands. 
Both monuments were erected by Archduke Albert (brother of Ernest) in 
1610. A white marble slab covers the entrance to the burial-vaults of 
the princes of the House of Austria. 

The Retro-Choir contains four stained-glass windows executed by ('■'«- 
pronnier in 1879 from designs by Navez; the subjects are taken from the 
history of the Patriarchs and the Children of Israel, from the life of Christ, 
and from the history of the Christian church. — In the rococo chapel 
behind the high-altar is an altar from the Abbaye de la Cambre (p. 100). 
The stained glass, bearing figures of saints and the arms of the Merode 
family, is also by Capronnier (1843). 

Transept. 'Stained glass: Charles V. and his queen, with their 
patron-saints (N.); Louis III. of Hungary and his queen, by Bernard van 
Orley, 1538 (S.). Opposite the N. chapel, winged picture representing 
scenes from the life of St. Gudule, by Coxie (1592); opposite the S. 
chapel, Crucifixion, by the same artist. 

The well-executed and richly-coloured stained glass in the Nave is 



74 Route 12. BRUSSELS. Banque Nationale. 

all by Caprotmier, having been presented by the king, the royal family, 
and wealthy Belgian citizens, and put up in 1860-80; the subjects also 
refer to the story of the stolen Hosts (see p. 73), beginning in the S. 
aisle, by the transept. The window of the W. Portal, a Last Judgment 
by F. Floris, remarkable for the crowd of figures it contains, dates from 
1528, but has been frequently restored. Four of the massive statues of the 
Twelve Apostles on the pillars of the nave (Paul, Bartholomew, Thomas, 
Matthew) are by Jer. Duquesnoy; three others (John, Andrew, Thaddaeus) 
are by FaytTherbe (d. 1694). The "Pulpit, originally in the church of the 
Jesuits at Louvain, was executed in 1699 by the celebrated Verbruggen. 
It is a representation in carved wood of the Expulsion from Paradise. 
Among the foliage are all kinds of animals, — a bear, dog, cat, fox, 
eagle, vulture, peacock, owl, dove, squirrel, ape eating an apple, etc. 
Above is the Virgin with the Child, who crushes the head of the serpent 
with the cross. — In the aisles : confessionals by Van Delen (18th cent.); in 
the S. aisle is the monument of Canon Triest (d. 1846), noted at Brussels 
for his benevolence, by Eug. Simonis; a marble monument to Count Cornet 
de Ways-Ruart , by Geefs , 1872 (Faith supporting old age and elevating 
youth). The marble-reliefs of the stations on the way to Calvary are by 
P. Puyenbroeck. The government and the city have for many years expend- 
ed considerable sums annually on the embellishment of the sacred edifice. 

The Tower commands a beautiful view; ascent, 1 pers. 2 fr., 2 or 
more pers. 3 fr. 

The handsome new building opposite the cathedral, to the N., 
is the *Banque Nationale (PI. 4; E, 3), one of the most admirable 
modern buildings in Brussels, designed by H. Beyaert and Janssens, 
and completed in 1864 , exhibiting a free treatment of the Louis 
Seize style. The allegorical figures of Industry and Commerce over 
the pediment are by Leop. Wiener, the rest of the sculptural orna- 
mentation by Houtstout. The interior is also worth inspection (usual 
entrance in the Rue Berlaimont). 



The Place Royals (PI. E, 4), adjacent to the S.W. corner of 
the Park, owes its present appearance to the architect Gurnard, 
1778 (comp. p. 70). On the left stands the church of St. Jacques 
sur Caudenberg [Froidmont, 'cold mountain'; PI. 16), a handsome 
and chaste edifice with a portico of the Corinthian order, begun by 
Ouimard in 1776 on the site of an old Augustine abbey, and com- 
pleted by Montoyer in 1785. Above the portico are statues of Moses 
by Olivier, and David by Janssens. The tympanum contains a fresco, 
by Portaels, representing the Virgin as the comforter of the afflicted 
(1852). The interior contains, to the right and left of the choir, 
allegorical figures of the Old and New Testament, by Godecharle. 

In front of the church rises the equestrian *Statue of Godfrey 
de Bouillon (PI. 60), the hero of the first Crusade, grasping the banner 
of the Cross in his right hand, probably the finest modern Belgian 
work of the kind, designed by Simonis. It was erected in 1848, on 
the spot where, in 1097, Godfrey is said to have exhorted the 
Flemings to participate in the Crusade, and to have concluded his 
appeal with the words 'Dieu li volt' (God wills it). 

Opposite is the Montagne de la Cour, which contains several of 
the most attractive shops in Brussels , and through which , in spite 
of its steepness , passes a constant stream of omnibuses, carriages, 



Royal Library. BRUSSELS. 12. Route. 75 

and other vehicles (comp. p. 92). — To the S.W., between the 
palace of the Count of Flanders and the new Palais des Beaux Arts, 
diverges the Rue de la Regence (p. 86). 

The archway in the W. angle of the Place Royale leads to the 
oblong Place du Museb (PI. D, 4), the right side of which is flank- 
ed by the hotels and restaurants mentioned at pp. 63, 64, while to 
the left rises the Royal Library (PI. 5), with a court facing the 
street and separated from it by a railing. In the court is a statue in 
bronze (by Jehotte, 1846) of Duke Charles of Lorraine (p. 68). Be- 
hind the statue is the entrance to the Library. 

The Library consists of six departments : (1) Printed Books ; 
(2) MSS. ; (3) Engravings, Maps, and Plans ; (4) Coins and Medals; 
(5) Offices ; (6) Periodicals. 

The Department of the Printed Books (300,000 vols.) is in the left 
wing of the Palais de I'Industrie. The nucleus of the collection was the 
library of a M. van Hulthem, purchased by the state in 1837 for 315,000 fr., 
and incorporated with the old municipal library. The Library Hall (10-3 ; 
in summer 10-4 ; closed during Passion Week) contains a series of portraits 
of the sovereigns of the country down to Maria Theresa and Joseph II. In 
a cabinet here are exhibited some beautiful Chinese drawings. The Cham- 
bers grant an annual subsidy of 60-65,000 fr. for the support of the Library. 

The Department of the MSS. consists chiefly of the celebrated Biblio- 
theque de Bourgogne, founded in the 15th cent, by Philippe le Bon, Duke 
of Burgundy, and contains about 12,000 MSS., comprising many of great 
value. It is especially rich in missals, some of which are illuminated 
with beautiful miniatures of the old Flemish school. Worthy of notice 
are : the missal of the Dukes of Burgundy, by Attavante of Florence (1485), 
afterwards in possession of Matthew Corvinus, King of Hungary; the 
chronicles of Hainault in seven folio volumes with miniature illustra- 
tions, and an illustrated title-page (the author Jacques de Guise presenting 
his work to Philip the Good), ascribed, though withotit sufficient grounds, 
to Roger van der Weyden ; and a copy of Xenophon's Cyropsedia, used by 
Charles the Bold. Also, 'Pardon accorde par Charles V. aux Qantois 1 
(p. 40) of 1540, MSS. as far back as the 7th cent., playing-cards manu- 
factured at Ulm in 1594, autographs of Francis I., Henri IV., Philip II., 
Alva, Luther, Voltaire, Rubens, etc. Most of the books in the Burgun- 
dian Library are bound in red morocco. The most valuable MSS. have 
twice been carried away to Paris by the French. 

The admirably-arranged Collection of Engravings (60.000 in number) is 
worthy of notice; it is entered from the Musee de Peinture. The Flemish 
masters are admirably represented. One of the most interesting plates is 
an engraving of 1418, found at Malines. — The Collection of Coins is also 
of importance; adm. 12-3, entrance Rue du Musee 5. 

Part of the ground-floor is still occupied by the collections of 
the Musee de I'Industrie Beige, which are soon to be removed. 

L'Ancibnnb Cotjr, a building adjoining the Palais de I'Industrie 
on the E., was the residence of the Austrian stadtholders of the 
Netherlands after 1731, when the old ducal palace (in the present 
Place Royale) was destroyed by fire. Part of the ground-floor is 
now fitted up as a library, and the upper story as a picture-gallery 
(Musee), and the buildings in the court contain a cabinet of natural 
history. The chapel on the right of the entrance, erected in 1760, 
and devoted to Protestant worship in 1803, is known as CEglise du 
Musee (French and German services on Sundays). 



76 Route 12. 



BRUSSELS. 



Picture Gallery. 



The **Musee Royal de Belgique (PI. 41 ; D, 4), oi royal pic- 
ture-gallery, which was purchased from the city by the state in 
1845, is growing in importance every year. Formerly inferior to the 
gallery at Antwerp, it must probably now be considered as the chief 
collection in Belgium. The Early Flemish School of the 15th cent. 
is represented by various important pictures, such as Adam and Eve 
by Hubert van Eyck (No. 13), Madonna by Pelrus Cristus (No. 21), 
the Legend of the lying empTess and the innocent nobleman by 
Dierk Bouts (Nos. 51, 52), and the Holy Family by Quinten Massys 
(No. 38). Flemish and Dutch art of the 17th cent, has also, through 




judicious purchases, gradually come to be most favourably represent- 
ed. The pictures by Rubens at Brussels cannot indeed be compared, 
either in number or beauty, with those at Antwerp ; but his Ado- 
ration of the Magi (No. 410) ranges among the finest treatments of 
this subject, and his portraits and the Virgin in an arbour of roses 
(No. 412) also deserve attention. The full-length portrait of Willem 
van Heythuysen (No. 283) and a half-length portrait (No. 282) by 
Frans Hals, the portraits by Van der Heist (Nos. 291, 292) and 
Dou (No. 285), and the large Village Feast by Teniers (No. 465) 
may also be specified. — Good Catalogue, by E. Fetis, 1 fr. The 
names of the painters are affixed to the frames. As the collection 



Picture Gallery. BRUSSELS. 7 2. Route. 77 

is constantly being augmented, the pictures are often re-arranged, 
and some of the more recent acquisitions are not yet numbered. 

The Entrance (comp. p. 66) is in the crescent at the N.W. 
end of the Place du Musee. From the circular entrance-hall we 
proceed through the glass-door to the left to the staircase , at the 
foot of which is a statue of Hercules by Delvaux. Sticks and um- 
brellas are left here with the custodian (no charge). [The door in 
the rotunda opposite the entrance-door leads to the inner court, on 
the left side of which is the hall containing the natural history 
collection (p. 85).] 

At the top of the staircase we reach another rotunda , where a 
door to the left leads to the Musee Aneien, and another to the right 
to the Musee Moderne. Passing through the former we enter a 
Corridor, hung with Flemish tapestry of the 17th century. It also 
contains some sculptures , chiefly by modern Belgian artists : W. 
Geefs, C. A. Fraikin (Cupid taken captive), Ad. Fassin, J. de 
Braekeleer, Fug. Simonis, J. J. Jaquet, Jos. Geefs (Fallen Angel, 
one of his best-known works), Barth. Frison, etc. The cabinets con- 
tain terracotta sculptures of the 17th and 18th centuries. — At the 
end of the corridor, to the left, is a door leading to the Gallery op 
Ancient Art (Musee AncienJ. 

Room I. Dutch School. End-wall to the left of the entrance : 
344. Van der Meulen, Army of Louis XIV. at the siege of Toumai ; 
*467. Teniers the Younger, Temptation of St. Anthony; 359. Mou- 
eheron, Landscape; 518. German School, Portrait (1557). 

Wall opposite the entrance: 270. Gov. Flinch, Portrait (1640); 
253. Van Delen, Portico of a palace, with accessories by Palamedesz 
(1642); Jan de Bray, Portrait; *425. Sal. van Ruysdael, River- 
scene; 387. F. Pourbus, Portrait (1573); 278. J. van Goyen, View 
of Dort, figures by A. Cuyp ; 356. Sir A. More, Duke of Alba in 
full armour, with a general's baton ; 261. Dusart, Consecration of 
a Dutch church (1695); 421. Rachael Ruysch, Flowers; 314. Jor- 
daens, Head of an Apostle, a sketch, in colours. — High up on 
this wall are three large ceremonial works : 430. Sallaert , The 
Infanta Isabella witnessing a competition of the Grand-Serment 
Archers at Brussels (1615); 473. Tilborgh, Knights of the Golden 
Fleece passing in front of the house of the Duke of Brabant in 
Brussels (with portraits of the Prince de Ligne, Prince de Cliimay, 
Duke of Aremberg, etc.); 431. Sallaert, Procession. 

End-wall: 315. Jordaens, Eleazer and Rebecca at the well, in 
a landscape by Wildens ; Bont, Boudewyns, Landscapes. 

Entrance-wall : 254. J. W. Delff, Portrait ; 288. J. de Heem, 
Still-life; 176. N. Berchem, Cattle at pasture ; 354. Sir A. More, 
Portrait of Hubert Goltzius (1576); No number, G. and J. Berck- 
Heyde, Church of Haarlem; 2117. Hondecoeter, Dead cock hung on a 
wall; 394. J. van Ravesteyn, Portrait; 193. A. Brouwer, Boors 
carousing on the ramparts of Antwerp, bought in 1882 for 13,000 fr. ; 



78 Route 12. HKUHSKLiS. Picture Oallery. 

319. Koedyk, Dutch interior; 321. Phil. Koninck, Dunes. — 
Above are two large pictures by D. van Alsloot (Nos. 155, 156), 
representing the Procession of St. Gudule in the market-place of 
Brussels ; in the centre of the second is the old 'Halle au Pain', 
opposite the Hotel- de-Ville. — We now return to the Corridor, and 
from it enter — 

Room II. To the right of the entrance: 14, 15. Lucas Cranach 
the Elder, Adam and Eve. Below, 477. Perugino (?), Madonna and 
Child with John the Baptist, a round picture framed in a garland of 
fruit in terracotta; 1. Amberger, Portrait; 13. Cranach the Elder, 
Dr. Johannes Scheuring (1529). — Right Wall : Early Italian 
paintings of the 14th and 15th cent, on a gold ground; 16, 17. 
Carlo Crivelli, Madonna, St. Francis of Assisi ; 50. M. Schoen, 
Christ and the Woman taken in adultery; 5. B. de Bruyn, Portrait 
(1543). — Opposite the entrance, to the right of the door: 144. 
Unknown Master, Maximilian I. ; 27. Holbein the Younger (?), Por- 
trait of Sir Thomas More (?). — To the left of the door : Lower Rhenish 
School, 126. Crucifixion, 140. Madonna and Child, with saints. 

Room III. Early Flemish School of the 14-16th centuries. Most 
of the masters here also are unknown, as the number of pictures of 
this period which have come down to us certified by external evi- 
dence (i.e. by signature or documents) is comparatively limited. 
To the left : Unknown Master, Madonna, with St. Francis of Assisi 
and the donor, a winged picture ; 1 . Herri met de Bles, Temptation 
of St. Anthony. 

On the end-wall : **38. Quinten Massys or Metsys, History of 
St. Anne, a large winged picture, purchased in 1879 for 200,000 fr. 
from the church of St. Peter at Louvain, for which it was painted 
in 1509. 

The principal picture represents the family of St. Anne, including 
the Virgin and Child, to the latter of whom St. Anna holds out a grape ; 
in front, to the right, is Salome with her two sons, James the Elder and 
John ; to the left, Mary Cleophas, with her sons , James the Younger, 
Simon Thaddseus, and Joseph the Just; behind the balustrade, in the 
archway through which a rich landscape is visible, are Joachim, Joseph, 
Zebedee, and Alphseus, the husbands of the four women. 'The heads are 
full of life, the garments are richly-coloured and disposed in large masses, 
and the whole scene is illuminated with a light like that of a bright day 
in spring". — On the inside of the left wing is an Angel announcing to 
Joachim the birth of the Virgin , on the outside, Offerings of Joachim 
and Anna on their marriage (with the signature 'Quinte Metsys 1509'J; 
on the right wing are the Death of St. Anne , and the Expulsion of 
Joachim from the Temple on account of his lack of children. 

On the side-wall : 28. J. Jost van Calcar, Holy Family; 21. 
School of Van Eyck (according to Mr. Weale by Petrus Cristus), 
Madonna and Child; 24. Jan Gossart, surnamed Mabuse, Mary 
Magdalene washing the feet of Christ in the house of Simon the 
Pharisee, with the Raising of Lazarus on the left wing, and the 
Assumption of Mary Magdalene on the right; 57-64. School of 
Roger van der Weyden, History of Christ, of little value. 



Picture Gallery. BRUSSELS. 72. Route. 79 

*51, *52. Dierio Bouts, Justice of Otho III. 

The subject is the mediaeval tradition that the Emp. Otho beheaded 
a nobleman who had been unjustly accused by the Empress, but his inno- 
cence having been proved by Ms widow submitting to the ordeal of fire, 
Otho punished the empress with death. This picture was originally hung 
up in the judgment-hall of the Hotel -de-Ville at Louvaiu, according 
to an ancient custom of exhibiting such scenes as a warning to evil-doers. 

*19. Hubert van Eyck, Adam and Eve, two of the wings of 
the celebrated Adoration of the Lamb in the church of St. Bavon 
at Ghent (see p. 36) , ceded by the authorities to government, as 
being unsuitable for a church, in return for copies of the six wings 
at Berlin. 

'It would be too much to say that Hubert rises to the conception of 
an ideal of beauty. The head (of Eve) is over large, the body protrudes, 
and the legs are spare, but the mechanism of the limbs and the shape 
of the extremities are rendered with truth and delicacy, and there is 
much power in the colouring of the flesh. Counterpart to Eve, and once 
on the left side of the picture, Adam is equally remarkable for correctness 
of proportion and natural realism. Here again the master's science in 
optical perspective is conspicuous, and the height of the picture above 
the eye is fitly considered 1 . — Crowe and Cavalcaselle, Early Flemish 
Painters, 1872. — (Gomp. p. xli.) 

At the back are figures of the Erythraean Sibyl with a view of 
Ghent, and the Cumsean Sibyl, with an interior, by Van Eyck. 

113. Unknown Master, Christ and the Woman taken in adul- 
tery, with the donors and their patron-saints on the wings (1526); 
4-7. School of B. van Orley, Madonna and Child. 

On the end-wall at the back: 152. French School, Edward VI. 
of England(V) ; 69. Flemish School, Descent from the Cross; 76. 
Flemish School, Willem van Croy; 145, 146. Maximilian II. and 
Anne of Austria as children ; *27. Bernard van Orley, The physician 
George de Zelle ; 40. Van Orley, Pieta, with portraits of the donors 
on the wings, painted before 1522, under Italian influence. 

Side Wall: 44. B. van Orley (?), Wing of an altarpiece of 1528 
with scenes from the life of St. Anne : Birth of the Virgin and 
Rejection of the offering of Joachim (on the back : Marriage of St. 
Anne and Appearance of Christ). 56. Roger van der Weyden (?), 
Head of a weeping woman, faded; *34. Memling, Portrait of a man ; 
29. Lombard, Last Supper (1531); *55. Roger van der Weyden, 
Portrait of Charles the Bold ; 39. Jan Mostert, Miracles of St. Bene- 
dict; 49. Martin Schoen, Mocking of Christ; *31. Memling (v), 
Crucifixion, with the Virgin and St. John ; in the foreground kneels 
Duke Francesco Sforza of Milan with his wife and son; on the 
wings, Birth and Resurrection of Christ with Saints ; on the back 
SS. Jerome and George, in grisaille; *32, *33. Memling, Portraits 
of the Burgomaster W. Moreel and his wife, models of plain burgess 
simplicity; 43. B. van Orley, Guillaume de Norman (1519); 41. 
B. van Orley, Trials of Job ; 20. Jan van Eyck (more probably by 
Gerard David, according to Mr. Crowe), Adoration of the Magi, the 
figures somewhat stiff though not unnatural, the colouring vigorous ; 
53. Dieric Bouts (Stuerbout), Last Supper; 12. Cornells van Co- 



80 Route 12. BRUSSELS. Picture Gallery. 

ninxloo, Relatives of the Virgin ; 8, 9. Jan van Coninxloo, Birth 
and death of St. Nicholas. 

Room IV. 26. Marten van Heemskerck (properly Van Veen), 
Entombment, on the wings portraits of the donor and his wife with 
their patron-saints (1559). — Side-wall: 4. Peter Brueghel the Elder 
('Peasant Brueghel'), Massacre of the Innocents, naively represented 
as occurring in the midst of a snow-clad landscape : comp. the 
companion-piece at the other end of this wall. 185. J. Bosch, 
Fall of the rebellious angels, a work of extravagant imagination ; 
Nic. Maes, Portraits of a man and woman; 313. Jac. Jordaens, 
Allegorical representation of the vanity of this world ; P. Brueghel 
the Younger, Winter in a Flemish village (1610). ■ — End- Wall: 
443. P. Snayers, Battle of Wimpfen in 1622, with Tilly in the fore- 
ground ; 442. P. Snayers, Battle of the White Hill, near Prague, 
1620. — Side-wall, above, two large winged pictures: 231, 232. 
Michiel van Coxie, Last Supper, Death of the Virgin ; 333. Nic. 
Maes, Portrait; 275. Jan Fyt, Dead Game; Barth. van der Heist, 
Portrait (1658); 445, 444. Snayers, Battles of Courtrai and Hochst. 

Room V. No number, Nic. Maes, Portrait; 211. Ph. de Cham- 
paigne, St. Benedict visited by a priest. (Several other scenes from 
the life of St. Benedict, formerly in this room, are at present un- 
hung.) 168. Corn, de Baeilleur, Adoration of the Magi; No 
number, Ferd. Bol, Portrait ; 476. Adr. van Utrecht, Kitchen ; 
175. N. Berchem, Landscape with ruins ; 218. Ph. de Champaigne, 
St. Benedict extinguishing a conflagration ; 486. T. Veraeght, Ad- 
venture of the Emperor Maximilian on the Martinswand; 184. 
F. Bol, Philosopher. — Right wall: 194. Adr. Brouwer, Brawl in 
an ale-house ; 483. Will, van de Velde, The Zuiderzee ; 428. H. 
Saftleven, Rural scene; above, 205. Ph. de Champaigne, Pre- 
sentation in the Temple ; 392. A. Pynacker, Landscape with stag- 
hunt; 169. Gasp, de Crayer , Assumption of St. Catherine. The 
Museum contains in all 13 pictures by this master. — 393. Dan. 
Seghers and Er. Quellin , Flowers , with a head of Christ in the 
centre; 366. Isaac van Nickele (d. 1703), Interior of the Groote 
Kerk at Haarlem ; 386. P. Pourbus, Portrait of J. van der Gheenst, 
Sheriff of Bruges ; 295. M. a" Hondecoeter , Entrance of a park. 
Entrance-wall : 259. F. Duchatel , Two little girls ; above , 220. 
Ph. de Champaigne, Portrait of himself (1668). 

Room VI. 221. Ph. de Champaigne, Assumption. Side-wall. 
Four large pictures by G. de Crayer: 247. Adoration of the Shep- 
herds , 235. Miraculous draught of fishes, one of the painter's best 
works, 236. Martyrdom of St. Blaise, painted in 1667 when the 
artist was 86 (duplicate in Ghent, see p. 44), 246. Conversion of 
St. Julian. 509. Unknown Master, Portrait. — End-wall: 167. Lud. 
Bakhuisen[f), Sea-piece (1662); 420. Gericault (1820), Coronation 
of the Virgin, copy of a work by Rubens in Windsor Castle. — In 
the corner between the two doors : 395. J. van Ravesteyn, Portrait. 



Picture Gallery. BRUSSELS. 12. Route. 81 

— Right Wall: 181, 182. Ferd.Bol, Portraits; between these, 178. 
Karel Em. Biset, Tell and the apple, with the members of the St. 
Sebastian Archeiy Guild represented as onlookers ; 301. J. B. Huys- 
mans, Landscape with animals; 488,489. Marten de Vos, Portraits; 
between, 439. J. Siberechts, Farm. — Entrance-wall : 361. P. Neefs, 
Interior of Antwerp Cathedral ; 298, 299. Huchtenburgh, Battles. 

Adjoining is the Sallb Flamande, an irregularly-shaped room 
with a carved wooden chimney-piece and wainscoting , and leather 
hangings of the 17th cent. ; it contains at present cartoons and 
ecclesiastical compositions by J. Swerts and Ouffens, and the latter's 
large cartoon for the mural painting in the Hotel-de-Ville of Ypres 
(see p. 27); also a copy of a painting by Van Eyck at Madrid. The 
windows command a good view of the lower town. We now (comp. 
the Plan, p. 76) enter the — 

Large Gallery, which is divided by clustered columns into 
five sections. Beside the pillars in each section are four bronze 
busts of Flemish painters ; in the first section, to the right, Rubens, 
to the left, Jordaens. 

First Section. To the right and left of the entrance : 209, 208. 
Ph. de Champaigne, SS. Stephen and Ambrose. Then farther on, to 
the left : 310. Jordaens, Allegorical representation of fertility; 
309. Jordaens, St. Martin casting out a devil ; *415, *416. Peter Paul 
Rubens , Portraits, over life-size, of the Archduke Albert and his 
consort, the Infanta Isabella, painted for the triumphal arch erected 
on their entry into Antwerp (see p. xvii); between, 407. Rubens, 
Assumption of the Virgin, the principal figure poor, painted for 
the church of the Carmelites at Antwerp ; 265 , 264. Ant. van 
Dyck, St. Francis of Assisi and St. Anthony of Padua; 408. Ru- 
bens, Pieta (faded). ■ — End-wall : 339. Peeter Meert, The masters 
of the Guild of Fishmongers in Brussels ; 405. Rubens, Way to Gol- 
gotha, painted in 1637 for the Abbey of Afflighem ; 490. Corn, de 
Vos, The painter and his family. — Right side-wall: 157. J. van 
Arthois, Return from the festival, with figures by Teniers the Elder ; 
406. Rubens, Christ hurling thunderbolts against the wicked world, 
while the Virgin and St. Francis are interceding, painted for the 
Franciscans of Ghent; 413. Rubens, Venus in Vulcan's forge; 411. 
Rubens, Martyrdom of St. Livinus, whose tongue the executioner 
has torn out and offers to a hungry dog, one of the great master's 
most repulsive pictures , painted for the Church of the Jesuits at 
Ghent; 311. Jordaens, Satyr and peasant; *410. Rubens, Adoration 
of the Magi , painted for the Capuchin friars of Tournai ; 300. 
C. Huysmans, Landscape. 

Second Section : Portraits of Archduke Albert and his consort 
Isabella. — A passage leads hence into the rooms devoted to modern 
pictures (p. 83). — Opposite, to the right, 273. F. Franck, Solon 
in the palace of Crffisus. 

Third Section: Left wall: 266. A. van Dyck, Portrait of Dela- 

Baedeker's Belgium and Holland. 7th Edit. Q 



5Z Koule 12. HAUB,3ftbB Picture uauery. 

faille, burgomaster of Antwerp; *294. Hobbema, Wood at Haarlem ; 
*397. Rembrandt, Portrait of a man (1641); 187. Both, Italian land- 
scape ; above, 239. O. de Crayer, SS. Anthony and Paul, the hermits ; 
375. Ant. Palamedesz Stevaerts, Portrait (1650) ; 249. Alb. Cuyp, 
Stable ; *465. David Teniers the Younger, Flemish village-festival 
(1652); 502. Wynants, Landscape; 422. Jac. van Buysdael, Land- 
scape , with accessories by A. van de Velde ; above , 243. 0. de 
Crayer, The Virgin as the patroness of the Archers of Grand Ser- 
ment at Brussels ; 312. Jordaens , Triumph of Prince Frederick 
Henry of Nassau, a sketch (comp. p. 239); 496. J. Weenix, Game 
(1703); 466. Teniers the Younger, Picture Gallery of Archduke 
Leopold. William, with the names of the masters on the frames 
(1651). — Right wall, returning to the upper end: *455. Jan 
Steen , The gallant offer ; 364. Aart van der Neer, Pleasures of 
winter; *332. Nic. Maes, Old woman reading; above, 497. Em. 
de Witte, Interior of the church at Delft ; *262. A. van Dyck, Mar- 
tyrdom of St. Peter; *417, *418. Rubens, Portraits of Charles de 
Cordes and his wife (purchased for 130,000 fr.); 462. Teniers the 
Younger, The five senses ; 447. Fr. Snyders , Game and fruit ; 
*412. Rubens, Madonna and Child in an arbour of roses, the back- 
ground by J. Brueghel, formerly in England, purchased in 1882 for 
75,000 fr. ; opposite, 371. Adr. van Ostade, Peasant eating her- 
rings; 499. Phil. Wouverman , Starting for the chase ; farther on, 
454. Jan Steen, The 'Bean King' ('Le roiboit'); 510. Unknown 
Master, Portrait of a goldsmith; 453. Jan Steen, The operation; 
above, 263. Van Dyck , Drunken Silenus ; 372. Adr. van Ostade, 
Flemish trio, purchased for 19,470 fr. ; 307. Karel du Jardin, 
Cavalier; 374. Isaac van Ostade, Woman winding thread; *282. 
F. Hals, Professor Hoornebeek of Leyden ; above, 358. Moucheron, 
Landscape with stag-hunt ;424. Jac. van Ruysdael, The Haarlemer 
Meer; *183. Ferd. Bol, Saskia van Ulenburgh, Rembrandt's first 
wife; 367. Air. vanNieulant, Carnival on the ice on the town- 
moat of Antwetp; 321. H. van Steenwyk, Church-interior. 

Fourth Section. Left wall: 365. Aart van der Neer, The Yssel 
by moonlight ; 285, 286. J. Dav. de Heem, Flowers , and (above) 
Vanitas ; *461. Dav. Teniers the Elder, View of a village, purchased 
for 10,000 fr. ; 498. De Witte, Church-interior; *308. Karel du 
Jardin, Returning to the stable; *416. Frans Hals, Portrait of 
William of Heythuysen, founder of the hospital of that name at 
Haarlem; 463. David Teniers the Younger, The village-doctor; 452. 
Jan Steen, The 'Rederijker' (i.e. rhetoricians, or members of 'Rede- 
rijkamern'; these were literary clubs or debating societies, well 
known in the 16th and 17th centuries, which met on festive oc- 
casions to hold recitations and debates); 491. P. de Vos, Large 
hunting-piece ; 291 , 292. Bart, van der Heist , Portraits of the 
painter and his wife ; 426. Sal. van Ruysdael, Landscape with fisher- 
men ; 317, 316. Th. de Keyser, Two sisters; *258. Q. Dou, The 



Picture Gallery. KKUSSiSLS. 12. Route. 83 

painter drawing a Cupid by lamplight ; 376. A. Palamedesz, Cham- 
ber-concert, purchased for 11,500 fr. ; 500. Phil. Wouvcrman, 
Hunt; 427. Dav. Byckaert, Chemist in his laboratory; *343. G. 
Metsu, The breakfast; 414. Rubens, Martyrdom of St. Ursula and 
her companions, a small sketch ; 464. Teniers the Younger, Flemish 
landscape ; *468. Teniers the Younger, Portrait of a young man. — 
Right wall , from the top of the room : 360. P. Neefs, Interior of 
Antwerp Cathedral; *296. M. d' Hondecoeter, Cock crowing; 196. 
Jan Brueghel ('Velvet Brueghel'), Autumn; 153. Pieter Aertsen, 
The cook; 284. DeHeem, Fruit; 505. Wynants, Landscape with 
accessories by Adr. van de Velde. — Beyond the door: 200. Govert 
Camphuysen, Rustic interior; 373. Isaac van Ostade, Travellers 
resting; 419. Rubens, Portrait (1619); 469. L. van Uden, Land- 
scape with accessories by Teniers the Younger; 195. ' Velvet' Brue- 
ghel, St. Norbert preaching against heresy at Antwerp. 

Fifth Section. Italian and Spanish pictures of little importance : 
Left wall : 378. Pannini, Ruins of Rome ; 340. Raph. Mengs, Por- 
trait ; 478. Andrea del Sarto (?), Jupiter and Leda (described by Mr. 
Crowe as an inferior school-piece) ; 402, 401 . Tintoretto, Portraits ; 
*277. Claude Lorrain, Landscape wift JEneas hunting with Dido ; 
154. Albani, Adam and Eve; 336. Maratta, Madonna with the 
Child and St. Francis ; below, without number, Jacques-Louis Da- 
vid. Portrait of a boy, a study ; Ingres, Virgil reading his iEneid 
aloud. — End-wall: 130. P. Veronese, Juno strewing her treasures 
on Venice, ceiling-painting from the palace of the Doges at Venice. 

— Farther on : 460. Strozzi (of Genoa), Portrait; 199. P. Veronese, 
Holy Family with SS. Theresa and Catherine; 203. Ann. Carracci, 
Diana and Actaeon; 172. Baroccio, Calling of Peter and Andrew ; 
171. Guercino , Altarpiece; 226, 225, 227. Al. Sanchez Coello, 
Portraits of Margaret of Parma and Joanna and Maria of Austria, 
daughters of Charles V. •, 513 , 514. Florentine School (Lor. di 
Credi?), Madonna with the Child and St. John. 

"We now retrace our steps to the second section of this hall, and 
turn to the right into the Gallery of Modern Paintings, found- 
ed in 1835, and transferred hither from the Palais Ducal (p. 70) 
in 1877. It consists of about 180 works by Belgian masters. The 
subject and painter of each picture are indicated by inscriptions. 

Room I. To the right : Fr. Jos. Navez , Athalia and Joash ; 
J. Impens, Flemish tavern; J. Kindermans, Scene in the Arden- 
nes ; J. B. de Jonghe, Environs of Tournai ; F. Huygens, Flowers. 

— Th. Fourmois, The mill, The marsh; *H. Leys, Funeral mass 
for Berth, de Haze, armourer of Antwerp ; G. J. Herreyns , Ado- 
oration of the Magi. — Van Bret, Sixtus V. when a boy tending 
swine; Navez, Hagar and Ishmael; Portaels, The Daughter of Zion, 
an allegorical representation. 

Room II. To the right: L. de Winne, Full-length portrait 
of Leopold I. ; Gallait, Leopold II. and his queen. 

6* 



84 Route 12. BRUSSELS. Picture Gallery. 

Room III. P. J. Clays, Sea at Ostend (1863). — Andre Henne- 
bicq, Labourers in the Roman Campagna ; G. J. van Luppen, Spring 
landscape ; Ch. Ooms, The forbidden book. — E. de Sehampheleer, 
River-scene near Gouda ; Gallait , Art and Liberty. — *Henri 
Bouree, Bad news; Fr. Stroobant, The old guild-houses in the 
market-place at Brussels; Ferd. Pauwels, Widow of Jaques van 
Artevelde giving up her jewels for the state. 

Room IV. (large room). To the right : P. J. Clays, Calm on the 
Schelde; J. B. Madou, The mischief-maker; K. Tsehaggeny, Dili- 
gence in the Ardennes. Above the last, Van Brie, Interior of St. 
Peter's at Rome on Corpus Christi Day. — E. de Block, Reading 
the Bible; Louis Bobbe, Cattle; Al. Robert, Plundering of the 
Carmelite Convent in Antwerp at the end of the 16th cent. ; Eug. 
Verboeckhoven, Flock of sheep (1839); Jos. Stevens, Streets of 
Brussels in the morning (1848). — *Louis Gallait, Abdication of 
Emperor Charles V., a masterpiece of composition , drawing, and 
colouring (1841) : Charles V. is under the canopy of the throne, 
supported on the left by "William of Orange, at his feet kneels Ms 
son Philip II., on his right is his sister Maria of Hungary in an 
arm-chair. A. Thomas, Judas on the night after the condem- 
nation of Jesus ; Ch.de Groux, Junius preaching the Reformation 
in a house at Antwerp , with the light from the stake shining 
through the window; G. Wappers, Charles I. on the way to the 
scaffold ; J. Lies, Prisoners of war. — De Haas, Cattle ; Jos. Stal- 
laert, Death of Dido. — *J. Czermak, Spoils of war in the Herze- 
govina (Christian girl captured for the slave-market by Bashi Ba- 
zouks); J.Stevens, Dog-market in Paris ; Al. Markelbach, Rheto- 
ricians of Antwerp preparing for a debate (comp. p. 82); Eug. 
Delacroix , Apollo and the Python , a sketch ; L. J. Mathieu, En- 
tombment (1848); L. Gallait, Count Barth. du Mortier. — *Ch. 
Verlat , Godfrey de Bouillon at the storming of Jerusalem ; Four- 
mois, Landscape; Leys, Joyful entry of Charles V. into Antwerp 
(repetition of the fresco in the H6tel-de-Ville at Antwerp, see 
p. 132); W. Roelofs, Landscape; Leys, Restoration of the Roman 
Catholic service in Antwerp Cathedral (1845); Verboeckhoven, 
Shepherd in the Roman Campagna ; E. Wauters, The Prior of the 
Augustine monastery to which Hugo van der Goes had retired 
tries to cure the painter's madness by means of music ; Lies, Bald- 
win VII. of Flanders punishing robber-knights ; L. Gallait, Johanna 
the Mad by the corpse of her husband, Philip the Handsome. 

Room V. P. J. Clays, Antwerp Roads; Madou, Village-festival; 
Hipp. Boulenger, Landscape; J. Quinaux, Scene in Dauphine'; 
Leys, Studio of the painter Frans Floris. — V. Lagye, The visit to 
the sorceress ; Alf. Stevens, Lady in a light pink dress. — Ch. Her- 
mans, Early morning in the capital; Cam. van Camp, Death of 
Mary of Burgundy (p. 16). — Th. Gerard, Village-festival in Swa- 
bia; J. Coomans, The 'loving cup'; L. Robbe, Cattle. 



Natural History Coll. BRUSSELS. 12. Route. 85 

Room VI. J. B. van Moer, View in Brussels ; E. J. de Prattere, 
Cattle-market in Brussels. — C. Meunier, Peasants of Brabant de- 
fending themselves in 1797; F. Willems, 'La fete des grands pa- 
rents' ; De Oroux, Drunkard by the corpse of his wife, who has died 
of grief and destitution. — J. B. Madou, A question of fate; De 
Braekeleer, The geographer ; E. van Bosch , Cats playing. — J. T. 
Coosemans , Marshy landscape at dusk. — We now turn to the 
left and enter — 

Room VII., which contains several large pictures. To the left: 
*E. de Biefve , The Compromise , or Petition of the Netherlandish 
nobles in 1565. Count Hoorne is represented as signing the docu- 
ment, Egmont in an arm-chair; at the table Philip de Marnix, in a 
suit of armour; in the foreground William of Orange, in a dark-blue 
garment; beside him, Martigny in white satin, and behind him the 
Due d'Arenberg. The Count Brederode , under the portico to the 
left , is inviting others to embrace the good cause. This picture 
and Gallait's Abdication of Charles V. mark a new epoch in the 
history of modern Belgium art. They were exhibited in most of the 
European capitals in 1843, where they gained universal admiration, 
and they have contributed materially to the development of the 
realistic style of painting , in which colour plays so prominent a 
part. — E. Slingeneyer, Battle of Lepanto. O. Wappers, Beginning 
of the Revolution of 1830 at the H6tel-de-Ville in Brussels; the 
people tearing the proclamation (24th Sept.) of Prince Frederick of 
the Netherlands. — //. Decaisne, Belgium crowning her distin- 
guished sons, from Charlemagne down to the 17th cent, (an allegori- 
cal work). — *N. de Keyser, Battle of Worringen (1288); Siegfried 
of Westerburg, Archbishop of Cologne, standing before his captors 
Duke John I. of Brabant and Count Adolph of Berg(1839). — Among 
the smaller pictures, by the door : A. de Knyff, Forest of Stolen ; on 
the back-wall, N. de Keyser, Justus Lipsius ; J. van Lerius, Eras- 
mus; De Braekeleer, The Golden Wedding, and Distribution of fruit 
at a school ('le compte de la mi-careme'). 

The Natural History Collection on the ground -floor (ad- 
mission, see p. 66) is the most extensive in Belgium. In the arcades 
of the court are a few sculptures: Paul Boure, Prometheus Bound; 
L. Mignon, Bulls fighting, bronzes. — In a glass-house in the court 
is the fossil skeleton of an enormous *Iguanodon Bernissartensis, 
found in the coal-measures of Bernissart, in the province of Hai- 
nault, and here skilfully reconstructed; the animal was about 25 ft. 
high , and belongs to the Saurian family of reptiles, of which it is 
the largest representative. The department of fossils and objects of 
the stone age is altogether of gTeat importance, owing to the richness 
of the discoveries which have been made among the limestone hills 
of Belgium. The mineralogical department embraces a collection of 
minerals from Russia, presented by the late Prince of Orange. 



86 Route 12. BRUSSELS. Notre Dame des Vict. 

The Rub db la Regbncb (PI. D, 4, 5), which leads to theS.W. 
from the Place Royale (p. 74), is now one of the finest stieets in 
Brussels. Immediately to the left stands the Palais du Comte de 
Flandre (PI. 49), which contains a handsome staircase and is em- 
bellished with sculptures by Van der Stappen and pictures by E. 
Wauters, Verlat, Stallaert, and others. On the right is the new 
Palais des Beaux Arts, a building in the classical style, by Balat ; 
the portal of which is flanked by four massive granite columns with 
bronze bases and capitals. Above are three bronze medallions : Ru- 
bens (in the centre) , Jean de Boulogne , and Jan van Ruysbroeck 
(see p. 90), and two marble reliefs, the Graphic Arts and Music, 
by Vincotte and Brunin. In the interior is a large hall intended for 
art-exhibitions and public banquets. 

The street crosses the Rue de Ruysbroeck by means of a small 
viaduct, called the Pont de la Regence, and soon reaches the Petit 
Sablon (or Kleine Zaavelplaats ; PI. D, 5), a square embellished 
with turf and flowers. To the right rises the church of — 

Notre Dame des Victoires (PI. 24; D, 5), also called Notre 
Dame du Sablon, founded in 1304 by the guild of Cross-bowmen, 
but almost entirely rebuilt in the 15th and 16th centuries. It has 
lately been purged of disfigurements, and is now undergoing a 
thorough restoration. 

The Interior, which has been recently restored, measures 71 yds. in 
length by 28 yds. in breadth (61 yds. across the transepts) and is decorated 
with stained glass. A tablet of black marble in the S. transept re 
cords that the remains of the author Jean-Baptiste Rousseau, who died in 
exile at Brussels in 1741, were transferred hither in 1842 from the Church 
des Petits-Carmes (see p. 87). — The adjacent 1st Chapel in the S. Aisle 
contains the monument of Count Flaminio Qarnier, secretary of the Duke 
of Parma, consisting of six reliefs in alabaster from the life of the Virgin 
(about 1570; lately restored). At the W. end of this aisle is a monument 
erected in 1856 to Aug. dal Pozzo, Marquis de Voghera (d. 1781), com- 
mander of the Austrian forces in the Netherlands. — The burial-chapel 
(17th cent.) of the Princes of Thurn and Taxis, in the N. Transept, sump- 
tuously adorned with black and white marble, contains sculptures of no 
artistic merit; a St. Ursula over the altar, by Hen. Duquesnoy, merits at- 
tention; on the right is an angel holding a torch, by Orupello; in the 
dome are numerous family armorial bearings. — The Choir contains 
mural paintings of saints, being an exact reproduction of the originals of 
the 15th cent, discovered here in 1860 in a state beyond restoration; also 
some stained glass of the 15th century. — The pulpit, carved in wood, is 
borne by the symbols of the four Evangelists. 

At the upper end of the Petit Sablon, a small square surrounded 
by a handsome railing, rises the Monument of Counts Egmont and 
Hoorne, by Fraikin , which formerly stood in front ol the Maison 
du Roi (p. 91). The lower part is a fountain, above which rises a 
square pedestal in the later Gothic style. The two small bronze 
figures on the right and left are soldiers of the corps commanded 
by the two counts. The colossal figures in bronze above represent 
Egmont and Hoorne on their way to execution. The 48 small bronze 
figures on the pillars of the railing represent the Artistic and In- 
dustrial Guilds of the 16th century; they were cast in 1882-83 by 



Pal. Arenberg. BRUSSELS. 72. Route. 87 

the Compagnie des Bronzes at Brussels from models by J. Cuypers, 
P. Comein, Courroit, A. Desenfam , J. van Kerkhove, Ch. Qeefs, 
J. A. Hambresin, B. Martens, E. Lefever, A. J. van Rasbourgh, 
and others. — Behind the monument is the — 

Palace of the Due d'Arenberg (PI. 44; D, 5), once the re- 
sidence of Count Egmont, erected in 1548, restored in 1753, with 
a modern right wing. It contains a small but choice picture-gallery 
(admission, see p. 66). 

The Pictures are all in excellent preservation, and furnished with 
the names of the artists. — Long Room, to the left of the entrance: Rem- 
brandt, or more probably Sal. Koninck, Tobias restoring his father's sight ; 
Van Dyck, Portrait of a Spanish countess; Craesbeeck, His own studio; A. 
van Ostade, A. Brouwer, Tavern scenes; Jac. van Ruysdael, Waterfall; 
Hobbema, Landscape ; P. Potter, Resting in a barn ; Rubens, Two portraits 
and three sketches of angels' heads ; Berck-Heyde, Canal ; P. de Hooch, In- 
terior; 0. Bou, The painter's parents; G. Metsu , The billet-doux: Jan 
van der Meer van Delft, Girl; Jan Steen, Wedding at Cana; Rubens, Small 
portrait; A. van der Neer, Moonlight on the sea (1644); 0. Bou, Old 
woman counting money; 67. Terburg, Musical entertainment; Jordaens, 
'Zoo de ouden zongen, zoo piepen de jongen' (when the old quarrel, the 
young squeak); Tenters, Playing at bowls; G. Bou, Hermit; N. Maes, 
The scholar; G. Mieris, Fishwoman. — Above the door: Berck-Heyde, 
Inner court of the Amsterdam Exchange. — To the right of the door: 
/. Ruysdael, Landscapes; A. Cuyp , Horses; D. Teniers, Farmyard, Pea- 
sant smoking; Van der Heist, Dutch wedded couple, Portrait of a man; 
A. van Byck, Portrait of a Due d'Arenberg; Teniers, Man selling shells; 
Fr. Hals, The drinker; Everdingen, Waterfall; Terburg, Portrait; Fr. Hals, 
Two boys singing; Rubens, Two portraits and a sketch. — On the window- 
wall : Portrait of Marie Antoinette , painted in the Temple by Kohar&ky, 
shortly before the unfortunate queen was removed to the Conciergerie. 

The Library contains antique vases, statuettes, and busts in marble, 
including the admirable " Head of Laocoon, found about the year 1710 
under a bridge in Florence, and purchased by an ancestor of the duke. 
It is supposed to be an Italian copy of the head of the well-known Roman 
Laocoon (a cast of which is placed beside it for comparison), executed 
soon after the ancient sculpture was discovered in 1506. 

The adjoining Gardens are kept in admirable order (fee 1 fr.). 

A few houses above the palace, to the left, is the prison of Les 
Petits Carmes (PI. 52; D, 5), the front of which (set apart for 
female convicts) was built in 1847 by Dumont in the English Gothic 
style. It is fitted up with cells for solitary confinement. A Carmelite 
monastery formerly occupied this site. 

Somewhat higher up stood the house of Count Kuylenburg, memo- 
rable under Philip II. as the place of assembly of the Netherlands nobles 
who began the struggle against the supremacy of Spain. Here, on 6tU 
April, 1566 , they signed a petition (' Request 1 ) to the vice-regent Margaret 
of Panna (natural daughter of Charles V. and sister of Philip II.), pray- 
ing for the abolition of the inquistorial courts, after which between three 
and four hundred of the confederates proceeded on horseback to the 
palace of the Duchess. At the moment when the petition was presented, 
Count Barlaimont, one of the courtiers, whispered to the princess, whose 
apprehensions had been awakened by the sudden appearance of the cor- 
tege, 'Madame, ce n'est qiCune troupe de gueux 1 (i.e., beggars), in allusion 
to their supposed want of money. The epithet was overheard , and ra- 
pidly communicated to the whole party, who afterwards chose it for the 
name of their faction. On the same evening several of their number, 
among whom was Count Brederode, disguised as a beggar with a wooden 
goblet (jatte) in his hand , appeared on the balcony of the residence of 



88 Route 12. BRUSSELS. Palais de Justice. 

Count Kuylenburg and drank success to the 'Gueux'; while each of the 
other confederates, in token of his approval, struck a nail into the goblet. 
The spark thus kindled soon burst into a flame, and a few years later 
caused the N. provinces of the Netherlands to be severed from the do- 
minions of Spain. The Duke of Alva, after having ordered Counts Eg- 
mont and Hoorne to be arrested in the above-mentioned house, and the 
flag of Spain to he again displayed , gave vent to his indignation by 
ordering it to be razed to the ground. 

The following portion of the Rue de la Regence was constructed 
within the last few years. To the left stands the new Conser- 
vatoire de Musique (PI. 11 ; D, 5), designed by Cluysenaar. The 
Conservatoire possesses an interesting collection of old musical in- 
struments from the 16th cent, onwards, which was augmented in 
1879 by the acquisition of the Tolbecque collection from Paris, and 
is now exhibited at No. 11 Rue aux Laines, at the back of the build- 
ing (adm. on Thurs., 2-4). — On the same side, farther on, rises 
the new Synagogue (PI. 63), a building in a simple and severe 
style by De Keyset. 

The new ** Palais de Justice (PI. C, D, 5), which terminates 
the Rue de la Regence on the S., an edifice designed on a most am- 
bitious scale by Poelaert, and begun in 1866 under the superinten- 
dence of Wellens, was formally inaugurated in 1883, but is not yet 
quite completed. It is the largest architectural work of the present 
century, and is certainly one of the most remarkable, if not one of 
the most beautiful of modern buildings. The substructions ren- 
dered necessary by the inequalities of the site added greatly to the 
magnitude of the task. The area occupied by the building amounts 
to 270,000 sq. ft., considerably exceeding that of St. Peter's at Rome 
(see p. 127). The huge and massive pile stands upon an almost 
square basis, 590 ft. long by 560 ft. wide, and forcibly sug- 
gests the mighty structures of ancient Egypt or Assyria. Indeed 
the architect avowed that his guiding principle was an adaptation 
of Assyrian forms to suit the requirements of the present day. The 
general architectural scheme may be described as pyramidal, each 
successive section diminishing in bulk. Above the main body of 
the building rises another rectangular structure surrounded with 
columns ; this supports a drum or rotunda, also encircled with col- 
umns, while the crown of the whole is formed by a comparatively 
small dome, the gilded cross on the top of which is 400 ft. above 
the pavement. The rotunda is embellished with colossal figures 
of Justice, Law, Strength, and Clemency. The principal facade, 
with projecting wings and a large portal, is turned towards the 
Rue de la Regence. In details the Graeco-Roman style has been 
for the most part adhered to, with an admixture of rococo treatment, 
and curved lines have been generally avoided ; an example of this is 
the rectilineal termination of the porch, which is enclosed by huge 
pilasters. The flights of steps ascending to the vestibule are adorn- 
ed with colossal statues of Demosthenes and Lyourgus by A. Oattier 
(1882; to the right) and of Cicero and Domitius Ulpian by A. F. 



Notre Dame de la Chap. BRUSSELS. 12. Route. 89 

Boure (1883; to the left). The interior includes 27 large court- 
rooms, 245 apartments for various purposes, and 8 open courts. 
The large Salle des Pas Perdus, or waiting-room, with its galleries 
and flights of steps, is situated in the centre, under the dome, 
which has an interior height of 320 ft. The cost of the building 
will amount to 50,000,000 fr. (2,000,000*.). 



Near the Petit Sahlon (p. 86) is the Gband Sablon (Groote 
Zaavelplaats ; PI. D, 4), the largest Place in the city, in the centre 
of which is an insignificant monument erected by the Marquis of 
Aylesbury in 1751, in recognition of the hospitality accorded to him 
at Brussels. 

The old Palais de Justice (PI. 46), formerly a Jesuit monastery, 
stands on the N. side of the Grand Sablon. The wing facing the 
Rue de la Paille contains the Archives of the kingdom. The princi- 
pal front, on the N.W., faces a small Place, with the marble sta- 
tue of Alex. Oendebien (d. 1869), a member of the provisional 
government of 1830, by Ch. Van der Stappen, erected in 1874. 

In the Rue Haute, or Hoogstraet, in the immediate vicinity, is 
situated the Gothic Notre Dame de la Chapelle (PI. 23 ; C , 4), 
begun in 1216 on the site of an earlier chapel ; the choir and transept 
date from the middle of the 13th cent., and the nave and W. towers 
were completed in 1483. 

The Interior (concierge, Rue des Ursulines 24) ia worthy of a visit 
on account of the numerous frescoes (Chapelle de la Sainte Croix, to the 
right of the choir) and oil-paintings (14 Stations of the Cross) by Van 
Eycken (d. 1853). The first three pillars of the chapels in the S. Aisle 
bear the remains of frescoes of the 15th cent, (saints). — The stained- 
glass in the 1st and 2nd chapels, with scenes from the life of the Virgin, 
is by J. van der Poorten (1867). The 3rd chapel contains the tomb of the 
painter Jan Brueghel ('Velvet Brueghel'), with a picture by him (Christ 
giving the keys to Peter). In the 4th Chapel, De Grayer, Christ appearing 
to Mary Magdalene. — In the ~&. chapel of the choir : Landscapes by J. 
d'Arthois (d. 1665) and Achtschelling (d. 1731). Near the altar : De Grayer, 
S. Carlo Borromeo administering the Holy Communion to the plague- 
stricken ; Van Thulden, Intercession for souls in Purgatory. Monument of 
the Spinola family hy Plumiers (d. 1721). On a pillar a monument, with 
bust, to Duke Ch. Alex, de Croy (d. 1624). A tablet of black marble at the 
back of the pillar, put up by Counts Merode and Beaufort in 1834, bears 
a long Latin inscription to the memory of Francis Anneessens, a citizen 
of Brussels, and a magistrate of the Quarter of St. Nicholas, who was 
executed in the Grand Marche in 1719 for presuming to defend the pri- 
vileges of the city and guilds against the encroachments of the Austrian 
governor (the Marquis de Prie). — The Choir has recently been decorated 
with fine polychrome paintings by Charle- Albert. The somewhat incon- 
gruous high-altar was executed from designs by Rubens. — The carving 
on the pulpit, by Plumiers, represents Elijah in the wilderness, ami is 
simpler and in better taste than that of the pulpit in the cathedral. 

The Rue Haute ends at the Porte de Hal (p. 97). 



In the centre of the lower part of the town lies the **Place de 
l'Hdtel-de-Ville, or market-place (PI. D, 3), 120 yds. long and 74 yds. 
wide, in which rise the H6tel-de-Ville and several old guild-houses. 



90 Route 12. BRUSSELS. Hotel de Ville. 

It is one of the finest mediaeval squares in existence, presenting 
a marked contrast to the otherwise modern character of the city, 
and occupies an important place in the annals of Belgium. In 
the spring of 1568 twenty-five nobles of the Netherlands were be- 
headed here by order of the Duke of Alva , the most distinguished 
victims being Lamoral, Count Egmont, and Philip de Montmorency, 
Count Hoorne (p. 86). 

The *H6tel-de-Ville (PI. 31) is by far the most interesting 
edifice in Brussels, and one of the noblest and most beautiful build- 
ings of the kind in Belgium. It is of irregular quadrangular form, 
66 yds. in length and 55 yds. in depth, and encloses a court. The 
principal facade towards the market-place is in the Gothic style, 
the E. half having been begun in 1402, the W. in 1443. The 
graceful tower, 370 ft. in height, which, however, for some unex- 
plained reason does not rise from the centre of the building, was 
completed in 1454. The first architect is said to have been Jacob 
van Thienen (1405) , and the next Jan van Ruysbroeck (1448), a 
statue of whom adorns the first niche in the tower. The facade has 
lately been restored. It is doubtful whether the niches on the facade 
were all intended to receive statuettes, or were in some cases meant 
to be purely decorative ; at all events the central story of the S. 
wing and the tower now seem overladen by the multitude of mo- 
dern statues of Dukes of Brabant with which they have been adorn- 
ed. The open spire, which was damaged by lightning in 1863, ter- 
minates in a gilded metal figure of the Archangel Michael , which 
serves as a vane, 16 ft. in height, but apparently of much smaller 
dimensions when seen from below. It was executed by Martin van 
Rode in 1454. The back of the H6tel-de- Ville dates from the begin- 
ning of the 18th century. In the court are two fountains of the 18th 
cent. , each adorned with a river-god, that on the right by Plumiers. 

The concierge (fee 1 fr.), who lives in the passage at the hack, shows 
the Interior of the Hotel-de- Ville (see p. 66). The rooms and corridors 
contain several pictures QStallaert, Death of Eberhard T'serclaes, 1388, 
a magistrate of Brussels ; Coomans, Defeat of the Huns at Chalons, 451), 
and portraits of former sovereigns , among whom are Maria Theresa, 
Francis II., Joseph II., Charles VI., Charles II. of Spain, etc.; in the 
following passage, the Emperor Charles V., Philip III. of Spain, Philip IV., 
Archduke Albert and his consort Isabella, Charles II. of Spain, and Phi- 
lip II. in the robe of the Golden Fleece. In the spacious Salle dd Con- 
seil Communal, on the first floor, Counts Egmont and Hoorne were con- 
demned to death in 1568. The present decoration of the hall, with its 
rich gilding, recalling the palace of the Doges at Venice, dates from the 
end of the 17th century. The ceiling-painting, representing the gods in 
Olympus, is by Victor Janssens. The same artist designed the tapestry on 
the walls, of which the subjects are the Abdication of Charles V., the Coro- 
nation of Emp. Charles VI. at Aix-la-Chapelle , and the 'joyeuse entree' 
of Philippe le Bon of Burgundy, i.e., the conclusion of the contract of 
government between the sovereign, the clergy, the nobility, and the 
people. On an adjacent table, in a chased and gilded copper salver, are 
the keys of the city, which were presented to the regent on that oc- 
casion. — The adjoining rooms are hung with tapestry from designs by 
Lebrun and Van der Borght, representing the history of Clovis and Clo- 
tilde. — The large Banquet Hall, 65 yds. long and 27 yds. wide, re- 



Guild Houses. BRUSSELS. 72. Route. 91 

cently decorated with beautiful Gothic carved oak, from designs by Ja- 
maer, also deserves notice. The tapestry, representing the guilds in char- 
acteristic figures, was executed at Malines from designs by W. Oeets. — 
The Salle d'Attente contains views of old Brussels, before the con- 
struction of the present new and spacious streets (pp. 93, 96), by J. B. 
van Moer, 1873. — The Salle des Makiages is lined with oaken panelling 
and adorned with allegorical frescoes. — The Staikcase is adorned with 
two pictures by Em.Wauters: John III., Duke of Brabant, resigning to the 
guilds of Brussels the right of electing the burgomaster (1421), and Mary 
of Burgundy swearing to respect the privileges of the city of Brussels (1477). 

The Towek (the key of which is kept by the concierge, 1 fr. for 
1 pers., 50 c. each for a party), commands an admirable survey of the 
city and environs. To the S. the Lion Monument on the Field of Water- 
loo is distinctly visible in clear weather. The best hour for the ascent is 
about 4 p.m. 

Opposite the H6tel-de-Ville is the *Halle au Pain (PL 35 ; D, 3], 
better known as the Maison du Roi , formerly the seat of some of 
the government authorities. The building was erected in 1514-25, 
partly in the Gothic and partly in the Renaissance style, restored 
about 1767 in egregiously bad taste, and rebuilt in 1877-84 accord- 
ing to the original plan and joined with the H6tel-de-Ville by a 
subterranean passage. Counts Egmont and Hoorne passed the night 
previous to their execution here, and are said to have been conveyed 
directly from the balcony to the fatal block by means of a scaffold- 
ing, in order to prevent the possibility of a rescue by the populace. 

The *Guild Houses in the Grande Place are well worthy of 
notice. They were re-erected at the beginning of last century, 
after having been seriously damaged during the bombardment by 
Louis XIV. in 1695. The old hall of the Guild of Butchers on the 
S. side is indicated by a swan. The Hotel des Brasseurs, recently 
restored with considerable taste, bears on its gable an equestrian 
statue of Duke Charles of Lorraine (p. 68), designed in 1854 by 
Jaquet. On the W. side is the Maison de la Louve, or Hall of 
the Archers, which derives its name from a group representing 
Romulus and Remus with the she-wolf. To the left of the Louve 
is the Hall of the Skippers, the gable of which resembles the stern 
of a large vessel, with four protruding cannon ; to the right of the 
Louve, the Hall of the Carpenters (1697), richly adorned with gild- 
ing. On the W. side, to the right of the Halle au Pain , is the 
Taupe, or Hall of the Tailors, built in 1697 and lately restored. — 
The extensive building occupying almost the entire S.E. side of the 
square was formerly the public Weighing House. 

At the back of the Hotel-de-Ville, about 200 yds. to the S.W., at the 
corner of the Rue du Chene and the Rue de l'Etuve, stands a diminutive 
figure, one of the curiosities of Brussels, known as the Mannikin Fountain 
(PI. 36; C, 4). He is a great favourite with the lower classes, and is invariably 
attired in gala-costume on all great occasions. When Louis XV. took the 
city in 1747, the mannikin wore the white cockade, in 1789 he was decked 
in the colours of the Brabant Revolution , under the French regime he 
adopted the tricolours, next the Orange colours, and in 1830 the blouse of 
the Revolutionists. Louis XV., indeed, invested him with the cross of 
St. Louis. He now possesses eight different suits, each of which is destined 
for a particular festival, and even boasts of a valet, who is appointed by 
the civic authorities and receives a salary of 200 fr. per annum. Some 



92 Route 12. BRUSSELS. University. 

years Ego an old lady bequeathed him a legacy of 1000 florins. In 1817 
the figure was carried off by sacrilegious hands, and his disappearance 
was regarded as a public calamity. The perpetrator of the outrage, how- 
ever, was soon discovered, and the mannikin reinstated amid general re- 
joicings. 

In the Kue Marche-aux-Herbes, near the N.E. corner of the 
Grande Place, is the entrance to the Galerie St. Hubert, or Passage 
(PI. 27; D, 3), constructed from a plan by Cluysenaar in 1847, a 
spacious and attractive arcade with tempting shops (234 yds. in 
length, 26 yds. in width, and 59 ft. in height). It connects the 
Marche-aux-Herbes with the Rue des Bouchers (Oalerie de la 
Reine), and farther on with the Rue de l'Ecuyer (Oalerie du Roi, 
with the Oalerie des Princes diverging on one side). The sculp- 
tural decorations are by Jaquet. In the afternoon between 1 and 3 
o'clock, especially in wet weather, the passage is a favourite prome- 
nade of the exquisites of Brussels, while at a later hour the work- 
ing-classes flock to it to rejoice in the brilliant gaslight, and to 
gaze admiringly at the shop-windows. (Cafes, shops, and theatre, 
pp. 65, 64.) 

About 150 yds. higher, in the Rue de la Madeleine, and also in 
the Rue Duquesnoy and Rue St. Jean, are entrances to the Marcfci 
Couvert (PI. D, 4), or Marche de la Madeleine, an extensive mar- 
ket-place for fruit, vegetables, and poultry, erected by Cluysenaar 
in 1848. Like the Halles Centrales (p. 95), it is well worth visiting 
in the early part of the morning. A gallery in the interior, chiefly 
occupied by dealers in flowers and game, runs round the whole 
building. Adjoining this gallery is another occupied by dealers in 
second-hand books. 

The Rtjb db la Madeleine (PI. D, 4) contains numerous houses 
with facades of the 17th cent, in the Renaissance style. It is contin- 
ued by the busy Montagnb db la Coub. , which leads to the Place 
Royale (p. 74). — A side-street between the Rue de la Made- 
leine and the Montagne de la Cour leads to the left to the Uni- 
versity (PI. 74 ; D, 4), an 'university libre', established in the old 
palace of Cardinal Granvella, Rue de l'lmpe'ratrice, near the Palais 
de l'lndustrie. It was founded by the liberal party in 1834, as a 
rival of the Roman Catholic University of Louvain (p. 177), and 
comprises the faculties of philosophy, the exact sciences, juris- 
prudence, and medicine, along with a separate pharmaceutical in- 
stitution. The Ecole Polytechnique, founded in 1873, embraces six 
departments: mining, metallurgy, practical chemistry, civil and 
mechanical engineering, and architecture. The number of students 
is upwards of 1000. The court is adorned with a Statue of Verhae- 
gens (d. 1862), one of the founders, who, as the inscription records, 
presented a donation of 100,000 fr. to the funds, by Geefs. 

A few paces from the University, in the Rue des Sols, is the so- 
called Chapelle Salazar, or de VExpiation (PI. 9 ; D, 4), erected in 
1436 as an 'expiation' for a theft of the host from St. Gudule in 1370 



Martyrs' Monument. BRUSSELS. 12. Route. 93 

(see p. 73), and occupying the site of the synagogue where the sa- 
cred wafers were profaned. It has recently been restored ; the inte- 
rior is gaudily decorated (mural paintings by G. Payen). 

The busy streets to the N. of the market and the Passage St. 
Hubert lead to the Place de la Monnaie (PI. D, 3), in which 
rises the royal Th.eS.tre de la Monnaie (PL 65), with a colonnade of 
eight Ionic columns, erected by the Parisian architect Damesne in 
1817. The basrelief in the tympanum, executed by Simonis in 
1854, represents the Harmony of Human Passions (in the centre, 
Harmony, surrounded by allegorical figures of heroic, idyllic, lyric, 
and satiric poetry; on the left Love, Discord, Repentance, and 
Murder ; on the right Lust, Covetousness, Falsehood, Hope, Grief, 
and Consolation). The interior, which was remodelled after a fire 
in 1855, is decorated in the Louis XIV. style and can contain 
2000 spectators. — Opposite the theatre is the Hotel de la Monnaie, 
or Mint, which will shortly be converted into a General Post Office. 
— Cafes, see p. 64. 

From the Place de la Monnaie the handsome Rub Neuve (PI. 
D, 2), one of the chief business-streets of Brussels, leads towards 
the N. in a straight direction to the Station du Nord. In this street, 
to the right, is the new Oalerie du Commerce (PI. D, 2), a glass 
arcade, similar to the Galerie St. Hubert (see above), but smaller. 
To the left is the Passage du Nord, leading to the Boul. du Nord 
(p. 94) and containing the Musee du Nord, a hall for concerts and 
dramatic representations. 

Turning to the left at the end of the Galerie du Commerce, or 
following the next side-street to the right in the Rue Neuve, we reach 
the Place des Martyrs , built by Maria Theresa , in the centre of 
which rises the Martyrs' Monument (PI. 38 ; D,2), erected in 1838 
to the memory of the Belgians who fell in Sept., 1830, while fighting 
against the Dutch. It represents liberated Belgium engraving on 
a tablet the eventful days of September (23rd to 26th) ; at her 
feet a recumbent lion, and broken chains and fetters. At the sides 
are four reliefs in marble : in front the grateful nation ; on the right 
the oath taken in front of the H6tel-de-Ville at the beginning of the 
contest; on the left the conflict in the Park (p. 70); at the back the 
consecration of the tombs of the fallen. The monument was de- 
signed and executed by W. Oeefs. The marble slabs immured in the 
sunken gallery record the names of the 'martyrs', 445 in number. 



An entirely modern feature in the lower part of the city is 
formed by the *New Boulevards (PI. B, C, D, 2-5), which lie to the 
W. of the Rue Neuve and the Place de la Monnaie , and extend 
from the Boulevard du Midi (near the Station du Midi) to the Boule- 
vard d'Anvers (near the Station du Nord), partly built over the 
Senne, and intersecting the whole town. The construction of the 
street, and the covering in of the bed of the Senne for a distance 



94 Route 12. BKUSSKLiB. 



ivetu axcnange. 



of IY3M., were carried out by an English company in 1867-71. 
The names of the boulevards are Boulevard du Nord, Boulevard de 
la Senne , Boulevard Anspach, and Boulevard du Hainaut. The 
pleasing variety of the handsome buildings with which they are 
flanked is in great measure owing to an offer by the municipal 
authorities of premiums, from 20,000fr. downwards, for the twenty 
finest facades. 

The Boulevard du Nokd (PI. D, 2) and the Boulevard de la 
Senne (PI. D, 2) meet at the beginning of the Boulevard Anspach, 
by the Church of the Augustines [Temple des Augustins; PI. 73), 
erected in the 17th cent., and now used temporarily as the Bureau 
Central des Postes. — The tall and narrow house, to the N.B. of 
the church, No. 1, Boulevard du Nord, built by Beyaert in 1874, 
received the first prize in the above-named competition. 

In the centre of the city , between the Boulevard Anspach 
(PI. C, 3) and the Rue des Fripiers, rises the *New Exchange 
(Bourse de Commerce ; PI. 6), an imposing edifice in the Louis XIV. 
style, designed by Suys. Its vast proportions and almost excessive 
richness of ornamentation combine to make the building worthy 
of being the commercial centre of an important metropolis ; but it 
has been sadly disfigured by the application of a coat of paint, 
necessitated by the friable nature of the stone. The principal facade 
is embellished with a Corinthian colonnade, to which a flight 
of twenty steps ascends. On each side is an allegorical group by 
J. Jaquet. The reliefs in the tympanum, also by Jaquet, represent 
Belgium with Commerce and Industry. The two stories of the 
building are connected by means of Corinthian pilasters and col- 
umns. Around the building , above the cornice , runs an attic 
story , embellished with dwarfed Ionic columns , and forming a 
curve on each side between two pairs of clustered columns. The 
effect is materially enhanced by means of numerous sculptures. 
The principal hall, unlike that of most buildings of the kind, is 
cruciform (47 yds. by 40 yds.), and covered with a low dome (about 
150 ft. high) in the centre, borne by twenty-eight columns. At 
the four corners of the building are four smaller saloons. Two 
marble staircases ascend to the gallery, which affords a survey of 
the principal hall , and to the other apartments on the upper floor. 
The cost of the whole structure amounted to 4 million francs. 

In the Boul. Anspach, nearly opposite the Exchange, is the 
Hotel des Ventes, built in 1881. — A little to the W., in the Place 
St. Ge'ry (PI. C, 3), is a Market, in the Flemish style, opened 
in 1882. 

In the Boulevard du Hainaut, to the left, is the Panorama 
(p. 66). To the right, in the Place Joseph le Beau (PI. C, 4), is a 
School in the Flemish Renaissance style, by Janlet. A little farther 
along the boulevard, on the left, rise the Ecole Modele (No. 80), by 
Hendrickx, and the large Palais du Midi, for exhibitions. 



Botanic Garden. BRUSSELS. VJ. Route. 95 

On the W. side of the Boulevard Anspach are the Halles Cen- 
trales (PI. C, 3), a covered provision-market resembling its name- 
sake at Paris , but on a much smaller scale. A morning walk 
here will be found interesting. In approaching from the Boulevard 
Anspach through the Rue Gre'try, we have the meat, poultry, and 
vegetable market on the left, and the fish -market on the right. 
At the end of the latter the baskets of fish arriving fresh from the 
sea are sold by auction to retail-dealers (comp. p. 6). The auction- 
eer uses a curious mixture of French and Flemish, the tens being 
named in French and all intermediate numbers in Flemish. French 
alone is used at the auctions in the poultry and vegetable market. 

Beyond the Halles rises the Church of Ste. Catherine (PI. If); 
C, 2), on the site of the old Bassin de Ste. Catherine, designed by 
Poelaert (p. 88), in the French transition style from Gothic to Re- 
naissance. It contains paintings by De Crayer and Vienius, an 
Assumption ascribed to Rubens , and other works from the old 
church that stood on the same spot. 

The Eglise du Beguinage (PI. 13; 0, 2), in the vicinity, con- 
tains a colossal statue of John the Baptist by Puyenbroek, and an En- 
tombment by Otto Vaenius. 

The Mtjsee Commercial, Rue des Augustins 17, instituted in 
1880 for the encouragement of Belgian commerce , contains collec- 
tions of foreign manufactures. 



The old *Boulevards, or ramparts, were levelled about the 
beginning of the century and converted into pleasant avenues, 
which have a total length of 4y 2 miles. They are thronged with 
carriages, riders, and walkers on fine summer-evenings, and present 
a gay and animated scene, especially on the N. and E. sides. The 
portion between the Observatoire (PI. 43 ; F, 2) and the Place du 
Trone (PI. E, 5), adjoining the palace- garden, is also much fre- 
quented from 2.30 to 4 p.m. (chairs 10 c). The traveller who has 
a few hours at command is recommended to walk round the whole 
town by these Boulevards, a pleasant circuit occupying Wfa-1 hrs., 
which, however, he may shorten by availing himself of the tram- 
way on the S. and W. sides. The French language and manners 
will be observed to predominate on the N. and E. sides, while most 
of the frequenters of the lower Boulevards belong to the poorer 
classes and speak Flemish. 

Immediately to the E. of the Station du Nord (built by Coppen*), 
on the right, rises the Hospital of St. John (PI. 29 ; E, 2), an impos- 
ing structure erected by Partoes in 1838-43, admirably fitted up, 
and capable of accommodating 600 patients (admission 9-5 o'clock, 
1 fr. ; attendant Y2-I &• > entrance, Rue Pacheco). 

On the opposite slopes are the grounds of the Botanic Garden 
(PI. E, 2; adm., see p. 66) with hot-houses erected in 1826. It is 
entered from the Rt/e Royals (p. 72), a little to the N. of the point 



96 Route 12. BRUSSELS. Musee Wiertz. 

where that street intersects the Boulevard du Jardin Botanique. 
From this part of the Rue Royale, which is borne by arches, we ob- 
tain a fine view of the N. boulevards , extending to the hills which 
enclose the valley of the Senne. — To the E. of the Botanic Gar- 
den is the new Jesuit Church, built by Parot in the early-Gothic style. 

At the N. end of the Rue Royale rises the church of Stb. Maeib 
db Schabrbeek (PI. 20 ; F, 1), an octagonal edifice in the Byzan- 
tine style , begun many years ago by Van Overstraeten, hut still 
unfinished. 

On the right side of the Boulevard , immediately above the 
Porte Rue Royale, is the Chapelle de VObservatoire, a small Pro- 
testant church. — On the opposite side of the Boulevard rises the 
Observatory (PI. 43; F,2), erected in 1837, and presided over down 
to 1873 by the celebrated astronomer Quetelet (d. 1874). ■ — To the 
right, higher up, lies the circular Place des Barricades (PI. F, 2), 
adorned with a statue of the anatomist Vesalius (b. at Brussels in 
1514), by Oeefs. The streets to the S.W. of this point, extending 
to the Palais de la Nation and the ministerial offices (p. 71), were 
almost entirely constructed within the last few years. 

To the E. of the Boulevards lies the modern and handsome, but 
somewhat monotonous Quartier Leopold, in the centre of which 
rises the church of St. Joseph (PI. 19 ; F, 4), a Renaissance building 
of 1849, by the elder Suys. The facade and towers are constructed 
of blue limestone. The altarpiece is a Holy Family by Wiertz. On 
the E. side of the Quartier Leopold lies the small Pare Leopold 
(PI. G, 5), formerly laid out as a zoological garden. 

Near the Station du Luxembourg rises the *Musee Wiertz 
(PI. 42; G, 5; entrance in the Rue Vautier), formerly the country 
residence and studio of the painter of that name (b. 1806 ; d. 1865), 
after whose death it was purchased by government (admission, see 
p. 66). It contains almost all the productions of this highly-gifted 
but eccentric master, who could not be induced to dispose of his 
works. Interesting catalogue, containing also a sketch of the ar- 
tist's life, Y2 fr- A. monument to Wiertz has been erected in the 
Place de la Couronne in the suburb of Ixelles (p. 100), with a me- 
dallion and a group in bronze by Jaquet. 

We first enter two rooms containing designs and sketches in colours. 
To the right is the principal saloon, which contains seven large pictures : 
1. Contest for the body of Patroclus, 1845; to the right, 3. Homeric 
battle ; 4. One of the great of the earth (Polyphemus devouring the com- 
panions of Ulysses), painted in 1860; 14. The beacon of Golgotha; 16. The 
triumph of Christ, 1848; 8. Contest of good with evil, 1842; 52. The last 
cannon, 1855. The following are smaller works : 26. Vision of a beheaded 
man ; 25. Lion of Waterloo ; 36. The young witch ; 15. Entombment, with 
the Angel of Evil and the Fall on the wings ; 24. Orphans, with the 
inscription 'Appel a la bienfaisance ' ; 5. Forge of Vulcan (1855?); 21. 
Hunger, Madness, and Crime; in the corner, 94. Curiosity; 19. Resusci- 
tation of a person buried alive; 22. The suicide; 95. Concierge; 26. 'Le 
soufflet d'une dame Beige'; 28. Napoleon in the infernal regions; 37. 
The rose-bud ; 76. Portrait of the painter; 73. Portrait of his mother; 



Porte de Hal. BRUSSELS. 12. Route. 97 

11. Education of the Virgin. The three marble groups in the middle of 
the room, representing the development of the human race, are also by 
Wiertz. Adjacent is a mask of his face, taken after death. Some of the 
pictures are painted in a kind of distemper invented by Wiertz himself. 

In the open space in front of the Station du Luxembourg (PI. 57), 
a Statue of John Cockerill (d. 1840) , the founder of the iron-works 
of Seraing (p. 188), was erected in 1872. The lofty limestone 
pedestal is surrounded by figures of four miners. The inscription 
is: 'travail, intelligence'. 

The Rue du Luxembourg leads direct to the Boulevards. 
In the latter, farther to the S.W., is the Place de Narnur, which is 
embellished with the monumental Fontaine de Brouckere (PL E, 5), 
a bust of M. de Brouckere, an able burgomaster of Brussels (d. I860), 
by Fiers, and a group of children by D' Union, erected on the site of 
the former gate. — A little farther on, in the Boulevard de Water- 
loo, to the left , rises the Eglise des Carmes (interior adorned with 
painting), beyond which the Avenue du Bois de la Cambre (p. 100) 
diverges to the left. 

Then, to the right, is the Hospice Pacheco (PL D, 6), founded in 
1713 by Isabella Desmares, widow of Don Aug. Pache'co, for neces- 
sitous widows and spinsters above 50 years old. The present building 
dates from 1835. On the opposite side of the boulevard is the Ave- 
nue d'Uccle (PL C, 6), which leads to the new Mint, completed in 
1879 (to the right, beyond the Rue dela Victoire). 

The Porte de Hal (PL 53 ; C, 6), at the S. extremity of the 
inner town, is the sole remnant of the old fortifications. It was 
erected in 1381 , and two centuries later became the Bastille of 
Alva during the" Belgian 'reign of terror'. It is a huge square 
structure with three vaulted chambers, one above the other, and a 
projecting tower. The interior, fitted up as a *Museum op Weapons 
and Antiquities in 1847, was skilfully adapted for this purpose 
by Beyaert. Admission, see p. 66. The collections are, however, 
very crowded and the light is not good. The name and origin of 
the various objects are inscribed on tickets attached to them. Ca- 
talogues have been issued for some of the sections. 

Ground Floor. First Section. Cabinets and other furniture in the 
Gothic style ; decorative sculptures from Gothic buildings. On a table 
in the centre : Model of the Bastille. — Second Section. To the left is the 
ascent to the upper rooms. To the right is a passage with sculptures, 
chiefly from funereal monuments. In the middle, three stone fonts in 
the Romanesque style (12th cent.) ; on the walls, grave-slabs of the 14th 
cent., originally inlaid with metal. Farther on, to the right, small repro- 
duction of the tomb of Godfrey de Boulogne ; painted and stamped tiles 
of the 16-17th centuries. At the end are large brasses with engraved 
figures (14th and 16th cent.), the finest of which is on the left, with a 
coat-of-arms in enamel (1555). — Third Section. Wood-carvings ; to the 
right, two cabinets and a tine Renaissance door. In the window-recess 
is an old breech-loading cannon, a carronade found in 1858 in the well 
of the chateau of Bouvigne (p. 165), into which the French had thrown 
it together with the defenders of the castle in 1554. Large marble chimney- 
piece of the 17th cent., with a finely-carved and inlaid wooden top. — On 
the wall of the staircase: Casts of the reliefs on Trajan's Column at Rome. 

Baedeker's Belgium and Holland. 7th Edit. 7 



98 Route 72. BRUSSELS. Porte de HaL 

Fibst Floor. Chiefly weapons and suits of armour, most of whic 
are arranged round the room in the form of trophies. The hall is divide 
into three sections by six pillars. Opposite the entrance is a figure i 
German armour of the 15th cent, ('armuie Maximilienne', made at Suren 
berg), and mounted upon the stuffed body of the horse that bore tl 
Prince of Orange at Waterloo. To the right and left are similar suits < 
armour. Farther to the right is a Spanish suit of mail of the end of tt 
16th cent, ('armure Philippe II.'). The stuffed horses in the right ais 
are those on which the governor Arch-duke Albert of Austria and h 
consort Isabella rode on the occasion of their public entry into Brusse 
in 1599. In the first section formed by the pillars (r.) : glass-cabine 
with artistically wrought and chased weapons and armour ; Germa 
arquebuses of the 16th and 17th cent. , the stocks inlaid with ivorj 
at the window, a Renaissance helmet, richly ornamented with relie 
(David, with the head of Goliath, and Saul; Judith with the head 
Holophernes), and said to have belonged to Charles V. ; beside i 
steel gauntlet with gilded ornamentation which was used by Charles ^ 
and the Archduke Albert; German, Italian, and Spanish armour of tl 
15th and 16th cent. ; the cloak and bow of Montezuma (d. 1520), the la 
emperor of Mexico; shield of wood and leather used by crossbow-me 
14th century. In the window-niches : weapons of officers of Napoleoi 
helmets and other pieces of defensive armour; Japanese and Americi 
armour and weapons. — In the second section are old firearms, artille 
models, old Soman weapons, and weapons of the flint period. — T] 
third section also contains armour, and a collection of swords of tl 
16th and 17th centuries. At the windows, Oriental weapons. Handson 
chimney-piece from the chateau of Montaigle (p. 165). 

Second Floor. Smaller works of art, of the middle ages, the Renai 
sance, and the 18th century. On the right, glass - cabinets with silve 
gold, and crystal goblets of the 16th -17th cent.; portable altar oft) 
12th cent, and other works in enamel (Limoges, etc.); furniture in vario' 
styles; pottery, fayence, and porcelain ; Venetian and German glass ; tape 
try of the 16th and 17th cent.; stained glass. — In the window -nich 
ecclesiastical antiquities: crucifixes in wood, ivory, and bronze; enamelli 
crosses and reliquaries of the 12th and 13th cent. ; fine woven fabrics and ei 
broidery. In the glass-cabinet opposite, life-size head of Pope St. Alexandt 
in silver, on a richly-enamelled socket, 13th cent.; small reliquary wi 
enamelled figures of the Apostles, whose heads are in relief; a cryst 
cross with statuettes in ivory, 17th century. Then, in the middle, han 
some late-Gothic altars in carved wood, with scenes from the life of tl 
Virgin and Christ, the "Marytrdom of the Maccabees, by John Borremm, 
1493, and the martyrdom of SS. Ludgerus and Agnes of 1530; handsor 
carved confessional, etc. — In the third of the sections formed by tl 
pillars, also furniture (cradle of Charles V.) ; credences of the 15th ai 
16th cent. ; weights and measures ; German pottery ; bronze and braai 
vessels; fine specimens of smith's work. Above, tapestry of the 16 
cent., representing the Descent from the Cross. Farther on, a glass-cat 
net containing finely-executed works in ivory, including: 48c. Diptych 
the 9th cent., with representations of (1.) Christ in triumph and (r.) t! 
Annunciation and the Visitation; 47c. the famous Romanesque Diptych 
ieodiense, two tablets of carved ivory executed at the beginning of tl 
6th cent., with scenes from the Passion, purchased for 20,000 fr. ; re 
quary in the form of a Romanesque church, 12th century. 

Third Floor. Greek, Roman, and Etruscan antiquities in terraeot 
and bronze, forming the Musie de Ravestein, presented to the Museum 1 
M. Ravestein, for many years Belgian minister at the Vatican. The mo 
valuable objects in the collection are grouped together in the semicircul 
window-recess in the back-wall. On the right side are the terracotta 
389. Greek vase with black figures, signed Jfikosthenes ; 408. Vase fro 
Cumae, with bands of figures in gilt relief; terracotta figures from Ita 
and Greece, many of them from Tanagra; 486. Terracotta doll found 
Viterbo. To the left are the bronzes: 821. Jupiter with the thunder-bol 
primitive archaic figures; Roman Lares; Venus; Warriors; 860. Victori 



Laeken. BRUSSELS. 12. Route. 99 

861 et seq. Mercury; 870-880. Hercules; 903. Ajax plunging his sword into 
his breast (of doubtful antiquity); Comic figures and caricatures; 835 
et seq. Minerva; Gladiators; Animals; 946. Statuette of a Samnite warrior; 
Fortuna; small busts used as weights; small vessels with figures or heads 
of animals. 

Near the entrance is an insignificant collection of Egyptian objects, 
including several mummies. 

The Boulevard now turns abruptly to the N.W., and takes the 
name of Boulevard du Midi (PI. B, 6, 5). On the right stands the 
Blind Asylum of the Philanthropic Society of Brussels (PI. 34 ; C, 
6), a brick Gothic building with a clock-tower, designed by Cluyse- 
naar(1858). On the left is the Cite Fontainas (PI. B, 6), an asylum 
for unemployed teachers and governesses. — - Farther on is the Sta- 
tion du Midi (PI. A, 5, 6), built by Payen. Opposite diverge the 
broad Avenue du Midi, the continuation of which is the Rue duMidi, 
ending behind the Bourse (p. 94), and the Boulevard du Hainaut 
(p. 94). [At the N. end of the Avenue du Midi is the Place Rouppe 
(PI. C, 4), embellished with a fountain-monument to N.J. Rouppe, 
burgomaster of Brussels from 1830 to 1838, by Fraikin.~\ 

In the Boulevards , farther on , stands the Ecole Veterinaire 
(PI. 12), and beyond it are the extensive Abattoirs (slaughter- 
houses, PI. 1). Near the latter begins the Canal, 45 M. long, which 
unites Brussels with the Sambre near Charleroi. Finally, the taste- 
ful Caserne du Petit Chateau (barracks) and the Entrepot Royal 
(PI. 25; C, 1), or custom-house, with its spacious warehouses. 



Near the Boulevard d'Anvers (PI. 0, D, 1), and immediately ad- 
joining the custom-house, is the beginning of the Allee Verte, a 
double avenue of limes extending along the- bank of the Willebroeck 
Canal, which connects Brussels with Malines and Antwerp. The 
trees were planted in 1707, and were considerately spared by Mar- 
shal Saxe in 1746 during the siege of Brussels in the War of the 
Austrian Succession. This avenue was formerly the most fashion- 
able promenade at Brussels, but is now completely deserted. 

At the end of the Allee Verte a bridge crosses the canal, the 
road beyond which leads in a straight direction to Laeken {^Pavilion 
de la Reine , near the canal-bridge , at the entrance to the town ; 
Grande Grille, to the right, near the church, 'plat du jour' 75 c. ; 
several other cafes with gardens), a suburb of Brussels with 18,000 
inhab., and the summer-palace of the king of Belgium. It is con- 
nected with Brussels by two tramway-lines (cars every 10 min.), one 
running via. the Rue de Progres (PI. E, 1) and the other via the 
Chausse'e d'Anvers (PI. D, 1). The two tramway - lines unite far- 
ther out, on the Laeken road, which leads to the new Church of 
St. Mary, designed by Poelaert. The exterior is still unfinished, 
especially as regards its destined Gothic ornamentation , but the 
interior is finely-proportioned. The place of the choir is occupied 
by an octagon, forming the royal burial-vault, and containing the 
remains of Leopold I. (d. 1865) and Queen Louise (d. 1850). 

7* 



100 Route 12. BRUSSELS. Bois de la Cambre. 

The Cemetery of Laeken has sometimes been styled the Pere- 
Lachaise of Brussels, but can of course bear no comparison with the 
great burial-ground of Paris, either in extent or in the interest oi 
the monuments. A small chapel here contains the tomb of the 
singer Malibran (d. 1836), adorned with a statue in marble by Geefs. 
The curious Galeries Funeraires in the S. part of the cemetery, 
resembling catacombs, were constructed a few years ago. 

The new. street passing the E. side of the church and skirting 
the royal garden and park (generally closed) ascends to the (}/ t hr.] 
Montagne du Tonnerre (197 ft.), an eminence crowned with the 
Monument op Leopold I. , erected in 1880. The statue of the king, 
by W. Geefs, is surmounted by a lofty Gothic canopy resting 011 
massive round pillars, somewhat in the style of the Albert Memorial 
in London. A winding staircase ascends to the platform at the base 
of the spire, whence a fine view is obtained of Laeken and of Brus- 
sels , with the conspicuous dome of the new Palais de Justice. — 
The monument is surrounded with pleasure-grounds; on the W. 
lies the Ferme Royale. 

To the S.E. of the monument, on the right of and visible from 
the road to it, rises the Royal Chateau, erected from a design by 
the Archduke Albert of Saxe-Teschen when Austrian stadtholder ol 
the Netherlands in 1782-84. From 1802 to 1814 it was in the pos- 
session of Napoleon I., who dated here his declaration of war against 
Russia in 1812. In 1815 the chateau became the property of the 
Crown. Leopold I. died here on 16th Dec, 1865. The chateau con- 
tains many objects of art, but is accessible only in the absence oi 
the royal family. 

About 3'/2 M. to the N. of Laeken , and 3 /» M. from the village ol 
Meysse, is the beautiful chateau of Bouchout, fitted up in 1879 as a resi- 
dence for the unfortunate Princess Charlotte, widow of the Emp. Maximi- 
lian of Mexico, who was shot in 1867. 

In the church-yard of Evere, on the road to Haecht, about l'/2 M. 
from Josaphat, a station on the Chemin de Fer de Ceinture mentioned al 
p. 63, a tasteful monument has been erected to the German soldiers whc 
died in Belgium during the Franco-German war. 



The pleasantest promenade in the environs of Brussels is the 
*Bois de la Cambre, on the S. E. side, being a part of the Foret de 
Soignes, converted into a beautiful park resembling the Bois de 
Boulogne of Paris , under the auspices of M. Keilig, a landscape 
gardener. It covers an area of 450 acres, and is reached from the 
Boulevards by the broad and handsome Avenue Louise (PI. D, E, 6), 
or Avenue du Bois de la Cambre, iy 2 M. in length, which is 
flanked by a number of handsome new houses. Before the Bois ii 
reached , on the left , are the church of St. Croix and the two 
ponds of the suburb of Ixelles ; farther on, on the same side, is th^ 
old Abbaye de la Cambre de Notre Dame, below the road, now a 
military school. A tramway line, starting from the Place du Palais; 
on the S. side of the park, traverses the Boulevard de Waterloo and 




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WATERLOO. 13. Route. 101 

leads through the Avenue Louise to the entrance of the park, where 
there are several cafes and restaurants. In the park itself is the 
'Laiterie', and farther on, by the small lake, the 'Trianon' restaurant. 

13. From Brussels to Charleroi by Luttre. 
Battle Field of Waterloo. 

35 M. Railway in ii/ 4 -2 3 /4 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 25, 3 fr. 20, 2 fr. 15 c.).— This 
line, which was opened a few years ago, affords a new and convenient route 
to the Field or Waterloo, especially for a single traveller. Those who 
merely desire a general view of the battle-field should take the train to 
Braine VAlleud, whence the hill of the lion is l'/2 M. distant. The walk 
described below, from Waterloo to Mont St. Jean, La Haye Sainle , La 
Belle Alliance, Plancenoit, and back by Hougomont and the Lion Hill to 
Braine VAlleud, in all 7-8 M., is, however, far more interesting. If the 
walk be prolonged from Plancenoit to the S. to Genappe, the whole 
distance will be about 12 M. — A coach leaves Brussels daily (except Sun- 
days) at 8.30 a.m. for Waterloo , allowing 2-3 hrs. to visit the battle- 
field, and arrives again in Brussels at 4 p. m. It starts from the Hdtel de 
Saxe, Rue Neuve 77-79, calling at the principal hotels in the upper town. 
One-horse carriage from Brussels to Waterloo, 20 fr. ; two-horse, 30 fr. 

The train starts from the Station du Midi at Brussels (p. 63). 
and traverses a pleasant country , passing through numerous cut- 
tings. Stations Forest- Stalle, Uccle, Calevoet, and Rhode-St. Qenese. 

9y 2 M. Waterloo, celebrated for the great battle of 18th June, 
1815, and the headquarters of the Duke of Wellington from 17th 
to 19th June. The village lies on the Brussels and Charleroi road, 
3 / 4 M. from the station. The church contains Wellington's bust, by 
Oeefs , and numerous marble slabs to the memory of English of- 
ficers. One tablet is dedicated to the officers of the Highland regi- 
ments, and a few others to Dutch officers. 

The garden of a peasant (a few paces to the N. of the church ) 
contains an absurd monument to the leg of the Marquis of Anglesea 
(d. 1854), then Lord Uxbridge, the commander of the British 
cavalry, who underwent the amputation immediately after the battle. 
The monument bears an appropriate epitaph, and is shaded by a 
weeping willow. 

Battle Field. A visit to Mont St. Jean, the two monuments on the 
battle-field, the Lion, and the farms of La Haye Sainte and Hougomont, 
occupies 2 hrs. ; to La Belle Alliance and Plancenoit 2 hrs. more. The 
traveller will, however, obtain a general survey of the field during the first 
2 hours. 

Guides. The annexed plan and the following brief sketch of the battle 
will enable the visitor to form a distinct conception of the positions occu- 
pied by the respective armies without the services of a guide. The usual 
fee for the principal points of interest is 2fr. ; if the excursion be extended 
to Plancenoit or Planchenois and the chateau of Frichemont, 3-4 fr. ; but 
an agreement should invariably be made beforehand. 

Relics. Old bullets, weapons, buttons, and other relics are still occa- 
sionally turned up by the plough, but most of those which the traveller is 
importuned to purchase are spurious. 

Inns at Mont St. Jean : ffitel Mont St. Jean and (to the right where the road 
to Nivelles diverges from the Namur road) Hotel des Colonuts, where Victor 
Hugo is said to have finished his ' Miserables '. On the mound of the Lion, 
"Bilel du Musie, moderate. 



102 Route 13. WATERLOO. Sketch of 

Sketch of the Battle. A detailed history of the momentous events 
of 18th June, 1815, would be beyond the scope of a guide-book; but a 
brief and impartial outline, with a few statistics derived from the most 
trustworthy English and German sources, may perhaps be acceptable to 
those who visit this memorable spot. 

The ground on which Wellington took up his position after the Battle 
of Quatre Bras was admirably adapted for a defensive battle. The high- 
roads from Nivelles and Genappe unite at the village of Mont Saint Jean, 
whence the main route leads to Brussels. In front of the village extends a 
long chain of hills with gentle slopes, which presented all the advantages 
sought for by the Allies. The undulating ground behind this range afforded 
every facility for posting the cavalry and reserves so as to conceal them 
from the enemy. In this favourable position Wellington was fully justified 
in hoping at least to hold his own, even against a stronger enemy, until the 
assistance promised by Bliicher should arrive. 

The first line of the Allied army, beginning with the right wing (on the 
W.) was arranged as follows. On the extreme right were placed two bri- 
gades of the British household troops, consisting of two battalions of Foot- 
Guards under Gen. Maitland, and two battalions of the Coldstream Guards 
under Gen. Byng. Next came a British brigade of four battalions under 
Gen. Sir Colin Halkett, adjoining whom were Kielmannsegge with five 
brigades of Hanoverians ana a corps of riflemen, Col. Ompteda with a bri- 
gade of the German Legion, and finally Alten's division. The whole of this 
portion of the line occupied the hills between the Nivelles and Genappe 
roads. Beyond the latter (i.e., farther to the E.) Kemp was stationed with 
the 28th and 32nd regiments, a battalion of the 79th, and one of the 95th 
Rifles. Next came Bylant with one Belgian and five Dutch battalions, sup- 
ported by Pack's brigade, posted a short distance in their rear, and consist- 
ing of the 44th. These four battalions had suffered severely at Quatre Bras 
and were greatly reduced in number, but their conduct throughout the 
battle abundantly proved that their discipline and courage were unimpaired. 
Beyond the Netherlanders were drawn up Best's Hanoverians and Pieton's 
infantry division , the latter partly composed of Hanoverians under Col. 
von Vincke. Next to these were stationed Vandeleur's brigade, the 11th, 
12th, and 16th Light Dragoons, and finally on the extreme left (to the E.) 
three regiments of light cavalry, consisting of the 10th and 18th British, and 
the 1st Hussars of the German Legion. 

The first line of the Allies was strengthened at various distances by 
Grant's and Doernberg's cavalry-brigades, consisting of three English regi- 
ments and three of the German Legion respectively, and posted near the 
Guards and Sir Colin Halkett. Next to them came a regiment of Hussars 
of the German Legion under Col. Arentschild ; then, to the E. of the 
Genappe road, two heavy brigades, the Household and the Union, to sup- 
port Alten's and Picton's divisions. The former of these brigades was com- 
posed of the 1st and 2nd Life Guards and the 1st Dragoon Guards under 
Lord Ed. Somerset; the latter of the 1st Royal Dragoons, the Scots Greys, 
and the Irish Inniskillens, commanded by Gen. Sir W. Ponsonby. Besides 
the first line and the troops destined to cover it, various other forces were 
distributed as the circumstances and the formation of the ground required. 
Thus a brigade under Col. Mitchell, Sir Henry Clinton's division, Du Plat's 
German brigade, Adam's light brigade, and Halkett's Hanoverians were 
drawn up on the W. side of the Nivelles Chaussee and near the village of 
Merbe Braine. Finally the reserve of Brunswickers and Netherlanders, 
comprising infantry and cavalry, formed a line between Merbe Braine and 
Mont St. Jean, supported by Lambert's British brigade of three regiments, 
which had just arrived by forced marches from Ostend. — The artillery, 
consisting chiefly of British troops, were distributed as occasion required. 
Every battery present was brought into action during the day, and nobly 
fulfilled its duty. 

In front of the centre of the Allied army lay the Chdteau of Hougo- 
mont, which with its massive buildings, its gardens and plantations, formed 
an admirable point oVapptii for the defence of the heights above. It was 
garrisoned by two light companies under Lord Saltoun, and two under Col. 



the Battle. WATERLOO. 13. Route. 103 

Macdonnel, strengthened by a battalion of Nassovians, a company of Hano- 
verian riflemen, and about 100 men of the German Legion-. This point 
holds a prominent place in the history of the battle, both on account of the 
fury with which it was attacked by the French, and the heroic and success- 
ful defence of its occupants. Farther to the left, and nearer the front of the 
Allies, lay La Haye Sainte , a farm-house which was occupied by 400 
men of the German Legion under Major von Baring, but after a noble de- 
fence was taken by the French. The defence of the farms of Papelolte 
and La Haye on the extreme left was entrusted to the Nassovian Brigade 
under Duke Bernard of Weimar. 

Napoleon's army was drawn up in a semicircle on the heights to the E. 
and W. of the farm of La Belle Alliance, about one mile distant from 
the Allies. It was arranged in two lines, with a reserve in the rear. The 
first line consisted of two corps d'arme'e commanded by Reille and D'Erlon 
respectively, and flanked by cavalry on either side. One corps extended 
from La Belle Alliance westwards to the Nivelles road and beyond it, the 
other eastwards in the direction of the chateau of Frichemont. The 
second line was composed almost entirely of cavalry. Milhaud's cuiras- 
siers and the light cavalry of the guards were drawn up behind the right 
wing, Kellermann's heavy cavalry behind the left. A body of cavalry 
and a portion of Lobau's corps were also stationed in the rear of the 
centre, whilst still farther back the imperial guard, consisting of infantry 
and artillery, were drawn up in reserve on each side of the chaussee. 

The Duke of Wellington's army consisted of 07,600 men, 24,000 of 
whom were British, 30,000 troops of the German Legion, Hanoverians, 
Brunswickers, and Nassovians, and 13-14,000 Netherlanders. Of these 
12,400 were cavalry, 5,600 artillery with 180 guns. The army brought 
into the field by Napoleon numbered 71,900 men, of whom 15,700 were 
cavalry, 7,200 artillery with 246 guns. Numerically, therefore, the dif- 
ference between the hostile armies was not great, but it must be borne 
in mind that no reliance could be placed on the Netherlanders, most of 
whom fled at an early stage of the battle. The staunch Dutch troops 
who formed part of this contingent did their utmost to prevent this das- 
tardly act, but their efforts were unavailing. Had they formed a separate 
corps they would have been most valuable auxiliaries, but when mingled 
with the Belgian troops their bravery was utterly paralysed. Practically, 
therefore, the Duke's army consisted of barely 50,000 men, composed of 
four or five different elements , and a large porportion of them were 
raw recruits, whilst the soldiers of Napoleon constituted a grand and 
admirably-disciplined unity, full of enthusiasm for their general , and 
confident of victory. The superiority of the French artillery alone was 
overwhelming. 

After a wet and stormy night, the morning of the 18th of June gave 
some promise of clearing, but the sky was still overcast, and rain con- 
tinued to fall till an advanced hour. The ground, moreover, was so 
thoroughly saturated that the movements of the cavalry and artillery 
were seriously obstructed. This was probably the cause of Napoleon's 
tardiness in attacking the Allies, and of the deliberation with which he 
spent several of the best hours of the morning in arranging his army with 
unusual display. It is not known precisely at what hour the first shots 
were fired ; some authorities mention 8 o'clock, others half-past eleven or 
twelve, while the Duke himself, in his published despatch, names ten as 
the hour of the commencement of the battle. It is, however, probable 
that the actual fighting did not begin till between eleven and twelve. 

The first movement on the part of the French was the advance of a 
division of Reille's corps d'armie under Jerome Buonaparte, a detach- 
ment of which precipitated itself against the chateau of Hougomont, and 
endeavoured to take it by storm, but was repulsed. They soon renewed 
the attack with redoubled fury, and the tirailleurs speedily forced (heir 
way into the enclosure, notwithstanding the gallant resistance made by 
the Hanoverian and Nassovian riflemen. The British howitzers, however, 
now began to pour such a deadly shower of shells on the assailants 
that they were again compelled to retreat. This was but the prelude to 



104 Route IS. WATERLOO. Sketch of 

a series of reiterated assaults, in which the French skirmishers in over- 
whelming numbers were more than once nearly successful. Prodigies of 
valour on the part of the defenders, vigorously seconded by the artillery 
on the heights, alone enabled the garrison to hold out until the victory 
was won. Had the French once gained possession of this miniature for- 
tress, a point of vital importance to the Allies, the issue of the day would 
probably have been very different. 

Whilst Hougomont and its environs continued to be the scene of a 
desperate and unremitting conflict, a second great movement on the part 
of the French was directed against the centre and the left wing of the 
Allies. Supported by a cannonade of 72 pieces, the whole of Erlons corps 
and a division of Kellermann's cavalry, comprising upwards of 18,000 men, 
bristled in columns of attack on the heights above La Haye Sainte, pre- 
senting a magnificent but terrible spectacle. Their object was to storm 
La Haye Sainte, break through the centre of the Allied army, and attack 
the left wing in the rear. At the moment when Ney was about to begin 
the attack , Napoleon observed distant indications of the advance of 
new columns on his extreme right, and an intercepted despatch proved 
that they formed a part of the advanced guard of Bulow's Prussians, 
who were approaching from Wavre. The attack was therefore delayed 
for a short time, and Soult despatched a messenger to Marshal Grouchy, 
directing him to manoeuvre his troops so as to intercept the Prussians. 
Owing, however, to a series of misunderstandings, Grouchy was too far 
distant from the scene of action to be of any service, and did not receive 
the order till seven in the evening. 

It was about two o'clock when Ney commenced his attack. The four 
divisions of Erlon's corps moved rapidly in four columns towards the Allied 
line between La Haye Sainte and Smouhen. Papelotte and Smouhen were 
stormed by Durette's division, but the former was not long maintained by 
the French. Donzelat's division took possession of the gardens of La 
Haye Sainte, notwithstanding the brave resistance of a Hanoverian bat- 
talion, while the two other French divisions, those of Alix and Marcog- 
net, pressed onwards without encountering any obstacle. Hardly had the 
two latter opened their fire on Bylant's Netherlandish contingent, when 
the Belgians were seized with a panic and thrown into confusion. All 
the efforts of their officers and the remonstrances of their Dutch com- 
rades were utterly unavailing to reassure them, and amid the bitter 
execrations of the British regiments they fairly took to flight. Picton's 
division, however, now consisting solely of the two greatly-reduced brigades 
of Pack, and Kemp, and mustering barely 3000 men, prepared with un- 
daunted resolution to receive the attack of the two French divisions, 
numbering upwards of 13,000 infantry, besides cavalry. The struggle was 
brief, but of intense fierceness. The charge of the British was irresist- 
ible, and in a few moments the French were driven back totally dis- 
comfited. The success was brilliant, but dearly purchased, for the gallant 
Picton himself was one of the numerous slain. During the temporary con- 
fusion which ensued among Kemp's troops, who, however, soon recovered 
their order, the Duke communicated with Lord Uxbridge, who put him- 
self at the head of Lord Edward Somerset's Household Brigade, consisting 
of two regiments of Life Guards, the Horse Guards, and Dragoon Guards. 
Meanwhile, too, a body of Milhaud's cuirassiers had advanced somewhat 
prematurely to La Haye Sainte and endeavoured to force their way up 
the heights towards the left centre of the Allied line. These two move- 
ments gave rise to a conflict of unparalleled fury between the elite of the 
cavalry of the hostile armies. For a time the French bravely persevered, 
but nothing could withstand the overwhelming impetus of the Guards as 
they descended the slope, and the cuirassiers were compelled to fly in 
wild confusion. Somerset's brigade, regardless of consequences and en- 
tirely unsupported, pursued with eager impetuosity. At this juncture two 
columns of the French infantry had advanced on Pack's brigade. The 
bagpipes yelled forth their war-cry, and the gallant Highlanders dashed 
into the thickest of the fight, notwithstanding the terrible majority of 
their enemy. This was one of the most daring exploits of the day ; but 



the Battle. WATERLOO. 13. Route. 105 

the mere handful of Northmen must inevitably have been cut to pieces 
to a man, had not Col. Ponsonby with the Inniskillens, the Scots Ureys, 
and the Royal Dragoons opportunely flown to the rescue. The cavalry 
charge was crowned with brilliant success, and the French infantry were 
utterly routed. Pack's troops now recovered their order, and were re- 
strained from the pursuit, but Ponsonby's cavalry, intoxicated with suc- 
cess, swept onwards. The Royals encountered part of Alix's division, 
which was advancing towards Mont St. Jean, where a gap had been left 
by the flight of the Belgians. A fearful scene of slaughter ensued, and 
the French again endeavoured to rally. This charge was simultaneous 
with that of Lord Uxbridge on the cuirassiers, as mentioned above. At 
the same time the Greys and Inniskillens, who were in vain commanded 
to halt and rally, madly prosecuted their work of destruction. Somerset's 
and Ponsonby's cavalry had thus daringly pursued their enemy until they 
actually reached the French line near Belle Alliance. Here, however, 
their victorious career was checked. A fresh body of French cuirassiers 
and a brigade of lancers were put in motion against them, and they were 
compelled to retreat with considerable confusion and great loss. At this 
crisis Vandeleur's Light Dragoons came to the rescue, and the tide of the 
conflict was again turned ; but the French, whose cavalry far outnumbered 
those of the Allies, again compelled the British to abandon the unequal 
struggle. Retreat was once more inevitable, and the loss immense, but 
the French gained no decided advantage. Vandeleur himself fell, and 
Ponsonby was left on the field dangerously wounded. 

While the centre and left of the Allied line were thus actively en- 
gaged, the right was not suffered to repose. At a critical juncture, when 
Lord Saltoun and his two light companies were suffering severely in the 
defence of the orchard of Hougomont, and had been reduced to a mere 
handful of men, a battalion of Guards under Col. Hepburn was sent to 
their relief and drove off the French tirailleurs, whose loss was enormous. 
The chateau had meanwhile taken fire, and the effects of the conflagration 
were most disastrous to the little garrison, but most fortunately for the 
sufferers the progress of the flames was arrested near the doorway where, 
a crucifix hung. The sacred image itself was injured, but not destroyed; 
and to its miraculous powers the Belgians attributed the preservation of 
the defenders. There was now a pause in the musketry fire, but the 
cannonade on both sides continued with increasing fury, causing frightful 
carnage. Erlon's and Reille's corps sustained a loss of nearly half their 
numbers, and of the former alone 3000 were taken prisoners. Nearly 40 
of the French cannon were moreover silenced, their gunners having been 
slain. Napoleon now determined to make amends for these disasters by 
an overwhelming cavalry attack, while at the same time the infantry 
divisions of Jerome and Foy were directed to advance. Milhaud's cuiras- 
siers and a body of the French Guards, 40 squadrons in all, a most mag- 
nificent and formidable array, advanced in three lines from the French 
heights, crossing the intervening valley, and began to ascend towards the 
Allies. During their advance the French cannonade was continued over 
their heads, ceasing only when they had nearly attained the brow of the 
opposite hill. The Allied artillery poured their discharge of grape and 
canister against the enemy with deadly effect, but without retarding their 
progress. In accordance with the Duke's instructions, the artillerymen 
now retreated for shelter behind the line; the French cavalry charged, 
and the foremost batteries fell into their possession. The Allied infantry, 
Germans as well as British, had by this time formed into squares. There 
was a pause on the part of the cavalry, who had not expected to find 
their enemy in such perfect and compact array ; but after a momentary 
hesitation they dashed onwards. Thus the whole of the cuirassiers, fol- 
lowed by the lancers and chasseurs swept through between the Allied 
squares, but without making any impression on them. Lord Uxbridge, 
with the fragments of his heavy cavalry , now hastened to the aid of the 
infantry, and drove the French back over the hill; but his numbers were 
too reduced to admit of his following up this success, and before long the 
French, vigorously supported by their cannonade, returned. Again they 



106 Route 13. WATERLOO. Sketch of 

swept past the impenetrable squares, and again all their efforts to break 
them were completely baffled, while their own ranks were terribly 
thinned by the fire of the undaunted Allies. Thus foiled, they once more 
abandoned the attack. Donzelat's infantry had meanwhile been advancing 
to support them, but seeing this total discomfiture and retreat, they too 
retired from the scene of action. The Allied lines were therefore again 
free, and the cannonade alone was now continued on both sides. 

After this failure, Napoleon commanded Kellermann, with his dragoons 
and cuirassiers, to support the retreating masses, and Guyot's heavy 
cavalry of the Guards advanced with the same object. These troops, con- 
sisting of 37 fresh squadrons, formed behind the shattered fragments of 
the 40 squadrons above mentioned, and rallied them for a renewed attack, 
and again the French line assumed a most threatening and imposing 
aspect. Perceiving these new preparations, the Duke of Wellington con- 
tracted his line so as to strengthen the Allied centre, immediately after 
which manoeuvres the French cannonade burst forth with redoubled fury. 
Again a scene precisely similar to that already described was re-enacted. 
The French cavalry ascended the heights, where they were received with 
a deadly cannonade, the gunners retired from their pieces at the latest 
possible moment, the French rode in vast numbers between the squares, 
and again the British and German infantry stood immovable. The cavalry 
then swept past them towards the Allied rear, and here they met with 
partial success, for a body of Netherlander whom they had threatened 
at once began to retreat precipitately. As in the earlier part of the 
day, Lord Uxbridge flew to the rescue with the remnants of his cavalry, 
vigorously seconded by Somerset and Grant, and again the French horse- 
men were discomfited. Lord Uxbridge now ordered a brigade of Belgian 
and Dutch carbineers, who had not as yet been in action, and were 
stationed behind Mont St. Jean, to charge the French cavalry who had 
penetrated to the allied rear ; but his commands were disregarded, and 
the Netherlander took to flight. A body of Hussars of the German 
Legion, however, though far outnumbered by their enemy, gallantly 
charged them, but were compelled to retreat. The battle-field at this 
period presented a most remarkable scene. Friends and foes, French, 
German, and British troops, were mingled in apparently inextricable con- 
fusion. Still, however, the Allied squares were unbroken, and the French 
attack, not being followed up by infantry, was again a failure. The assail- 
ants accordingly, as before, galloped down to the valley in great confusion, 
after having sustained some disastrous losses. Lord Uxbridge attempted 
to follow up this advantage by bringing forward a fresh regiment of 
Hanoverian Hussars, but he was again doomed to disappointment; for 
the whole troop, after having made a pretence of obeying his command, 
wheeled round and fled to Brussels, where they caused the utmost con- 
sternation by a report that the Allies were defeated. 

During the whole of this time the defence of Hougomont had been 
gallantly and successfully carried on, and Du Plat with his Brunswickers 
had behaved with undaunted courage when attacked by French cavalry 
and tirailleurs in succession. The brave general himself fell , but his 
troops continued to maintain their ground, whilst Adam's Brigade ad- 
vanced to their aid. Overwhelming numbers of French infantry, how- 
ever, had forced their way between them, and reached the summit of 
the hill, threatening the right wing of the Allies with disaster. At this 
juncture the Duke at once placed himself at the head of Adam's brigade 
and commanded them to charge. The assault was made with the utmost 
enthusiasm, and the French were driven from the heights. The entire 
Allied line had hitherto held its ground, and Hougomont proved impreg- 
nable. Napoleon therefore directed his efforts against La Haye Sainte ; a 
point of the utmost importance, which was bravely defended by Major 
von Baring and his staunch band of Germans. Ney accordingly ordered 
Donzelat's division to attack the miniature fortress. A furious cannonade 
opened upon it was the prelude to an attack by overwhelming numbers of 
tirailleurs. The ammunition of the defenders was speedily exhausted, 
the buildings took fire, and Baring with the utmost reluctance directed 



the Battle. WATERLOO. 13. Route. 107 

the wreck of his detachment to retreat through the garden. With heroic 
bravery the major and his gallant officers remained at their posts until 
the French had actually entered the house, and only when farther resist- 
ance would have been certain death did they finally yield (see p. 103) 
and retreat to the lines of the Allies. After this success, the French pro- 
ceeded to direct a similar concentrated attack against Hougomont, but in 
vain, for arms and ammunition were supplied in abundance to the little 
garrison, whilst the cannonade of the Allies was in a position to render 
them efficient service. La Haye Sainte, which was captured between 5 
and 6 o'clock p.m., now became a most advantageous point cTapptii for the 
French tirailleurs, in support of whom Ney, during upwards of an hour, 
directed a succession of attacks against the Allied centre, but still with- 
out succeeding in dislodging or dismaying the indomitable squares. Their 
numbers, indeed, were fearfully reduced, but their spirit was unbroken. 
There was, moreover, still a considerable reserve which had not yet been 
in action, although perhaps implicit reliance could not be placed on their 
steadiness. It was now nearly 7 p.m., and the victory on which the 
French had in the morning so confidently reckoned was still entirely 
unachieved. 

Meanwhile Bliicher, with his gallant and indefatigable Prussians, 
whose timely arrival, fortunately for the Allies, prevented Napoleon from 
employing his reserves against them, had been toiling across the wet and 
spongy valleys of St. Lambert and the Lasne towards the scene of action. 
The patience of the weary troops was well-nigh exhausted. ' We can go 
no farther', they frequently exclaimed. 'We must\ was Bliicher's reply. 
'I have given Wellington my word, and you won't make me break it! 1 
It was about 4.30 p.m. when the first Prussian battery opened its fire 
from the heights of Frichemont, about 2'|4 miles to the S.E. of the Allied 
centre, whilst at the same time two cavalry regiments advanced to the 
attack. They were first opposed by Domont's cavalry division, beyond 
which Lobau's corps approached their new enemy. One by one the dif- 
ferent brigades of Bulow's corps arrived on the field between Frichemont 
and Planchenois. Lobau stoutly resisted their attack, but his opponents 
soon became too powerful for him. By 6 o'clock the Prussians had 48 
guns in action, the balls from which occasionally reached as far as the 
Genappe road. Lobau was now compelled to retreat towards the vil- 
lage of Planchenois, a little to the rear of the French centre at Belle 
Alliance. This was the juncture, between 6 and 7 o'clock, when Ney was 
launching his reiterated but fruitless attacks against the Allied centre, 
2'|i miles distant from this point. Napoleon now despatched eight bat- 
talions of the guard and 24 guns to aid Marshal Lobau in the defence of 
Planchenois, where a sanguinary conflict ensued. Hiller's brigade en- 
deavoured to take the village by storm, and succeeded in gaining posses- 
sion of the churchyard, but a furious and deadly fusillade from the houses 
compelled them to yield. Reinforcements were now added to the combat- 
ants of both armies. Napoleon sent four more battalions of guards to the 
scene of action, while fresh columns of Prussians united with Hiller's 
troops and prepared for a renewed assault. Again the village was taken, 
and again lost, the French even venturing to push their way to the vicinity 
of the Prussian line. The latter, however, was again reinforced by Tip- 
pelskirch's brigade, a portion of which at once participated in the struggle. 
About 7 o'clock Zieten arrived on the field, and united his brigade to the 
extreme left of the Allied line, which he aided in the contest near La 
Haye and Papelotte. Prussians continued to arrive later in the evening 
but of course could not now influence the issue of the battle. It became 
apparent to Napoleon at this crisis that if the Prussians succeeded in 
capturing Planchenois , while Wellington's lines continued steadfast in 
their position, a disastrous defeat of his already terribly-reduced army was 
inevitable. He therefore resolved to direct a final and desperate attack 
against the Allied centre, and to stimulate the flagging energies of his 
troops caused a report to be spread amongst them that Grouchy was ap- 
proaching to their aid, although well knowing this to be impossible. 

Napoleon accordingly commanded eight battalions of his reserve Guards 



108 Route 13. WATERLOO. Sketch of 

to advance in two columns, one towards the centre of the Allied right, the 
other nearer to Hougomont, while they were supported by a reserve of 
two more battalions, consisting in all of about 5000 veteran soldiers, who 
had not as yet been engaged in the action. Between these columns were 
the remnants of Erlon's and Reille's corps, supported by cavalry; and 
somewhat in front of them Donzelat's division was to advance. Mean- 
while the Duke hastened to prepare the wreck of his army to meet the 
attack. Du Plat's Brunswickers took up their position nearly opposite La 
Haye Sainte, between Halkett's and Alten's divisions. Haitland's and 
Adam's brigades were nominally supported by a division of Nether- 
landers under Gen. Chasse, while Vivian with his cavalry quitted the 
extreme left and drew up in the rear of Kruse's Nassovians, who had 
already suffered severely, and now began to exhibit symptoms of wa- 
vering. Every available gun was posted in front of the line, and the 
orchard and plantations of Hougomont were strengthened by reinforce- 
ments. The prelude to the attack of the French was a renewed and 
furious cannonade, which caused frightful havoc among the Allies. Don- 
zelat's division then advanced in dense array from La Haye Sainte, in- 
trepidly pushing their way to the very summit of the height on which 
the Allies stood. At the same time several French guns supported by 
them were brought within a hundred yards of the Allied front, on which 
they opened a most murderous cannonade. Kielmannsegge's Hanoverians 
suffered severe loss, the wreck of Ompteda's German brigade was almost 
annihilated, and Kruse's Nassovians were only restrained from taking to 
flight by the efforts of Vivian's cavalry. The Prince of Orange then ral- 
lied the Nassovians and led them to the charge, but they were again driven 
back, and the Prince himself severely wounded. Du Plat's Brunswickers 
next came to the rescue and fought gallantly, but with no better result. 
The Duke, however, rallied them in person, and the success of the French 
was brief. At the same time the chief fury of the storm was about to 
burst forth farther to the right of the Allies. The Imperial Guard, com- 
manded by the heroic Ney, Friant, and Michel, and stimulated to the ut- 
most enthusiasm by an address from Napoleon himself, formed in threaten- 
ing and imposing masses on the heights of Belle Alliance, and there was 
a temporary lull in the French cannonade. The two magnificent columns, 
the flower of the French army, were now put in motion, one towards 
Hougomont and Adam's brigade, the other in the direction of Maitland 
and his Guards. As soon as the Guards had descended from the heights, 
the French batteries recommenced their work of destruction with terrible 
fury and precision, but were soon compelled to desist when they could no 
longer fire over the heads of their infantry. The latter had nearly attained 
the summit of the heights of the Allies, when the British gunners again 
resumed their work with redoubled energy, making innumerable gaps in 
the ranks of their assailants. Ney's horse was shot under him, but the 
gallant marshal continued to advance on foot ; Michel was slain, and Friant 
dangerously wounded. Notwithstanding these casualties, the Guards gained 
the summit of the hill and advanced towards that part of the line where 
Maitland's brigade had been ordered to lie down behind the ridge in 
the rear of the battery which crowned it. The Duke commanded here 
in person at this critical juncture. The French tirailleurs were speedily 
swept away by showers of grape and canister, but the column of French 
veterans continued to advance towards the apparently-unsupported battery. 
At this moment the Duke gave the signal to Maitland, whose Guards in- 
stantaneously sprang from the earth and saluted their enemy with a 
fierce and murderous discharge. The effect was irresistible, the French 
column was rent asunder and vainly endeavoured to deploy ; Maitland 
and Lord Saltoun gave orders to charge, and the British Guards fairly 
drove their assailants down the hill. — Meanwhile the other column of 
the Imperial Guard was advancing farther to the right, although vigorously 
opposed by the well-sustained fire of the British artillery, and Maitland's 
Guards returned rapidly and without confusion to their position to pre- 
pare for a new emergency. By means of a skilful manoeuvre, Col. Col- 
borne, with the 52nd, 71st, and 85th now brought his forces to bear on 



the Battle. WATERLOO. 13. Route. 109 

the flank of the advancing column, on which the three regiments simul- 
taneously poured their fire. Here, too, the British arms were again suc- 
cessful, and frightful havoc was committed in the French ranks. A scene 
of indescribable confusion ensued, during which many of Chasse's Nether- 
landers in the rear took to flight, knowing nothing of the real issue of 
the attack. At the same time Maitland and his Guards again charged 
with fierce impetuosity from their ' mountain throne ', and completed the 
rout of this second column of the Imperial Guard. In this direction, 
therefore , the fate of the French was sealed , and the Allies were tri- 
umphant. Farther to the left of the Allied line, moreover, the troops of 
Donzelat, Erlon, and Beille were in the utmost confusion, and totally un- 
able to sustain the conflict. On the extreme left, however, the right wing 
of the French was still unbroken, and the Young Guard valiantly defended 
Planchenois against the Prussians, who fought with the utmost bravery 
and perseverance notwithstanding the fearful losses they were sustain- 
ing. Lobau also stoutly opposed Biilow and his gradually -increasing 
corps. Napoleon's well-known final order to his troops — ' Tout est per- 
du ! Sauve qui peut ! ' was wrung from him in his despair on seeing his 
Guard utterly routed, his cavalry dispersed, and his reserves consumed. 
This was about 8 o'clock in the evening, and the whole of the Allied line, 
with the Duke himself among the foremost, now descended from their 
heights, and, notwithstanding a final attempt at resistance on the part of 
the wreck of the Imperial Guard, swept all before them, mounted the 
enemy's heights, and even passed Belle Alliance itself. Still the battle 
raged fiercely at and around Planchenois, but shortly after 8 o'clock the 
gallant efforts of the Prussians were crowned with success. Planchenois 
was captured, Lobau and the Young Guard defeated after a most obstinate 
and sanguinary struggle, the French retreat became general, and the vic- 
tory was at length completely won. Not until the Duke was perfectly 
assured of this did he finally give the order for a general halt, and the 
Allies now desisted from the pursuit at a considerable distance beyond 
Belle Alliance. On his way back to Waterloo, Wellington met Bliicher 
at the Maison Rouge, or Maison du Roi, not far from Belle Alliance, and 
after mutual congratulations both generals agreed that they must advance 
on Paris without delay. Bliicher, moreover, many of whose troops were 
comparatively fresh, undertook that the Prussians should continue the 
pursuit, a task of no slight importance and difficulty, which Gen. Gneise- 
nau most admirably executed, thus in a great measure contributing to the 
ease and rapidity of the Allied march to Paris. 

So ended one of the most sanguinary and important battles which 
history records, in the issue of which the whole of Europe was deeply 
interested. With the few exceptions already mentioned, all the troops 
concerned fought with great bravery, and many prodigies of valour on the 
part of regiments, and acts of daring heroism by individuals, are on 
record. The loss of life on this memorable day was commensurate with 
the long duration and fearful obstinacy of the battle. Upwards of 50,000 
soldiers perished, or were hors de combat, whilst the sufferings of the 
wounded baffle description. The loss of the Allies (killed, wounded, and 
missing) amounted to about 14,000 men. Of these the British alone lost 6932, 
including 456 officers ; the German contingents 4494, including 246 officers. 
The total loss of the Prussians was 6682 men, of whom 223 were officers. 
The Netherlanders estimated their loss at 4000 from the 15th to 18th June. 
The loss of the French has never been ascertained with certainty, but 
probably amounted to 30,000 at least, besides 7800 prisoners taken by the 
Allies. About 227 French guns were also captured, 150 by the Allies, the 
rest by the Prussians. 

Napoleon's errors in the conduct of the battle were perhaps chiefly 
these, that he began the battle at too late an hour of the day, that he 
wasted his cavalry reserves in a reckless manner, and that he neglected 
to take into account the steadiness with which British infantry are wont 
to maintain their ground. The Duke of Wellington is sometimes blamed 
for giving battle with a forest in the rear, which would preclude the pos- 
sibility of retreat ; but the groundlessness of the objection is apparent to 



110 Route 13. MONT ST. JEAN. Battle Field 

those who are acquainted with the locality, for not only is the Foret de 
Soignes traversed by good roads in every direction, but it consists of lofty 
trees growing at considerable intervals and unencumbered by underwood. 
It is a common point of controversy among historians, whether the victo- 
rious issue of the battle was mainly attributable to the British or the 
Prussian troops. The true answer probably is, that the contest would 
have been a drawn battle but for the timely arrival of the Prussians. It 
has already been shown how the Allied line successfully baffled the 
utmost efforts of the French until 7 p.m., and how they gloriously repelled 
the final and most determined attack of the Imperial Guard about 8 
o'clock. The British troops and most of their German contingents, there- 
fore, unquestionably bore the burden and heat of the day ; they virtually 
annihilated the flower of the French cavalry, and committed fearful havoc 
among the veteran Guards, on whom Napoleon had placed his utmost re- 
liance. At the same time it must be remembered that the first Prussian 
shots were fired about half-past four, that by half-past six upwards ot 
15,000 of the French (Lobau's corps, consisting of 6600 infantry and 1000 
artillery, with 30 guns ; 12 battalions of the Young Imperial Guard, about 
6000 men in all ; 18 squadrons of cavalry, consisting of nearly 2000 men) 
were drawn off for the new struggle at Planchenois, and that the loss of 
the Prussians was enormous for a conflict comparatively so brief, proving 
how nobly and devotedly they performed their part. The Duke of Wel- 
lington himself, in his despatch descriptive of the battle, says ' that the 
British army never conducted itself better, that he attributed the success- 
ful issue of the battle to the cordial and timely assistance of the Prus- 
sians, that Billow's operation on the enemy's flank was most decisive, and 
would of itself have forced the enemy to retire, even if he (the Duke) had 
not been in a situation to make the attack which produced the final 
result '. The French colonel Charras, in his ' Campagne de 1815 ' (pub. 
at Brussels, 1858), a work which was long prohibited in France, thus 
sums up his opinion regarding the battle : ' Wellington par sa tenacite 
inebranlable , Bliicher par son activite audacieuse, tous les deux par 
l'habilite et l'accord de leur manoeuvres ont produit ce resultat '. — The 
battle is usually named by the Germans after the principal position of the 
French at Belle Alliance, but is is far more widely known as the Battle oi 
Waterloo, the name given to it by Wellington himself. 

About halfway to Mont St. Jean , which is about 3 M. from 
Waterloo, is the monument of Col. Stables, situated behind a farm- 
house on the right, and not visible from the road. The road to the 
left leads to Tervueren, a Royal chateau, once the property of the 
Prince of Orange. The royal stud was kept here till 1857, when 
it was transferred to the old abbey of Gembloux (p. 167). 

The road from Waterloo to Mont St. Jean {Hotel des Colonnes, 
p. 101) is bordered by an almost uninterrupted succession of houses. 
At the village, as already remarked , the road to Nivelles diverges 
to the right from that to Namur. To the right and left, immediately 
beyond the last houses, are depressions in the ground where the 
British reserves were stationed. 

About 2/3 M. beyond the village we next reach a bye-road, 
which intersects the high-road at a right angle , leading to the left 
to Wavre, and to the right to Braine l'Alleud. Here, at the corner 
to the right, once stood an elm, under which the Duke of Wellington 
is said to have remained during the greater part of the battle. The 
story, however, is unfounded, as it is well known that the Duke 
was almost ubiquitous on that memorable occasion. The tree has long 
since disappeared under the knives of credulous relic-hunters. 



of Waterloo. LA HAYE SAINTE. 13. Route. 1 1 1 

On the left, beyond the cross-road, stands an Obelisk (PI. i) to 
the memory of the Hanoverian officers of the German Legion, 
among whose names that of the gallant Ompteda stands first. 
Opposite to it rises a Pillar (PI. k) to the memory of Colonel Gor- 
don, bearing a touching inscription. Both these monuments stand 
on the original level of the ground, which has here been consider- 
ably lowered to furnish materials for the mound of the lion. In 
this neighbourhood Lord Fitzroy Somerset, afterwards Lord Raglan, 
the Duke's military secretary, lost his arm. 

About V4 M. to the right rises the Mound of the Belgian Lion 
(PI. 1), 200 ft. in height, thrown up on the spot where the Prince 
of Orange was wounded in the battle. The lion was cast by Cockerill 
of Liege (p. 188), with the metal of captured French cannon, and 
is said to weigh 28 tons. The French soldiers, on their march to 
Antwerp in 1832, hacked off part of the tail, but Marshal Gerard 
protected the monument from farther injury. 

The mound commands the best survey of the battle-field, and 
the traveller who is furnished with the plan and the sketch of the 
battle, and has consulted the maps at the Hotel du Musee, will here 
be enabled to form an idea of the progress of the tight. The range of 
heights which extends past the mound, to Ohain on the E. and to 
Merbe-Braine on the W., was occupied by the first line of the 
Allies. As the crest of these heights is but narrow, the second 
line was enabled to occupy a sheltered and advantageous position on 
the N. slopes, concealed from the eye of their enemy. The whole 
line was about l'^M. in length, forming a semicircle correspond- 
ing to the form of the hills. The centre lay between the mound 
and the Hanoverian monument. 

The chain of heights occupied by the French is 1 M. distant, 
and separated from the Allied position by a shallow intervening 
valley, across which the French columns advanced without manceu- 
vreing, being however invariably driven back. The Allied centre 
was protected by the farm of La Haye Sainte, situated on the right 
of the road, about 100 paces from the two monuments. It was 
defended with heroic courage by a light battalion of the German 
Legion, commanded by Major v. Baring, whose narrative is ex- 
tremely interesting. 

After giving a minute description of the locality and the disposition of 
his troops, he graphically depicts the furious and repeated assaults suc- 
cessfully warded off by his little garrison, and his own intense excitement 
and distress on finding that that their stock of ammunition was nearly 
expended. Then came the terrible catastrophe of the buildings taking 
fire, which the gallant band succeeded in extinguishing by pouring water 
on it from their camp-kettles, although not without the sacrifice of several 
more precious lives. " Many of my men ", he continues, " although 
covered with wounds, could not be induced to keep back. 'As long as 
our officers fight, and we can stand ', was their invariable answer, ' we 
won't move from the spot ! ' I should be unjust to the memory of a rifle- 
man named Frederick Lindau, if I omitted to mention his brave conduct. 
He had received two severe wounds on the head, and moreover had in his 



1 1 2 Route 13. LA HAYE SAINTE. Battle Field 

pocket a purseful of gold which he had taken from a French officer. 
Alike regardless of his wounds and his prize, he stood at a small side- 
door of the barn, whence he could command with his rifle the great en- 
trance in front of him. Seeing that his bandages were insufficient to 
stop the profuse bleeding from his wounds, I desired him to retire, but 
he positively refused, saying : ' A craven is he who would desert you as 
long as his head is on his shoulders ! ' He was, however, afterwards taken 
prisoner, and of course deprived of his treasure. " He then relates to 
what extremities they were reduced by the havoc made in the building by 
the French cannonade, and how at length, when their ammunition was 
almost exhausted, they perceived two fresh columns marching against 
them. Again the enemy succeeded in setting the barn on fire, and again 
it was successfully extinguished in the same manner as before. 

"Every shot we fired increased my anxiety and distress. I again de- 
spatched a messenger for aid , saying that I must abandon the defence 
if not provided with ammunition , — but in vain ! As our fusillade 
diminished , our embarrassment increased. Several voices now ex- 
claimed : 'We will stand by you most willingly, but we must have the 
means of defending ourselves ! ' Even the officers, who had exhibited 
the utmost bravery throughout the day, declared the place now untenable. 
The enemy soon perceived our defenceless condition, and boldly broke open 
one of the doors. As but few could enter at a time, all who crossed the 
threshold were bayonetted, and those behind hesitated to encounter the 
same fate. They therefore clambered over the walls and roofs, whence 
they could shoot down my poor fellows with impunity. At the same time 
they thronged in through the open barn, which could no longer be de- 
fended. Indescribably hard as it was for me to yield, yet feelings of 
humanity now prevailed over those of honour. 1 therefore ordered my 
men to retire to the garden at the back. The effort with which these 
words were wrung from me can only be understood by those who have 
been in a similar position." 

" As the passage of the house was very narrow, several of my men 
were overtaken before they could escape. One of these was the Ensign 
Frank, who had already been wounded. He ran through with his sabre 
the first man who attacked him, but the next moment his arm was broken 
by a bullet. He then contrived to escape into one of the rooms and con- 
ceal himself behind a bed. Two other men fled into the same room, 
closely pursued by the French, who exclaimed : ' Pas de pardon a ces 
brigands verts r and shot them down before his eyes. Most fortunately, 
however, he remained undiscovered until the house again fell into our 
hands at a later hour. As I was now convinced that the garden could 
not possibly be maintained when the enemy was in possession of the 
house, I ordered the men to retreat singly to the main position of the 
army. The enemy, probably satisfied with their success, molested us no 
farther." 

The door of the house still bears traces of the French bullets. 
Several of the unfortunate defenders fled into the kitchen, adjoining 
the garden at the back on the left. The window was and is still 
secured with iron bars, so that all escape was cut off. Several 
were shot here, and others thrown into the kitchen-well, where 
their bodies were found after the battle. An iron tablet bears an 
inscription to the memory of the officers and privates who fell in 
the defence of the house. 

Farther to the W. are Papelotte, La Haye, and Smouhen, which 
served as advanced works of the Allies on their extreme left. 
They were defended by Nassovians and Netherlanders under Duke 
Bernhard of Saxe- Weimar, but fell into the hands of the French 
about half-past 5 o'clock. 



of Waterloo. HOUGOMONT. 13. Route. 113 

The defenders of Grrumont, or Hougomont, another advanced 
work of the Allies, situated about Y2M. to the S.W. of the Lion, 
were more fortunate. This interesting spot formed the key to the 
British position, and had Napoleon once gained possession of it, his 
advantage would have been incalculable. The buildings still bear 
many traces of the fearful scenes which were enacted here. It is 
computed that throughout the day the attacks of nearly 12,000 men 
in all were launched against this miniature fortress, notwithstand- 
ing which the garrison held out to the last (see below}. The 
French stormed the orchard and garden several times , but they 
did not succeed in penetrating into the precincts of the build- 
ings. The latter, moreover, caught fire, adding greatly to the em- 
barrassment of the defenders, but happily the progress of the 
flames was arrested. Hougomont was at that time an old, partly 
dilapidated chateau , to which several outbuildings were attached. 
The whole was surrounded by a strong wall, in which numerous 
loop-holes had been made by express orders of the Duke in person, 
thus forming an admirable though diminutive stronghold. Notwith- 
standing these advantages, however, its successful defence against 
the persistent attacks of overwhelming numbers was solely due to 
the daring intrepidity of the little garrison. The wood by which 
it was once partly surrounded was almost entirely destroyed by the 
cannonade. The loop-holes, as well as the marks of the bullets, 
are still seen, and the place presents a shattered and ruinous aspect 
to this day. The orchard contains the graves of Capt. Blackmail, 
who fell here, and of Sergt. Cotton, a veteran of Waterloo who died 
at Mont St. Jean in 1849 (*/2 fr. is exacted from each visitor to 
the farm). Hougomont is about 1 M. from stat. Braine l'Alleud (see 
p. 115). 

Prodigies of valour were performed by the Coldstreams and their 
auxiliaries at Hougomont, and fortunately with a more successful result 
than that which attended their heroic German allies at La Haye Sainte. 
At one critical juncture the French were within a hair's breadth of 
capturing this fiercely-contested spot. They forced their way up to the 
principal gate, which was insufficiently barricaded, and rushing against 
it in dense crowds actually succeeded in bursting it open. A fearful strug- 
gle ensued. The Guards charged the assailants furiously with their 
bayonets, whilst Col. Macdonnel, Capt. Wyndham, Ensign Gooch, Ensign 
Hervey, and Serg. Graham, by dint of main force and daring courage, 
contrived to close the gate in the very face of the enemy. — At a later 
hour a vehement assault was made on the back-gate of the offices, the 
barricades of which threatened to yield, although crowds of the assailants 
were swept away by a well-directed fire from the loop-holes. At the 
same time one of the French shells set fire to the buildings, and the flames 
burst forth with an ominous glare. Sergt. Graham immediately requested 
leave of Col. Macdonnel to retire for a moment, which the latter accorded, 
although not without an expression of surprise. A few moments later 
the gallant sergeant re-appeared from amidst the blazing ruins, bearing 
his wounded brother in his arms, deposited him in a place of safety, and 
at once resumed his work in strengthening the barricades, where the 
danger was rapidly becoming more and more imminent. Suddenly a French 
grenadier was seen on the top of the wall, which he and his comrades were 
in the act of scaling. Capt. Wyndham, observing this, shouted to Graham: 
Baedeker's Belgium and Holland. 7th Edit. g 



t 1 4 Route 13. BELLE ALLIANCE. Battle Field 

' Do you see that fellow ?' Graham, thus again interrupted in his work, 
snatched up his musket, took aim, and shot the Frenchman dead. No 
others dared to follow, the attack on the gate was abandoned by the 
enemy, and the danger again successfully averted. Similar attacks were 
launched against the chateau with unremitting energy from half-past 
11 in the morning until nearly 8 in the evening, but were repelled with 
equal success. Most fortunately for the defenders, their supply of ammu- 
nition was abundant. Had it been otherwise, Hougomont must inevitably 
have met with the same fate as La Haye Sainte; Napoleon would then 
have been enabled to attack the Duke's right flank, and the Allies would 
most probably have been defeated, or rather virtually annihilated. 

The neighbourhood of Hougomont is said to have been the scene of 
the following well -authenticated anecdote. Colonel Halkett's brigade, 
consisting of raw levies of troops, most of whom now faced an enemy for 
the first time, were exposed to a galling fire from CambronneV brigade, 
which formed the extreme left of the enemy's line. Halkett sent his 
skirmishers to meet the vanguard of the French, somewhat in advance 
of whom Gen. Cambronne himself rode. Cambronne's horse having been 
shot under him, Halkett immediately perceived that this was an admir- 
able opportunity for a ' coup de main ' calculated to inspire his troops 
with confidence. He therefore gallopped up alone to the French general, 
threatening him with instantaneous death if he did not surrender. Cam- 
bronne, taken by surprise, presented his sword and surrendered to the 
gallant colonel, who at once led him back to the British line. Before 
reaching it, however, Halkett's horse was struck by a bullet and fell. 
Whilst struggling to disengage himself, he perceived to his extreme morti- 
fication that the general was hastening back to his own troops ! By dint 
of great efforts, however, Halkett got his horse on his legs again, gal- 
loped after the general, overtook him, and led him back in triumph to 
his own line. — The troops commanded by Cambronne were a brigade of 
the Imperial Guard, whose boast had ever been : 'La Oarde meurt, mats 
ne se rend pasP 

The field-road to Belle Alliance from the gate of the farm skirts 
the wall to the left. It soon becomes narrower, and after leading 
about 50 paces to the right passes through a hedge, traverses a 
field, and passes an embankment. After a walk of 5 min. a 
good path is reached, leading to the high-road in 12 min. more. 
Coster's house (see below) lies to the right. In a straight direction 
the road leads to Planchenois (see below). Belle Alliance is sit- 
uated on the left. This name is applied to a low white house 
of one story on the road-side, now a poor tavern, 1 M. to the E. 
of Hougomont. 

A marble slab over the door bears the inscription : 'Rencontre des g(- 
niraux Wellington el Blucher lors de la memorable balaille du IS. Juni 1815, 
se saluant mutuellement vainqueurs\ The statement, however, is erroneous. 
It is well ascertained that Blucher did not overtake the Duke until the 
latter had led his troops as far as La Maison du Roi, or Maison Rouge, on 
the road to Genappe, about 2M. beyond Belle Alliance, where he gave 
the order to halt. This was the scene of the well-known anecdote so 
often related of the Duke, who when urged not to expose himself unne- 
cessarily to danger from the fire of the straggling fugitives, replied: 'Let 
them fire away. The victory is gained, and my life is of no value now !' 

The house of Belle Alliance was occupied by the French , and 
their lines were formed adjacent to it. Napoleon's post during the 
greater part of the battle was a little to the right of the house, 
and on the same level. 

On the N. side of Belle Alliance a field-road diverges from the 



of Waterloo. NTVELLES. 13. Route. 115 

high-road, and leads to Plancenoit, or Planchenois, a village situ- 
ated 1 M. to the S.E., which the traveller who desires to appreciate 
the important part acted by the Prussians in the battle should not 
fail to visit. To the left, on a slight eminence near the village, rises 
the Prussian Monument (PI. m), an iron obelisk with an appropriate 
inscription in German. It was injured by the French when on their 
way to the siege of Antwerp in 1832, but has since been restored. 

The battle between the French and the brave Prussians raged with 
the utmost fury at and around Plancenoit from half-past six till nearly 
nine o'clock. Nine regiments of infantry, a regiment of hussars, and the 
cavalry of the 4th Corps d'Armee commanded by Prince William of Prussia 
were engaged in the action, and fiercely contested the possession of the 
village. The churchyard was the scene of the most sanguinary struggles, 
in which vast numbers of brave soldiers fell on both sides. The village 
was captured several times by the Prussians, and again lost; but they 
finally gained possession of it between 8 and 9 o'clock. The combatants 
of both armies in this conflict were all comparatively fresh, and the fury 
with which they fought was intensified by the bitter hostility of the two 
nations, and a thirst for vengeance on the part of the Prussians for pre- 
vious reverses. The victory on this part of the field was therefore achiev- 
ed towards 8 o'clock , and the defeat of the French was rendered doubly 
disastrous by the spirited and well-organised pursuit of Gneisenau. 

The French retreat, which soon became a disorderly sauve qui pent, 
followed the road to Genappe , a village about 4 M. to the S. of Plance- 
noit. Near Genappe, where the road was blocked with cannon and 
waggons , the Prussians captured Napoleon's travelling carriage , which 
the emperor had probably just quitted in precipitate haste, as it still con- 
tained his hat and sword. Genappe is a station on the Mons and Wavre 
railway (see p. 161). 

Continuation of Railway Journey. The next station beyond 
Waterloo is (12 M. from Brussels) Braine l'Alleud (Hotel du Midi; 
Hotel de I'Etoile), a manufacturing town with 6600 inhab., whence 
the mound of the lion (p. Ill) on the field of Waterloo, which is 
visible to the left, is iy 2 M. distant. The road to it leads directly 
N. from the station. 

15'/-2 M. Lillois. 18 M. Baulers , the suburb of Nivelles, the 
junction of the Manage and Wavre line (p. 161). 

19 M. Nivelles (Hotel du Mouton Blanc), Flem. Nyvel, on the 
Thines, a manufacturing town with 10,000 inhab., owes its origin 
to a convent founded here about the middle of the 7th cent, by Ida, 
wife of Pepin of Landen. The Romanesque church of the convent, 
built in the 11th cent., still exists, but the interior suffered de- 
facement in the 18th century. The tower was restored in 1859, 
after a fire, with little success. The treasury contains many in- 
teresting objects. The station is called Nivelles-Est, and lies at some 
distance from the town (Nivelles-Nord, see p. 161). 

The Bmilers-FUurus-Chdtelmemi line diverges at Nivelles-Est: 19 M., 
in l-iy 4 hr. (fares 2 fr. 35, 1 fr. 80, 1 fr. 20 c). Flenrus, see p. 179. 

23 M. Obaix-Buzet ; 25y 2 M. Luttre , the junction of a line to 
Jumet (Charleroi . Chatelineau). Our line here unites with the 
Ghent and Braine-le-Comte railway, which the train now follows, 
via (29 M.) Gosselies and (30 M.) Roux, to — 

35 M. Charleroi, see p. 162. 

8* 



116 

14. From Brussels to Antwerp by Malines. 

271/2 M. Railway to Malines in 25-45 min. (fares 1 fr. 60, 1 fr. 20, 
80 c.) ; to Antwerp in l-D/2 hr. (fares 3 fr. 35, 2 fr. 50, 1 fr. 70 c). Ex- 
press fares one-fifth higher. 

The train starts from the Station du Nord. Travellers starting 
from the Station de Luxembourg change carriages at (2 M.) 
Schaerbeek (p. 172). A fertile and grassy plain , through which 
the Serine winds, is traversed. — 4!/ 2 M. Haeren. 

& l /i M. Vilvorde, a small town on the Senne, one of the most 
ancient in Brabant, with the military penitentiary. 

A melancholy interest attaches to Vilvorde as the scene of the martyr- 
dom of William Tyndale , the zealous English Reformer and trans- 
lator of the Bible. He was compelled to leave England on account of his 
heretical doctrines in 1523, and the same year he completed his translation 
of the New Testament from the Greek. He then began to publish it at 
Cologne, but was soon interrupted by his Romish antagonists, to escape 
from whom he fled to Worms, where the publication was completed in 
1525. Copies soon found their way to England, where prohibitions were 
issued against them, in consequence of which most of them were burnt. 
' They have done no other thing than I looked for ', observed the pious 
translator, on hearing of this; 'no more shall they do, if they burn 
me also !' Notwithstanding the vehement opposition of Archbp. Warham, 
Card. Wolsey, and Sir Thomas More (who vainly strove to refute the new 
doctrine in a work of 7 vols.), four new editions rapidly found their way 
to England. In 1529 Tyndale began to publish the first four books of the 
Old Testament at Antwerp , where he now acted as chaplain to the 
British merchants settled in that city. He was at length arrested through 
the treachery of a spy, and sent to Vilvorde, where he was imprisoned 
for two years. He was then tried, and condemned as a heretic. On 6th 
Oct., 1536, he was chained to the stake, strangled, and finally burnt to 
ashes. His last words were: 'Lord, open the King of England's eyes!' 
He was a man of simple and winning manners, indefatigable industry, 
and fervent piety. His New Testament, which was translated indepen- 
dently of his illustrious predecessor Wyckliffe , and his still more cele- 
brated contemporary Luther, forms the basis of the Authorised Version. It 
is a remarkable fact, that the year after his martyrdom the Bible was 
published throughout England by royal command, and appointed to be 
placed in every church for the use of the people. 

We catch a distant view here, on the right, of the village of Perch 
(3 M. from the railway), near which is the farm-house of Dry Toren, 
once the country-seat of David Teniers the Younger(d. 1685 ; buried 
in the church of Perck). 

Farther on , near (8 M.) Eppeghem , stands the old chateau of 
Steen, purchased by Rubens in 1635 as a summer-resort for 93,000 
florins; it lies to the E., but is hardly visible from the train. — 
10 M. Weerde. The huge tower of the cathedral of Malines now 
becomes conspicuous in the distance. The train crosses the Louvain 
Canal. 

12Y2 M. Malines. — Hotels. Hotel Buda, opposite the cathedral 
tower , R. l'/2 fr. ; Hotel de la Coupe , near the Cathedral ; Hotel de 
Beffek, Rue de Beffer 34, near the Grande Place ; Cheval d'Ok, Rue des 
Be'guines 2, near the cathedral; Cicoghe, Rue Notre Dame 88. — Hotel 
de la Campine and Hotel de la Couronne, opposite the station. — Re- 
staurant at the station. 

A visit to the Cathedral and the paintings by Rubens in the churches 
of St. Jean and Notre Dame may be accomplished in 2-2'/2 hrs. 



X.Archevifhe 
2 . College Pitzembourg 
Eglise -s ; 
3 . A*. (Jr. BeguhiQge 

5.S*itiitfierow 
6. S? Jean- 
7.Jfirtr»Dam» - 
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9.J. TWre el Paul 
ViMaJle 



C.2. 

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12 . ntuxtmre 

13 . Mrtre -Dame- 
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16. S^fifeaVt? 

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22.iVu<nt ceVtulaire- 
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&eogra.jlL.AnBtalt von. 



MALINES. Id. Route. 117 

The ancient town of Malines, Flem. Mechelen (40,500 inhab.), 
situated on the Dyle , which flows through the town in numerous 
arms and is crossed by 35 bridges, is the seat of a cardinal-archbis- 
hop, the primate of Belgium. Notwithstanding its broad and regular 
streets, handsome squares, and fine buildings, it is a dull place, and 
totally destitute of the brisk traffic which enlivens most of the prin- 
cipal Belgian towns. The quietness of the town forms a strong con- 
trast to the busy scene at the station , which possesses extensive 
railway-workshops and is the focus of several of the most important 
railways in Belgium (Liege - Ostend, Antwerp - Brussels, Malines- 
St. Nicolas). The unenterprising character of the inhabitants is 
more tersely than politely described in the monkish lines mentioned 
in the Introduction. 

In order to reach the town, which is more than 1/4 M. from the 
station , we follow the broad Rue d'Egmont bearing to the right, 
traverse the Place of that name, cross the Dyle, and proceed in the 
same direction through the Brulstraat, leading to the Grande Place 
(PI. C, 3), where a Statue (PI. 20) by Tuerlinckx of Malines was 
erected in 1849 to Margaret of Austria (d. 1530), daughter of 
Maximilian I. and Mary of Burgundy (p. xvii), celebrated as regent 
of the Netherlands and instructress of Charles V. The circle de- 
scribed on the ground round the monument indicates the size of 
the cathedral clock (see below). The Place still boasts of several 
mediaeval buildings. The old Cloth Hall (PI. 10), begun in 1340, 
but left uncompleted, with a superstructure of the 16th cent., is 
now used as the Guard House. To the left of it are remains of a 
late-Gothic Palais de Justice, begun by Keldermann in 1530, con- 
taining some beautiful vaulting in the flamboyant style, which is 
best reached from the court of the cloth-hall. 

The Hdtel-de-Ville (PI. 18), between the Grande Place and 
the cathedral, was entirely remodelled during the last century. 
Opposite this building, and standing a little way back from the 
Place , is an old late-Gothic building called the 'Schepenen-Huis' 
(or house of the bailiffs), with the inscription 'MuseV (PI. 21; 
C, 3) , containing a collection of civic antiquities, reminiscences of 
Margaret of Austria, a few aneient and modern pictures (including 
a small Crucifixion by Rubens), etc. (The concierge lives in the 
market-place, No. 2, next door to the H6tel-de-Ville ; 72 ft-)- 

The *Cathedral of St. Rombold (St. Rombaut, PI. 4 ; closed 
from 12 to 2.30, and after 5.30 p.m.), begun at the end of the 12th 
cent., completed in 1312, but to a great extent rebuilt, after a 
fire, in the 14th and 15th centuries, is a cruciform Gothic church 
with a richly- decorated choir and a huge unfinished W. tower 
(324 ft. in height; projected height 460 ft.). The face of the clock 
on the tower is 49 ft. in diameter. The church was almost entirely 
erected with money paid by the pilgrims who flocked hither in the 
14th and 15th centuries to obtain the indulgences issued by Pope 



118 Route 14. MALINES. From Brussels 

Nicholas V. On the increase of the hierarchy of the Netherlands 
in 1559 (p. xvii), the Cathedral of St. Romhold was raised hy Pope 
Paul IV. to the dignity of the archiepiscopal metropolitan church. 
The first archbishop was Ant. Perrenot de Granvella, the hated min- 
ister of Margaret of Parma, who was shortly afterwards created 
a cardinal. The church is now undergoing a thorough restoration. 

The Interior of the church (length 306 ft., nave 89 ft. high) is 
imposing, and worthy of its archiepiscopal dignity. It is adorned by 
several admirable pictures, the finest of which is an *Altarpiece by 
Van Dyck, representing the Crucifixion, in the S. transept, painted 
in 1627, and successfully cleaned in 1848. This is one of the finest 
of the master's works, and is worthy of the most careful inspection. 
The composition is extensive and skilfully arranged ; the profound 
grief and resignation depicted in the countenance of the Virgin are 
particularly well expressed. — In the N. (1.) transept: Erasmus 
Quellin, Adoration of the Shepherds. — In the N. aisle, 1st chapel 
on the left (reckoned from the chief entrance), Wouters, Last Sup- 
per ; opposite is a monument in marble to Archbishop Mean (d. 
1831), who is represented kneeling before the Angel of Death, exe- 
cuted by Jehotte, a sculptor of Liege. ■ — In the S. aisle : twenty-five 
scenes from the history of St. Rombold, extending from his appoint- 
ment to the office of bishop down to his martyrdom and the miracles 
wrought by his relics (Flemish school of the 14th cent., restored in 
1857). — The Pulpit , carved in wood, like those in the principal 
Belgian churches, by Boeekstuyns of Marines, represents the Con- 
version of St. Paul. Above, St. John and the women at the foot of 
the Cross ; at the side , Adam and Eve and the serpent. By the 
pillars are statues of the Apostles (17th cent.). The large modern 
stained-glass windows in the transept were executed] to commemo- 
rate the promulgation of the new dogma of the immaculate concep- 
tion of the Virgin (1854), that at the N. end by J. F. Pluys of 
Malines , and the one opposite by his son L. Pluys. — The Choir 
contains handsome modern carved stalls in the Gothic style. To the 
left in the retro-choir , near the N. portal, high up, is a Circum- 
cision by M. Coxie, 1587. Farther on are a number of large pic- 
tures, chiefly by Herreyns (d. 1827) and other painters of the early 
part of the present century , representing scenes from the life of 
St. Rombold. The Ascension in the chapel at the back of the high- 
altar is by Paelinek (d. 1839). The adjoining chapel contains the 
altar of St. Engelbert, Bishop of Cologne, with a chased brazen ante- 
pendium or frontal, executed from Minguay's designs by L. van 
Ryswyck of Antwerp (1875). The choir also contains several monu- 
ments of bishops of the 17th cent., and windows filled with modern 
stained glass. 

The Archiepiscopal Palace (PI. 1 ; C, 2), picturesquely situated 
a little to the N., and dating from the 16th cent., has been allowed 
to fall into a state of disrepair. 



to Antwerp. MALINES. 14. Route. 119 

St. Jean (PI. 6 ; C, 3), near the Cathedral , is an insignificant 
church, hut contains an interesting picture by Rubens, a *High-altar- 
piece with wings, a large and fine composition, one of the best of the 
painter's ceremonial works. On the inside of the wings: Behead- 
ing of John the Baptist, and Martyrdom of St. John in a cauldron 
of boiling oil. Outside: Baptism of Christ, and St. John in the 
island of Patmos, writing the Apocalypse. The two latter are in the 
master's best style. Below is a small Crucifixion, probably also by 
Rubens. To the left in the choir is Christ on the Cross , by Ch. 
Wouters, 1860. In the chapel on the left, Christ and the dis- 
ciples at Emmaus , by Herreyns. The pulpit in carved wood, by 
Verhaeghen, represents the Good Shepherd. The confessionals, the 
carved wood on the organ , and several other pieces of carving are 
by the same sculptor. The Sacristan (V2-I f f lives in the Klapgat, 
adjacent to the church. — The Mont de Piete, Rue des Vaches 67 
and Rue St. Jean 2 (PI. C, D, 2, 3), formerly the house of Canon 
Buysleden, is an interesting building of the 16th cent., with gables 
and a tower of brick and limestone (1570), recently restored. 

At the N.W. angle of the town are situated the church of 
St. Catherine (PI. 5 ; C, 2) and that of the Grand Beguinage (PI. 3 ; 
B, 2), containing pictures by L. Franchoys , Moreels, De Crayer, 
Th. Boyermans, E. Quellin, and others; the latter is also embel- 
lished with sculptures by L. Fayd'herbe and Duquesnoy. The 
church of St. Peter and St. Paul (PI. 9 ; D, 3) contains pictures by 
Boyermans, Eyckens, Coxie, and others, and sculptures by Ver- 
bruggen (pulpit) and J. Geefs (apostles). — The Tribunal (PI. 25 ; 
D, 3, 4), or court of justice, consists of a picturesque assemblage of 
courts, gables, etc., in the transition-style between the Flamboyant 
and the Renaissance, with beautiful details in blue limestone. 

On our way back to the station we now visit the church of Notre 
Dame (PI. 7; B, 4) , a late-Gothic building of the 16th cent., 
recently restored. A chapel behind the high-altar contains Rubens' 
*Miraculous Draught of Fishes , a richly-coloured picture , with 
wings , painted in 1618 for the Guild of Fishers , from whom the 
master received 1000 florins for the work (about 90t.). In the 3rd 
chapel of the retro-choir is the Temptation of St. Anthony by M. 
Coxie; high-altarpiece, a Last Supper by E. Quellin; pulpit and 
statues by G. Kerricx. The sacristan will be found at No. 58 
Milsenstraat, the street opposite the chief portal. — On the adjacent 
Quai au SeJ (PI. B, 4), and particularly in or near the Rue Ser- 
ment du Fer, are several interesting houses of the 16th century , 
and indeed throughout the whole town there still linger many pic- 
turesque relics of mediaeval architecture. 

The church of Notre Dame d'Hanswyck (PI. 8 ; C, 5) contains 
two large reliefs by L. Fayd'herbe and a pulpit by Verhaeghen. 

The neighbouring Botanic Garden (PI. C, 4; admission 50 c.) 
contains a bust of the botanist Dodomeus, a native of Malines (b. 



120 Route 14. TURNHOUT. 

1517"). Count Mansfield, the celebiated general in the Thirty Years' 
War , and Michael Coxie , the imitator of Raphael , were also born 
here. 

The DyJe, which unites with the Nethe, 6 M. below the town, 
to form the Bupel, is affected by the rise and fall of the tide. 

Mechlin lace, which once enjoyed a high reputation, is still 
manufactured here, but cannot compete with that of Brussels. 

From Malines to Louvain, 15 M., railway in 25-40 min. (fares 1 fr. 70, 

1 fr. 35, 90 c). Stations ' Boortmeerbeek, the church of which contains an 
altarpiece by Teniers the Younger; Baecht; Wespelaer, with a country -seat 
and park mentioned by Delille (b. 1738). The line crosses the Dyle, 
skirts the Antwerp-Louvain Canal (constructed in 1750), and reaches 
Louvain (p. 174). 

From Malines to Ghent, 35 M., railway in l-l 3 /< hr. (fares 4 fr. 45, 
3 fr. 25, 2 fr. 20 c). The line crosses the Louvain Canal and the Senne. 

2 M. Hombeeck; b 1 /? M. Capelle; 8 M. Londerzeel , the junction of the 
Antwerp and Alost line (p. 10). Beyond (11 M.) Malderen, we quit Bra- 
bant and enter Flanders. 12V2 M. Buggenhomt ; 15 M. Baesrode. 17 M. 
Dendermonde, and thence to (38 M.) Ghent, see R. 10. 

From Malines to St. Nicolas and Tekneuzen , 42 M. , railway in 
23/i hrs. (fares 5 fr. 15, 3 fr. 70, 2 fr. 55 c). 2 M. Hombeeck; 6 M. Thisselt; 
8 M. Willebroek, on a canal connecting the Senne with the Rupel; 11 M. 
Piters (branch to Dendermonde, p. 55) ; 14 M. Bornhem. The train traverses 
a pleasant district, and crosses the broad Schelde, commanding a view of 
its picturesque wooded banks. To the left, on the left bank, is (16 M.). 
Tamise, a manufacturing town with 9400 inhabitants. 21 M. St. Nicolas, 
the junction for Ghent and Antwerp (p. 55); 25 M. St. Gilles; 27 M. La 
Glinge, with the Belgian custom-house. — 30 M. Hulst, the Dutch frontier- 
station, with an interesting Gothic church of the 15th cent.; the Lands- 
huis contains a painting by Jordaens and the Hotel-de-Ville one by Cor- 
nells de Vos. — 35 M. Axel; 39 M. Slwyskill. 42 M. Terneuzen (see p. 9). 

Soon after quitting Malines, the train crosses the Nethe and 
reaches (18 M.) Duffel. To the right rises the old Gothic chateau 
of Ter-Elst. Then (20y 2 M.) stat. Contich. 

From Contich to Turnhout by a branch-railway in l'/zhr. — Sta- 
tions: Lierre (16,700 inhab.), junction for Antwerp, Diest, and Hasselt 
(p. 156); Nylen, Bouwel, Herenthals, to which a line runs from Louvain 
(p. 174); Lichtaerl, Thielen, and lastly Turnhout, the chief town of the 
district, with 16,100 inhab., a prosperous place, with cloth and other fac- 
tories, and a leech - breeding establishment. The old Chateau of the 
Dukes of Brabant now serves as a court of justice and a prison. From 
Turnhout a diligence plies daily in Vfc hr. to Boogstraeten (p. 152; fare 
1 fr. 70 c). — Beyond Turnhout the line crosses the Dutch frontier to 
Tilburg (see p. 302). 

Another branch-line runs from Contich to Boboken, on the line from 
Alost to Antwerp (p. 10). 

From (24 M.) Oude-Qod (Vieux-Dieu) a branch-line diverges to 
Boom (p. 10). We now pass through the new outworks around 
Antwerp. 26V2 M - Berchem, the headquarters of the French during 
the siege of the citadel in 1832. 

27 ] /2 M. Antwerp, see below. 



#"Tas 




d*o jjrayli instalt tor 



Statinadc Borg'erhaut 



ade Boro' 

■ -i: ~T ..".f ■ 



ski 




121 
15. Antwerp. Fr., Anvers ; Span., Amberes. 

Railway Stations. 1. The Principal or East Station (PI. F, 2), for 
Malines (Brussels, Louvain, etc.), Hasselt- Maastricht, Turnhout - Tilburg, 
Eoosendaal (Flushing and Rotterdam), is near the Zoological Garden (a 
new station in the Place de la Commune projected). — 2. The South Station 
(PI. K, 7) is used only by the trains of the Antwerp-Alost line (p. 10). 
— The direct trains to Ghent through the Waesland (R. 10) start from 
the station at Vlaamsch Hoofd (p. 56), on the opposite bank of the Schelde; 
ferry-steamboat from the S. end of the quay. A more convenient route is 
that by Dendermonde, the trains for which start from the East Station (R. 10). 

Hotels. St. Antoine (PI. a; F,5), Place Verte 40; "Hotel de l'Europe 
(PI. c; F, 5), Place Verte 38; Hot. de la Paix (PI. d;F, 5), Rue des Me- 
nuisiers 9. Charges at these, R. 2>/2-3 fr. and upwards, B. I72, D. 4, L. 3 /4, 
A. 1 fr. — ''Grand Laboureur (PI. b ; F, 4), Place de Meir 26. — Hotel des 
Flandres (PI. g ; E, 5), Place Verte 9 ; Grand Mikoir (PI. h ; E, F, 6), Vieux 
Marche-au-Ble 58, R. & L. 23/ 4 , B. PU, D. 2'/2, A. 1/2 fr. ; Hotel du Com- 
merce, Rue de la Bourse 10, well spoken of; Courrier (PI. k; F,5), Rem- 
part du Lombard 52 ; Couronne (PI. m ; F, 5), Rue des Israelites 6; Hotel 
on Nord, Grande Place, R. from IV2 fr. upward, D. 2'/2fr.; Fleur d'Ok, 
Rue des Moines 1, near the Place Verte ; these last unpretending. — On 
the Schelde: Hotel du Rhin. Hotel d'Anqleterre, both on the Quai 
Van Dyck. In the vicinity : Hotel de Hollande (PI. 1 ; F, 6), Rue de 
l'Etuve 2. All these of the second class. — Near the Principal Station 
are several new hotels, none of which can be recommended. 

Restaurants. "Bertrand , Place de Meir 11 , D. 4 fr. and upwards ; 
"Caf (-Restaurant Degive , Place de Meir 25, D. 4 fr. ; 'Mocker de Cancale, 
adjoining the Exchange and the Place de Meir; Taverne Alsacienne, Place 



Key to the Plan of Antwerp. 



1. Aliines (Maison des) G 6 

2. Arsenal de Construction . . . F 4 

3. Arsenal de Guerre G 7 

4. Athinie E4 

Banque G 4 

6. Biguinage E 3 

7. Boucheries E 6 

8. Bourse E F 4, 5 

9. Caserne d'Artillerie G 6 

10. - Falcon D4 

11. - d'In/anterie H 5 

12. Cercle G4 

13. ColUge St. Charles E4 

Churches. 

14. St. Andree F 6 

15. Anglicane F 5 

16. St. Antoine D 3 

17. St. Augustin F 5 

18. St. Amand D 2 

19. des Carmdites G5 

20. Cathidrale (N. Dame) . . . E 5 

21. St. Charles (J(suites) .... E 5 

22. St. Georges G5 

23. St. Jacques E 4 

24. St. Joseph (TMrisiennes) . H2 
St. Laurent K L 5 

25. St. Paul (Dominicains) . . . D 5 

26. Protestante D3 

27. Rtdemptoriste F 4 

Scandinave D 3 

St. Willebrord M 2 



28. EntrepSts A 3, B 5, C 3 

29. Gouvemement F 5 

30. Halle aux poissons E 6 

Harmonie K 4 

32. mpital Ste. Elisabeth . . . G4,5 

33. Militaire E 4 

34. H6tel de Ville E 6 

35. Jardin Botanique G 5 

Zoologique F 2 

37. Maison Rubens F 4 

38. Hansiaiique (!5 

39. Musie K 4 

Musie Plantin- Moretus .... F 6 

40. OrpheUnat Terlinck H 5 

41. Palais du Roi F 4 

42. de Justice H 5 

Pipiniere K 4 

43. Poste aux Lettres F 5 

Station de VEst F 2 

Station du Sud K7 

Statues. 

44. Boduognatus HI2 

45. Liopold I G 4 

Leys G 4 

46. Rubens F 5 

47. Teniers F 3 

48. Van Dyck K4,5 

49. Van Ryswyck G 3 

50. Van Schoonbeke H 2 

51. TUatre Francais F 4 

52. Thidtre Flamand E3 



122 Route 15. ANTWERP. Steamboats. 

Verte ; Hotel de Londres and Taverne St. Jean, Avenue De Keyzer 5 ; also 
the above-named hotels. — Cafes : de VEmpereur, Place de Meir 19 ; Suisse, 
Place Verte; Grand Comptoir de la Bourse, corner of the Longue Rue 
Neuve and the Rue de la Bourse. Ices (75 c.) at all the cafe's in summer. 
— Beer: Taverne Alsacienne, Place Verte; Mitnchener Hofbrau, Canal des 
Recollets49; Central-Bierhalle, Courte Rue Neuve, with a garden ; Salvator- 
keller, Vieux Marche au Ble 26 ; also at the cafes (30-35 c. per glass). 

Baths. Bain Royal, Rue Reynders, near the Place Verte ; Bains SI. 
Pierre, Rue Van Noort, near the Park ; also in the best hotels. 

Post - Office, Place Verte, S. side ; several branch-offices. — Telegraph 
Offices at the railway-station, exchange, etc. 

Cabs are stationed in the Place Verte and Place de Meir. Per drive 
(la course) within the 8 municipal districts (with the exception of the 
Digue, a part of the seventh district), 1-2 pers. 1 fr., 3-4 pers. 1 fr. 50 c. ; 
between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. , 2 fr. or 2 fr. 50 c. ; within the new forti- 
fications, 1-4 pers. 1 fr. 50 or 2fr. 50 c. — Open Vehicles, a degree better, 
within the town 1-4 pers. lfr. 50 or 2fr. 50c; within the fortifications, 2 
or 3fr. — By time (a Vheure), first hour 1-4 pers., lfr. 50 or 2 fr. 50c, 
each additional '/■.> hr. 75 c. or 1 fr. 25 c. ; open cabs 2fr. 50 or 3 fr., and 
1 fr. or 1 fr. 50 c — Each trunk 20 c. — Two-horse vehicles one-half more. 

Tramways through the town, across the Boulevards, and to the dif- 
ferent suburbs, comp. the Plan. Fares 10-25 c 

Steamboats. To and from London: vessels of the Gen. Steam Nav. 
Co. (fares 16s., lis.) three times, and the Baron Osy (fares 24s., 16s.) once 
weekly ; average passage 18 hrs. — To Harwich by the vessels of the 
Great Eastern Railway. Co. six times weekly in 12-14 hrs., thence by 
railway to London in 2'/4 hrs. (fares to London 26s., 21s., 15s.). — To 
Hull twice weekly in 22 hrs. (fares 20s., 15s.). — To Glasgow once 
weekly (fares 25s., 12s. &d.). — To Goole twice weekly in 24 hrs. (fares 
22s. 6d., lis. 6d.). — To Grimsby twice weekly in 30 hrs. (fare 15s.). — 
To Newcastle once weekly in 30 hrs. (fares 22s. 6d., Us. 6d.). — To Leith 
once weekly in 48 hrs. (fare 30s.). — To Hamburg once weekly in 35 hrs. 
(fores 40 fr., 32 fr.). — To Rotterdam, see p. 153. — A pleasant steamboat 
trip on the Schelde may be made to Rupelmonde, Boom (railway also to 
this point, 10 M. ; comp. p. 120), and Temsche, starting from the upper 
end of the Quai Van Dyck (PI. E, 6) ; fare 1 fr. or 75 c. 

Theatres. Tht&tre Royal (PI. 51 ; p. 147), performances in French, four 
times a week in winter: boxes and stalls 5, parquet 2V2fr., pit 172fr. — 
Thidtre National, or Schouwburg (PI. 52; p. 146), performances in Flemish. — 
Thtatre des Variiits (PI. G 5), performances in French and Flemish. — 
Festival ('Kit-mess'), with regatta and horse-races, fireworks, etc., at the end 
of August. 

Panoramas. Battle of Waterloo, by Verlat, in the Avenue Wappers 
(PI. F, 3); Battle of Worth, by Alfred Cluysenaar, in the Zoological Garden, 
with an entrance in the Rue de la Charrue (PI. G, 5). Adm. on Sun. and 
Mon. 1 fr., other days 2 fr. 

British Consul, C. A. Grattan, Esq., Place de Meir 67. — United 
States Consul, John H. Stewart, Esq., Canal au Beurre 5. 

English Church in the Rue des Tanneurs. 

Booksellers. M. Kornicker, Rue des Tanneurs 12, by the Place de Meir ; 
O. Forst, Rue du Jambon 12, close to the Place Verte (PI. E, 6,5); 
A. de Becker, Rue Nationale 29 (also second-hand books). — Photogbaphs. 
0. Forst, see above ; Zazzarini it Co., Marche'-aux-Souliers 37; Dreyfuss- 
Michel, Marche'-aux-Souliers 3 ; Ed. van Mol, Marche'-aux-Souliers 17. 

Principal Attractions: 'Cathedral (p. 127), "Museum (p. 134), Hotel- 
de-Ville (p. 132), Exchange (p. 143), St. Jacques (p. 144), Musee Plantin 
(p. 148), Docks (p. 151), Zoological Garden (p. 150), near the railway- 
station. 

Antwerp (from ' aen't werf, on the wharf), French Anvers (the 
s mute, hut pronounced hy the Belgians), with 169,200 inhahitants 
(1880; with the suhurhs of Borgerhout and Bcrchem, about 



History. ANTWERP. 15. Route. 123 

200,000), once the capital of a county of the same name, belonging 
to the Duchy of Brabant, was founded as early as the 7th century. 
It is now the principal seaport of Belgium, and carries on an exten- 
sive traffic with Great Britain and with Germany. Its advantageous 
situation on the Schelde (Escaut), which is here ^3 M. broad and 
30 ft. deep at high tide (60 M. from the sea), rendered it a very im- 
portant and wealthy place in the middle ages. When at the height 
of its prosperity in the 16th cent, it numbered 125,000 inhab. 
(in 1568). At that period thousands of vessels are said to have lain 
in the Schelde at one time, while a hundred or more arrived and de- 
parted daily. Commerce, which luxury and revolution had banished 
from other Flemish towns, especially Bruges, sought refuge at 
Antwerp about the close of the 15th century. Under Emp. Charles V. 
Antwerp was perhaps the most prosperous and wealthy city on the 
continent, surpassing even Venice itself. The great fairs held 
here attracted merchants from all parts of the civilised world. The 
Florentine Guicciardini, an excellent authority in these matters 
(p. xiii) , records that in 1566 the spices and sugar imported from 
Portugal were valued at l 1 ^ million ducats (750,000*., an enormous 
sum according to the value of money at that period), silk and gold 
wares from Italy 3 million, grain from the Baltic l 1 ^ million, 
French and German wines 2 J /2 million, and imports from England 
12 million ducats. Upwards of a thousand foreign commercial firms 
had established themselves at Antwerp, and one of the Fuggers, 
the merchant-princes of Augsburg, died here leaving a fortune of 
2 million ducats. The Flemish manufactures (carpets, clothing 
stuffs, gold and silver wares) also enjoyed a high reputation about 
the beginning of the 16th cent., and were exported from Antwerp 
to Arabia, Persia, and India. 

Antwerp's decline began during the Spanish regime. The 
terrors of the Inquisition banished thousands of the industrious 
citizens, many of whom sought refuge in England, where they 
established silk-factories , and contributed greatly to stimulate 
English commerce. Fearful havoc was committed by the cruel 
Spanish soldiery in 1576, when the city was unscrupulously pil- 
laged, and lost 7000 of its inhabitants by fire and sword ; it after- 
wards suffered severely during a siege of fourteen months followed 
by its capture by Duke Alexander of Parma in 1585, when the 
population was reduced to 85,000; and in 1589 the population had 
further dwindled to 55,000. In addition to these disasters , the 
citizens were deprived of the greater part of their commerce by the 
intrigues of their Dutch rivals , who during the siege of the city by 
the Duke of Parma used secret means to prevent assistance being 
rendered to the besieged, and afterwards erected forts at the mouth 
of the Schelde to prevent its navigation by Antwerp vessels. The 
maritime trade of the city received its death-blow from the Treaty of 
Minister in 1648, by which Holland was declared independent of 



124 Route 15. ANTWERP. History. 

Spain, and it was agreed that no sea-going vessel should be permit- 
ted to ascend to Antwerp, but should unload at a Dutch port, whence 
merchandise should be forwarded to Antwerp by river-barges only. 
In 1790 the population had dwindled down to 40,000 souls. In Aug., 
1794, the French obtained possession of Antwerp , re-opened the 
navigation of the Schelde , and dismantled the forts erected by the 
Dutch at its embouchure. Napoleon, who recognised the strategical 
importance of the situation of Antwerp, caused a harbour and new 
quays to be constructed, but the wars in which he was engaged 
prevented him from actively promoting the interests of commerce. 
In 1814 the city was defended against the Allies by Carnot, but 
was surrendered to the British under Gen. Graham, and afterwards 
incorporated with the newly-constituted kingdom of the Nether- 
lands. The prosperity of Antwerp received a new impetus from 
the trade which it now canied on with the Dutch colonies (in 1830 
population 73,506), but it was again utterly ruined by the revolu- 
tion of 1830, in which the citizens participated sorely against their 
will, and which diverted its trade to Rotterdam and Amsterdam. After 
the bombardment of the citadel in 1830 and the memorable siege 
of 1832 (see below), the unfortunate town presented a scene of fright- 
ful desolation. It was many years before Antwerp began to recover 
from these calamities ; and indeed the tide of prosperity did not 
again set in fully till 1863, when the right of levying navigation- 
dues on the Schelde, granted to Holland by the peace of 1839, was 
commuted for a sum of 36,000,000 fr., one-third paid by Belgium 
and the rest by the other powers interested. Since that date, 
however, its commerce has increased in a greater ratio than that of 
any other European seaport, the increase being due chiefly to the 
great augmentation of the steamer-traffic. In 1840-49 the port 
was entered annually by 1544 ships of 242,468 tons' burden; in 
1850-59, by 1830 ships of 367,487 tons ; in 1860-69, by 2957 ships 
of 822,533 tons; in 1870-78, by 4510 ships of 2,083,516 tons; in 
1879-83, by 4379 ships of 3,734,428 tons. The average annual value 
of the imports for the last few years has been 21 million fr., that 
of the exports 15 3 /4 million fr. — The average rise of the tide here 
is 12 ft. 

Antwerp is the principal arsenal of the kingdom of Belgium, 
and one of the strongest fortresses in Europe. Since 1859 a num- 
ber of advanced works have been constructed on modern principles, 
and the city and river are defended by broad and massive ramparts 
upwards of 12 M. in length. Antwerp is intended to serve as the 
rendezvous of the Belgian army, should it be compelled , in case 
of the violation of the neutrality of the country, to retire before an 
enemy of superior force. It is calculated that it would require 
an army of 170,000 men to besiege it effectually, and at least a 
year to reduce it by starvation. Part of the environs can be laid 
under water. The old Citadelle du Sud , which was dismantled in 



History of Art. ANTWERP. 15. Route. 125 

1874 , was constructed in 1567 by order of the Duke of Alva, in 
order to keep the citizens in check, and was long regarded as a model 
fortress, especially after the works had been strengthened by Oarnot 
in 1814. In 1832 it was occupied by General Chasse, a Dutch 
officer, with 5000 men, and was besieged by a French army of 
55,000 men, commanded by Marshal Gerard, who endeavoured to 
compel the Dutch to evacuate Belgium entirely, in accordance with 
the Treaty of London of 15th Nov., 1831. The siege was directed 
by General Haxo. Chasse resisted the attack for nearly a month 
(29th Nov. to 23rd Dec), and did not capitulate till the fort was 
almost reduced to a heap of ruins. 

The Antwerp School of Painting held a subordinate rank during 
the earlier period of Flemish art, and was greatly surpassed by those of 
Bruges and Ghent ; but as these cities gradually lost their artistic as well 
as their commercial importance, the prosperity of Antwerp increased 
rapidly ; and when she at length attained the proud distinction of being one 
of the wealthiest cities in the world, she also became a cradle of art 
second perhaps to none but Florence. During this golden era flourished 
Quinten Masst/s, Rubens , Van Dyck, Teniers, Jordaens, De Crayer, Seghers, 
Snyders, and numerous other artists, most of whom are noticed in the 
Introduction. 

Rubens (comp. Introduction), the prince of Flemish painters, who 
was ennobled by Philip IV. of Spain, and knighted by Charles I. of 
England, lived at Antwerp in a style of great magnificence, and possessed 
an extensive and very valuable collection of works of art. A portion 
. only of the latter , sold after his death , is said to have realised half- 
a-million francs. He enjoyed the advantage of an excellent education, and 
possessed great amiability of disposition, combined with handsomeness of 
person. These qualities, as well as his celebrity as an artist, procured for 
him the patronage and friendship of princes and men of distinction in almost 
every part of Europe. 

Van Dyck (comp. Introduction), the son of a wealthy merchant of 
Antwerp, was born in 1599, became a pupil of Rubens about 1615, 
and was enrolled as a member of the Guild of Painters as early as 1628. 
In 1623 he left Antwerp to prosecute his studies in Italy, where he 
painted a number of beautifully-executed portraits, several of which are 
now at Genoa. In 1628, after his return to Antwerp, he painted the altar- 
piece in the Augustine church (p. 148), and during his residence here produced 
most of his fine historical and devotional works. In 1632 he was appointed 
court-painter to Charles I. of England, who knighted him, and bestowed 
on him a salary of 200!. per annum. Van Dyck was now in such request 
as a portrait-painter, that he rarely found leisure for historical works, in 
which it was his ambition to excel. A plan for adorning the banqueting 
saloon of Whitehall with a magnificent series of paintings relative to the 
Order of the Garter proved a failure, owing to the pecuniary embarrass- 
ment of the king. At length, in 1640, Van Dyck released himself from his 
numerous engagements and repaired to Antwerp, eager to find an oppor- 
tunity of contesting the palm with his rivals on the continent. Hearing 
that Louis XIII. desired to embellish a great saloon in the Louvre with 
paintings, Van Dyck repaired to Paris to proffer his services, but he found 
that the task had already been assigned to Poussin. Mortified by his failure, 
and perhaps depressed by the threatening aspect of affairs at the English 
court, Van Dyck returned to London, where he soon afterwards fell ill, 
and died in 1642, at the early age of 42. His wife was Mary Ruthven, a grand- 
daughter of the unfortunate Earl of Gowrie, who was beheaded in 1584. 

David Teniees (see also Introduction) the Younger (born at Antwerp 
in 1610, died at Brussels in 1694), was admitted to the Guild of Paint- 
ers at an early age, probably on account of his being the son of a painter 
(David Teniers the Elder, inferior to his son), and was elected Dean 



126 Route 15. ANTWERP. History of Art. 

of the Guild in his 34th year. He was appointed court-painter and cham- 
berlain by Archduke Leopold William, Stadtholder of the Netherlands, 
and was confirmed in these offices by Don John of Austria, the succeeding 
governor, who even became a pupil of the master. Teniers also enjoyed a 
high reputation in other parts of Europe. Philip IV. of Spain, Christina 
of Sweden, and the Elector Palatine sent him numerous orders, which 
enabled him to amass a considerable fortune. He possessed an estate at 
the village of Perck, not far from Malines, where he resided in a comfert- 
able style, and received visits from many of the Spanish and Flemish 
nobles. Teniers' first wife, whom he married in 1637, was a daughter of 
the painter Jan Brueghel (nicknamed ' Velvet ' from his partiality for that 
material), and niece of 'Hell-fire Brueghel' (a sobriquet derived from the 
character of that master's subjects). Rubens, to whose school, however, 
Teniers did not belong, was present at the ceremony. In 1656 Teniers 
married his second wife, Isabella de Fren, daughter of the Secretary of 
State of Brabant. After a laborious and successful career, he died at the 
advanced age of 84. 

Modern Art. In our own times Antwerp has made a vigorous effort 
to regain the artistic pre - eminence which it so gloriously asserted 
during the 17th century. The modern revival of art, which began about 
the end of the first quarter of the present century, took its rise in Antwerp. 
Van Brie (d. 1839), Braekeleer, and others, who trod in the wonted paths 
of academic art, were succeeded by revolutionaries, whose works clearly 
betrayed their connection with the political agitation for the separation 
of Belgium from Holland. But this predominance of patriotic themes was 
transitory; and a more important and more lasting effort was next made 
to resuscitate the ancient national style of art, and to revive a just 
appreciation of Rubens and his contemporaries. Gustav Wappers (1803-74) 
was the first to break ground with his 'Burgomaster Van der Werff dur- 
ing the siege of Leyden', which, when exhibited in 1830, was received' 
with great applause and awakened much imitation. Nicaise de Keyser 
(1813-80), whose battle-pieces are marked by great liveliness and freshness 
of colour, adopted a similar style. The Academy of Antwerp, which has 
been presided over by each of these masters in turn, deserves the credit of 
reviving in modern art-education the careful study of technique, and espe- 
cially of colouring. Neither Wappers nor Keyser, however, has shown so 
much zeal in reverting to the early Flemish style of art as Hendrik Leys 
(1815-69), the founder of the so-called 'archaic school', who not only gave 
the preference to the subjects used in the 15th and 16th centuries, but 
has designed, painted, and grouped in precisely the same style as the 
painters of that epoch. The figures in the much-valued pictures by this 
master seem as if they had stepped out of ancient canvasses. The Dutch 
painter Alma Tadema (settled in London), who pursues the archaic style 
with such distinguished success, was a pupil of Leys. Among the other 
eminent modern artists of Antwerp may be mentioned Van Lerius, Dyck- 
mann, Jacobs, Stobbaerts, Verlat, and Van Beers. 

The site occupied by the city is in the form of a segment of a 
circle , of which the Schelde is the chord. The market-place, Place 
Verte, and Place Meir are the finest open squares in the city, while 
the quarters next the river consist of a network of narrow streets, 
inhabited by sailors and the lower classes. The removal of the old 
ramparts, which confined the town to a very restricted space, has 
enabled it to expand to nearly six times its former area, and new 
buildings are rapidly springing up in every direction. 

Antwerp is the most interesting town in Belgium, and, the 
population being exclusively Flemish, it resembles a Dutch or a 
German city in many of its characteristics. The numerous master- 
pieces of painting which it possesses afford one of the best proofs 



Cathedral. ANTWERP. 15. Route. 127 

of its mediaeval prosperity. The fascinating influence of Rubens 
cannot be appreciated without a visit to Antwerp, where his finest 
works are preserved. 

The traveller, especially if pressed for time, should at once direct 
his steps to the Cathedral. On its S. side is the Place Verte 
(PI. E, F, 5), formerly the churchyard, adorned with a Statue of 
Rubens (PI. 46), in bronze, by W. Oeefs. It was erected in 1840, 
the figure being 13 ft., the pedestal 20 ft. in height. The scrolls 
and books, together with the brush, palette, and hat, which lie at 
the feet of the statue , are allusions to the pursuits of the master 
as a diplomatist and statesman , as well as a painter. — A military 
band often plays here on summer-evenings , particularly on Sa- 
turdays. 

The *Cathedral (Notre Dame, PI. 20; E, 5), the largest and 
most beautiful Gothic church in the Netherlands , is of cruciform 
shape with triple aisles. It was begun in 1352 under the superin- 
tendence of Jean Amel or Appelmans of Boulogne. After his death 
in 1398 the work was continued by his son Peter, who was suc- 
ceeded by Jean Tac in 1434 and Master Everaert in 1449. To this 
period (1352-1449) belong the choir with its ambulatory and chapels, 
the sacristies, and the tower up to the first gallery. The S. aisles 
were built in 1425-72, the N. aisles in 1472-1500. From 1502 to 
1518 the building operations were directed by Herman van Waghe- 
makere and his son Dominic , the chief evidence of whose skill is 
the upper part of the N. tower, in the Flamboyant style. The S. 
tower was left unfinished in 1474. The nave and aisles were not 
vaulted till 1611-16. The rich portal and the fine window over it, 
adorned with tracery, should be examined. In 1566 the church 
was seriously damaged by puritanical zealots, and again in 1794 by 
French republicans. The exterior is unfortunately disfigured by 
the mean houses clustered around it, but some of those near the 
principal facade have been removed. The restoration of the edi- 
fice was superintended by Fr. Durlet of Antwerp (d. 1867). 

"Interior. (The church is usually entered from the Place Verte 
by the narrow lane on the S. side, at the end of which, on the right, 
opposite the S. portal, is the house of the concierge, where tickets 
are obtained. Visitors ring. The principal pictures are shown gratis 
on Sun. and Thurs. 8-12; on other days 12-4 p.m., admission 1 fr.) 
Internally the church is simple , but grand and impressive, and the 
rich perspective of its six aisles is very effective. Its length is 128 
yds. ; width of nave 57 yds., of transept, 74 yds. ; height 130 ft. 
Its area amounts to 70,060 sq. ft. (that of Cologne Cathedral is 
87,000, St. Paul's in London 109,000, St. Peter's at Rome 212,000 
sq. ft.). The vaulting is supported by 125 pillars. The level of the 
pavement has been several times raised. 

The S. Transept, entered from the Place Verte, contains 
Rubens's far-famed masterpiece, the **Descent from the Cross , a 



128 Route 15. ANTWERP. Cathedral. 

winged picture, painted in 1612 (in Paris from 1794 to 1814; 
restored in 1852). On the inside of the wings are the Salutation, 
and the Presentation in the Temple, on the outside St. Christopher 
carrying the Infant Saviour, and a hermit. The Mary in a blue 
robe and the figure with a basket in the wings are portraits of the 
master's first wife and his daughter respectively. In the N. transept 
is Rubens' 8 *Elevation of the Cross , painted in 1610, after his re- 
turn from Italy (also in Paris from 1794 to 1814). The high-altar- 
piece, an Assumption , is said to have been painted by Rubens in 
sixteen days, doubtless with the aid of his pupils, for the sum of 
1600 florins. The altar itself was also designed by Rubens. 

The Descent from the Cross is the most magnificent of these ce- 
lebrated pictures. The white linen on which the body of the Saviour lies 
is a peculiar and very effective feature in the composition, borrowed pro- 
bably from a similar work by Daniele da Volterra at Rome. The principal 
figure itself is admirably-conceived and carefully-drawn, and the attitude 
extremely expressive of the utter inertness of a dead body. Two of the 
three Maries are more attractive than is usual with Rubens's female figures, 
but the flabby countenance of Joseph of Arimatheea exhibits neither sen- 
timent nor emotion. The arrangement of the whole is most masterly and 
judicious, the figures not too ponderous, and the colouring rich and har- 
monious, while a degree of sentiment is not wanting, so that this work is 
well calculated to exhibit Rubens's wonderful genius in the most favourable 
light. According to a well-known anecdote, this picture, when in an un- 
finished state, fell from the easel in Rubens's absence. Van Dyck, as the most 
skilful of his pupils, was chosen to repair the damage, which he did so suc- 
cessfully, that Rubens on his return declared that his pupil's work sur- 
passed his own. The parts thus said to have been retouched are the face 
of the Virgin and the arm of the Magdalene. 

The popular story with regard to the origin of this famous picture is 
another of those picturesque fictions which modern investigation has so 
rudely dispelled. Rubens is said to have been employed by the Guild of 
Arquebusiers to paint an altarpiece representing their patron saint 'St. Chris- 
tophorus' (i. e. 'the bearer of Christ'), as the price of which he was to re- 
ceive a piece of ground from them as a site for his house. Instead of ful- 
filling the contract literally by painting a single picture of St. Christopher, 
Rubens generously determined to produce a far more noble work by repre- 
senting the 'bearing of Christ' allegorically, viz. in the principal picture 
Christ borne by his friends, in one wing by his Virgin mother before the 
Nativity, and in the other by the aged Simeon in the Temple. The picture 
was finished and shown to the Arquebusiers, who could not fail to be grati- 
fied by its magnificence; but the allegorical mode of its execution was 
entirely lost upon them, and they complained that there was no St. Chris- 
topher. In order to satisfy them, Rubens then proceeded to paint St. Chris- 
topher in person on the outside of one shutter, while on the other he 
represented a hermit with a lantern, and an owl, emblematical, it was 
said , of the obtuseness of the worthy Arquebusiers. The facts of the 
case, however, were simply these. A dispute having arisen about the cost of 
a wall which separated Rubens's property from that of the Arquebusiers, the 
burgomaster Rockox , the captain of the guild and a friend of Rubens, 
persuaded him to paint this picture in order to equalise the price to be 
paid by each party. The hermit and the owl are well-known features in 
every picture relating to the legend of St. Christopher. 

The Elevation of the Cross, although inferior, is also a magni- 
ficent work. The figures are remarkable for their easy and natural atti- 
tudes, although inclined to be too heavy. The great life which pervades 
the whole, and the variety of the composition, compensate to some extent 
for deficiency of sentiment. In the figures of Christ and his executioners, 
the master displays his thorough acquaintance with the anatomy of the 



Cathedral. ANTWERP. 75. Route. 129 

human frame. The horses are noble and lifelike, and a dog has even been 
introduced to give greater diversity to the scene. The latter was added 
by Rubens in 1627, when he retouched the picture. The wings form part 
of the same subject. On the right is a group of women and children, with 
horror depicted in their countenances, behind them are the Virgin and 
St. John ; on the left, mounted officers, behind them the thieves, who are 
being nailed to their crosses by the executioners. 

The Assumption, also a famous picture, exhibiting the transcendent 
genius of the master in an almost equal degree, is less attractive than 
the two others. The Virgin is represented among the clouds, surrounded 
by a heavenly choir , below whom are the apostles and numerous other 
figures. The colouring is less gorgeous than is usual in Rubens's pictures, 
while the ponderosity of flesh somewhat mars the effect. 'Fat Mrs. Rubens', 
irreverently observes an old author, 'is planted as firmly and comfortably 
among the clouds, as if in an easy-chair, gazing with phlegmatic compo- 
sure on the wondrous scene which she witnesses in her aerial flight, and 
betraying not the faintest symptom of ecstasy or emotion. Ought she not 
to be ashamed to sit there in her flimsy attire, and represent a goddess 
— and a Virgin too?' 

Choir. Besides Rubens's Assumption and the high - altar, 
we notice here the modern Stalls and the rich Gothic Episcopal 
Thrones, in the form of tabernaoles, carved in wood, and adorned 
with groups from the life of the Virgin on the S. side and from that 
of the Saviour on the N. side, and with numerous small statues, 
which are admirably designed and beautifully executed. The archi- 
tectural portions are by W. Durlet, the plastic by Ch. Oeerts (p. 69). 

The other works of art in the cathedral are all very inferior in 
interest to the three pictures by Rubens. As their position is 
frequently altered, the following description cannot claim to be 
permanently accurate. We begin to the S., near the Descent from 
the Cross, in the — 

Retro-Choir. 1st Chapel (on the S.J: modern stained glass, 
by Didron of Paris (1872), representing the Mourning over the body 
of Christ. — 2nd Chapel : Rubens , the Resurrection , painted for 
the tomb of his friend the printer Moretus (see p. 148 ; portrait 
above), half life-size ; on the inside of the shutters John the Bap- 
tist and St. Martina, on the outside angels. The best view of the 
Assumption is obtained from this chapel. — 3rd Chapel : Artus 
Quellin the Younger, Marble monument of Bishop Ambrosius Ca- 
pello, the only monument of a bishop in the church which has 
escaped destruction. — 4th Chapel: De Bakker, Last Judgment, 
with portraits of the Plantin family (generally covered) ; beneath it 
the tombstone of Plantin, a celebrated printer (d. 1589 ; see p. 148), 
with inscription by Justus Lipsius. — 5th Chapel : Modern stained 
glass by J. Bethune. — Adjacent, a carved confessional by P. Ver- 
bruggen (d. 1686), of whose workmanship there are other similar 
specimens in the church. — 6th Chapel : Modern stained glass by 
Bethune; mural decoration in the 15th cent, style by J. Baetens, 
a pupil of Leys ; Mater Dolorosa by A. Quellin (d. 1700). — At the 
back of the high-altar, the Dying Mary, a large picture by Matthys- 
sens (17th cent.). Below it, the Marriage of the Virgin, the Visi- 
tation, and the Meeting of Mary and Elizabeth, painted with great 

Baedeker's Belgium and Holland. 7th Edit. 9 



130 Route 15. ANTWERP. Cathedral. 

skill by Van Brie in imitation of half-relief. In front of it, Tomb 
of Isabella of Bourbon (d. 1456), wife of Charies the Bold, a re- 
cumbent figure in bronze. — 7th Chapel : Otto Vaenius, Entomb- 
ment; Luc. de Heere, Descent from the Cross ; modern stained glass. 

— 8th Chapel, at present undergoing restoration : Interesting altar- 
piece by a Cologne master of the 14th cent., representing St. Mi- 
chael and the dragon with angels and saints ; to the right a some- 
what altered replica of Rubens's Christ a la paille (p. 136); stained 
glass of 1648 representing the arms of the Guild of St. Luke, to 
which this chapel belonged. — 9th Chapel : Modern carved altar 
with polychrome ornamentation in the mediaeval style , executed 
by J. de Bock and J. de Wint from the design of Jos. Schadde, with 
scenes from the life of St. Joseph , to whom this chapel is dedi- 
cated. Paintings by L. Hendrickx: Philip IV. dedicating Bel- 
gium to St. Joseph, Pius IX. appointing Joseph patron-saint of the 
Roman Catholic church in Belgium. Winged altarpieces by Am. 
Mytens the Elder (Crucifixion, Journey and Adoration of the Magi) 
and Corn, de Vos the Elder (Descent from the Cross). The calling 
of St. Joseph and the Marriage of Joseph and the Virgin belong to 
the school of Roger van de,r Weyden. Stained glass from designs 
by A. Stalins and A. Janssens, representing the tree of Jesse. Con- 
fessionals with large statues, carved in wood by Verbruggen. — 10th 
Chapel : Crucifix in Parian marble by Van der Neer. — 11th Cha- 
pel: Altarpiece, a Madonna and Child, after Van Dyck. — 12th 
Chapel (a large one, adjoining the last): A. Quellin, Statue of St. 
Anthony; stained glass of 1503, commemorating a commercial treaty 
between Henry VII. of England and Philip I. of Castile. 

Transept. iJw&ens's pictures, describedon pp. 128, 129. Farther 
on, in the N. Transept : Stained glass of 1615 and 1616 (that above 
the portal portraying Archduke Albert and his consort Isabella, God- 
frey de Bouillon founding the Order of the Canons of St. Michael, 
etc.), restored in 1866. L. Francken the Elder, Christ and the Doc- 
tors, among whom are portraits of Luther, Calvin, and Erasmus; on 
the wings, church-fathers. S. Transept : Large stained-glass win- 
dow by Capronnier, Old and New Testament saints ; Murillo, St. 
Francis ; M . de Vos, Marriage at Cana ; 0. Vaenius, Last Supper. 

— The dome above the intersection of the nave and transept was 
constructed by Dom. van Waghemakere in 1533 ; it is adorned with 
an Assumption by Corn. Schut (1647). 

The Nave and aisles contain some ancient and modern Stained- 
glass windows, the former dating from the 16th and 17th cent., 
but to a great extent restored, the latter executed by Capronnier 
in the old style. The Pulpit, of the 17th cent. , with its trees, 
shrubs, and birds carved in wood, is by Van der Voort. 

The Lady Chapel in the N. aisle contains a white marble altar, 
constructed in 1825 in exact imitation of an altar by Art. Quellin 
the Younger and P. Verbruggen the Elder, which had been destroyed 



Cathedral. ANTWERP. 15. Route. 131 

in 1798. The four reliefs, representing the Annunciation, Visitation, 
Presentation in the Temple, and Assumption, are the original ones 
hy Quellin. The stained glass, referring to the worship of the 
Virgin, was presented by Leopold II. The much-belauded head of 
Christ on white marble, at the entrance to the chapel, is ascribed 
to Da Vinci, but is really the work of a Flemish artist, name un- 
known. 

In the S. aisle, the Passion in 14 scenes, painted in the me- 
dieval style by Vinck and Hendrickx, pupils of Leys, in 1865-67. 
Another painting, by Corn. Schut, represents the Holy Ghost 
surrounded by angels. The Chapel of the .Sacrament, at the E. end 
of the aisle, contains an altar of the beginning of the century, a 
Christ at Emmaus , by Herreyns (1825), and a tabernacle by Ver- 
bruggen. The subjects of the stained glass are : Last Supper, by 
Rombouts , executed in 1503 and restored in 1872; St. Amandus 
preaching Christianity at Antwerp, St. Norbert restoring the Roman 
Catholic form of worship at Antwerp , both by Didron ; John the 
Baptist and John the Evangelist, of the 15th century. — The 
Chapelle des Manages contains stained glass by Van Diepenbeeck, 
1635. The altarpiece is a Holy Family by H. vanBalen, in a 
landscape by J. Brueghel. The statue of the Virgin is by A. Quellin 
the Elder. 

Musical works by the most celebrated composers are performed 
at high mass (10 a.m.) on Sundays and festivals (chair 5 c). 

The * Tower (402 ft.), a beautiful and elaborate open 
structure, was begun by Jean Amel or his son (comp. p. 127), and 
completed by Dom. Waghemakere, whose name is inscribed on the 
highest gallery. The S. tower has only attained one-third of the 
projected height. Charles V. used to say that this elegant specimen 
of Gothic architecture ought to be preserved in a case, and Napoleon 
is said to have compared it to a piece of Mechlin lace. The entrance 
to the tower is adjacent to the W. portal. The crucifix over the door 
was cast in 1635 with the metal of a statue formerly erected in the 
citadel by Philip II., 'ex acre captivo', to the Duke of Alva. 

The concierge, who lives near, at Oude Koornmarkt 37, is generally 
on the spot (fee for 1 person 75 c. , for 2 persons 1 fr. , for each ad- 
ditional person 25 c). The ascent is fatiguing; 514 steps lead to the 
first gallery, and 108 more to the second and highest. The spire at the 
top of the tower perhaps dates from 1592. The view from the second 
gallery is hardly more extensive than that from the lower. With the aid 
of a good telescope, the spectator may in clear weather follow the course 
of the Sehelde as far as Flushing, and distinguish the towers of Bergen- 
op-Zoom , Breda , Brussels , Malines , and Ghent. The Chimes are among 
the most complete in Belgium, consisting of 99 bells, the smallest of 
which is only 15 inches in circumference ; the largest, cast in 1507, weighs 
8 tons. On the occasion of its consecration, Charles V. stood 'godfather*. 

An old Well, adjacent to the principal portal, and opposite the 
door of the tower, is protected by a canopy of iron, and surmounted 
by a statue of Salvius Brabo, a mythical hero who defeated and cut 



132 Route 15. ANTWERP. H6tel-de-Ville. 

off the hand of the giant Antigonus. It was executed by Quinten 
Massys (d. 1529}, 'in synen tyd grofsmidt, en daernaer famues schil- 
der 1 ('at one time a blacksmith, afterwards a famous painter'), ac- 
cording to the inscription on his tombstone -adjoining the entrance 
to the tower of the Cathedral. (The original tombstone, of which 
this is a copy, is now in the Museum; p. 137.) This remarkable 
and talented man was originally a blacksmith from Louvain , who 
came to seek his fortune at Antwerp , where this work is one of 
the specimens of his skill. Here, according to the romantic but 
apocryphal story (comp. p. 139), he became enamoured of the 
daughter of a painter , and to propitiate the father and win the 
daughter he exchanged the anvil for the palette. He wooed and 
painted successfully, and was chiefly instrumental in raising the 
School of Antwerp to a celebrity equal to that of Bruges and Ghent. 
He was one of the first Flemish masters who adopted the showy and 
effective style of the Italian schools, while his execution was hardly 
less elaborate and faithful to natuTe than that of his predecessors. 
His masterpiece is preserved in the Museum (p. 137). A slab im- 
mured at the above-mentioned spot in 1629 by his 'grateful and 
admiring posterity', bears the inscription, 'Connubialis amor de 
Mulcibre fecit Apellerri. 

The Hdtel-de-Ville (PI. 34), situated in the Grand' Place 
(PI. E, 5, 6) in the vicinity, towards the N. of the cathedral, 
was erected in 1561-65 in the Renaissance style by Cornells de 
Vriendt, and restored in its present form in 1581, after its partial 
destruction by the Spaniards. The plain facade, 93 yds. in length 
and 125 ft. in height, rises over a rusticated ground-floor, with ar- 
cades in two principal stories (Doric and Ionic), resting on massive 
pillars. Above these is a colonnade which supports the roof. The 
central part , with its circular arched windows , rises in three ad- 
ditional stories, diminishing in size as they ascend, to a height of 
180 ft. In a niche above stands the Virgin as the tutelary saint 
of the city, a figure placed here in 1585 ; below this, on the right 
and left, are allegorical figures of Wisdom and Justice. 

The Interior (which should be visited before 9 a. m. or after 4 p. m. ; 
concierge l'/2-l fr.) is chiefly interesting on account of the fine pictures 
with which the great hall, or "Salle Leys, was decorated by H. Leys in 
1864-69. — 1. (to the left of the entrance), Solemn entry of Charles V., who 
swears to respect the privileges of the city, 1514 ; 2. (farther to the right, 
on the principal wall), The Burgomaster as head of the military forces 
of the town, or the Burgomaster Van Ursele entrusting the magistrate Van 
Spangen with the command of the municipal guard for the defence of 
the city, 1542; 3. Municipal rights, or the rights of citizenship conferred 
on Batt. Palavicini of Genoa; 4. The Burgomaster as civil chief of the 
town, or Margaret of Parma committing the keys of the city to the burgo- 
master during the troubles of 1567. Also portraits of twelve princes 
celebrated in the annals of the country, from Godfrey de Bouillon (1096) 
to Philippe le Bel (1491), most of whom granted privileges to the 
town. The architectural construction of the room, closely resembling the 
best Italian Renaissance style, is also noteworthy. The ceiling bears the 
arms of the city and of the guilds. The apartment of the burgomaster 



St. Paul's Church. ANTWERP. 25. Route. 133 

contains a Chimney-piece, finely sculptured in the Renaissance style, from 
the old Abbey of Tongerloo, representing the Marriage of Cana, above 
which are the Raising of the Serpent, and Abraham's Sacrifice. There 
are also a few modern pictures. The other rooms contain pictures of 
incidents from the history of Antwerp, and also views of the city as it 
existed in former centuries and of its appearance just before the great 
alterations caused by the levelling of the old Spanish fortifications. The 
Salle des Mariages contains ceiling -paintings of the School of Rubens 
(Pellegrini), a Judgment of Solomon by JFloris, and life-size portraits of 
the royal family by De Keyset- and Wappers. 

The space in front of the Hotel-de-Ville is the best point for 
a view of the cathedral-tower. 

Most of the houses in the Grand' Place are Guild Houses, 
formerly belonging to the different corporations , and dating from 
the 16th and 17th centuries. The most conspicuous are, on the N., 
the Guild Hall of the Archers (No. 17), of 1513, and the Hall of 
the Coopers (No. 15), of 1579 ; on the S.E., the House of the Tailors 
(No. 36), rebuilt after the pillage of the town by the Spaniards in 
1644; and the Hall of the Carpenters (No. 40), 1646. 

A few streets to the N. of the H6tel-de-Ville are the Vieilles 
Boucheries (PI. 7 ; E, 5, 6), or old flesh-market, a lofty, late-Gothic 
edifice constructed in 1501-3 of regular courses of red bricks and 
white stone, with four hexagonal turrets at the corners. It is to be 
occupied by a Museum of Antiquities. 

In the vicinity rises the Church of St. Paul (PI. 25 ; D, 5), 
in the late-Gothic style, which formerly belonged to the adjoining 
Dominican monastery. It was erected in 1540-71 , but the choir 
was not completed until after 1621. Entrance in the Rue des 
Sceurs Noires (adm. in the middle of the day ; knock, fee 1 fr.). 

The wall of the N. Aisle of the church is adorned with fifteen 
pictures: Van Bctlen, Annunciation; /. Francken, Visitation; M. de Vos, 
Nativity and Purification of Mary; Scourging of Christ, after Rubens; 
Van Dyck, Bearing the Cross ; Rubens, Adoration of the Magi ; Jordaens, 
Crucifixion; Vinck-Boons, Resurrection. — Transept: De Grayer, Virgin 
and St. Dominic; "Rubens, Scourging of Christ (covered); at the altar, 
after Caravaggio, the Virgin giving rosaries to St. Dominic for distri- 
bution (the original was sent to Vienna as a gift to the Emp. Joseph, 
who sent this copy as a substitute). — Choir. High-altarpiece , Cels, 
Descent from the Cross, a work of the beginning of the present century ; 
at the side, tombs of Henry van Varick, Margrave of Antwerp (d. 1641), 
his wife Anna Damant, and Bishops Ambr. Capello and Mich. Ophovius 
(d. 1637). — S. Aisle: altar to the right, De Grayer, Body of Christ sur- 
rounded by Magdalene, St. John, and angels; at the entrance, Teniers the 
Elder, The seven Works of Mercy, a curious assemblage of cripples of 
every description. The fine Renaissance wood-carving of the choir-stalls, 
the confessionals, etc., is worthy of examination. Excellent organ. 

The inner court contains a L Ml. Calvary'', an artificial mound covered 
with pieces of rock and slag, garnished with statues of saints, angels, 
prophets, and patriarchs, and surmounted by a crucifix. The grotto 
below is intended to represent the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. 

Following the 'Canal des Recollets' , a street to the E. of the 
Church, and turning to the left through the Rue des Re"collets , we 
reach a small Place , formed by the junction of four streets, 
where the entrance to the museum is situated. In the centre 
of the Place rises a Statue of Van Dyck (PI. 48), executed and pre- 



t34 Route 15. ANTWERP. Museum. 

sented by Leonliard de Cuyper, in 1856. — Near this point, Rue 
de l'Empereur 5 , is the old house of Burgomaster Rockox , the 
facade of which was designed by Rubens. — The Military Hospital 
(PI. 33 ; E, 4) was once the house of Burgomaster van Liere, who 
here entertained Charles V. during his visit to Antwerp in 1521. 
Diirer praises the building in his diary. 

The **Museum (PI. 39 ; E, 4) is open daily, gratis, from 9 or 10 
to 4 or 5, according to the season. This extensive picture-gallery 
is established in the church of the old Franciscan monastery, the 
rooms of which are now occupied by the Academie des Beaux Arts. 
The Academy is the successor of the mediaeval guild of St. Luke, a 
corporation founded for the promotion of art by Philip the Good, 
Duke of Burgundy, about the middle of the 15th cent., and richly 
endowed by Philip IV. of Spain. The number of members never 
exceeds twenty-five, of whom ten may be foreigners. 

The visitor passes through a gateway behind the statue of Van 
Dyck, into the garden, whence a portico leads to the church. The 
Entrance Hall contains several sculptures , chiefly busts of former 
members of the Academy. To the right, on a lofty bronze base, is a 
colossal marble bust of Rubens, by Pecher, erected in 1877, on the 
occasion of the tercentenary anniversary of the birth of the great 
master. To the left is a Statue of Van Bret (p. 126), by J. B. de 
Cuyper. Then busts of Wappers (by J. de Braekeleer), Herreyns 
(by Van de Ven), Nic. de Keyser (by Jos. Geefs), Oeefs, J. Debay, 
Kiss , and Rauch (by Rietschel) ; a marble group by Quellin, and a 
few other sculptures. The walls are decorated (1870) with paintings 
by Nicaise de Keyser, the subjects being taken from the history of the 
Antwerp School of Art (best viewed from the top of the staircase). 

In the principal painting over the entrance, and in the large scenes 
on the right and left wall, the whole of the Antwerp masters are assembled, 
52 in the first, and 42 in each of the two last. In the centre of the prin- 
cipal picture is Antwerpia on a throne; beneath are Gothic and Re- 
naissance art; to the left Quinten Massys in a sitting posture, and 
Frans Floris standing; above Massys is a group of the architects of the 
cathedral of Antwerp ; on the right side of the picture Rubens as the 
principal figure; in front of him, to the left, his teacher Otto Vse- 
nius; between them Jordaens, leaning over the balustrade, in a yellow 
robe; in front of Rubens is Corn. Schut, sitting on the steps; next him 
on the right, Van Dyck, who partly hides from view David Teniers the 
Elder in a blue dress; in the centre of the first bay Casp. de Crayer, 
then Jan Brueghel in a red robe , etc. The picture to our right on 
entering contains figures of painters and sculptors, that to the left painters 
and engravers. The six smaller pictures, on the right and left of the 
principal pieces, are intended to embody the various influences which 
have affected the development of Flemish art, particularly those which 
emanated from Italy (Raphael, Michael Angelo, etc.). The six paintings 
on the fourth wall, on the left and right of the door by which the gallery 
is entered, indicate the appreciation with which the art of Brabant has 
been received at Vienna, London, Paris, Amsterdam, Bologna, and Rome. 
The minuter details are not intelligible without a key (which may be 
purchased in the museum for 1 fr.). 

The Museum contains about 700 pictures , many of them col- 
lected from the suppressed monasteries and churches of Antwerp; 



Museum. ANTWERP. 15. Route. 135 

and they are admirably and appropriately arranged in the old 
monastery-church. The collection of works of the Flemish school is 
ample and excellent. Both the early painters, who are usually 
classed as belonging to the school of Van Eyck, and the later, headed 
by Rubens, are admirably represented. Specially noteworthy are 
the following : St. Barbara, by Jan van Eyck (No. 410) ; the Seven 
Sacraments, by Roger van der Weyden; the Entombment, by 
Quinten Massys (No. 245) ; the Crucifixion, by Van Dyck (No. 406) ; 
St. Francis, by Van den Hoeck (No. 381); and, among the spe- 
cimens of Rubens , Christ and the two Malefactors (No. 297), the 
Portraits of Burgomaster Rockox and his wife (wings of No. 307), 
the Pieta (No. 300), and St. Theresa (No. 299). The number of 
other than Flemish pictures is very limited ; conspicuous among 
them are a Crucifixion by Antonello da Messina (No. 4), and the 
Fisher-boy by Frans Hals (No. 188). 

The Catalogue of the Antwerp Museum was the first to be ar- 
ranged on scientific principles , and it is still considered a model 
wOTk of the kind (4 fr. ; abridgment 1 fr.). The names of the 
painters are also attached to the pictures. 

I. Saloon. Beginning on the left: 215. Jordaens, Last Supper; 
368. Van Bree, Death of Rubens, painted in 1827. — Above : 652. 
Rubens, Baptism of Christ, with figures over life-size, an admirable 
work bequeathed to the Museum in 1876 ; it has unfortunately been 
freely retouched. The group of five men dressing themselves, to 
the right, seems to have been suggested by the celebrated Bathing 
Soldiers of Michael Angelo. 

*327. Corn. Schut , Martyrdom of St. George, a fine and well 
executed composition, one of his best works. 479-482. O. van Veen 
(Otto Venius, or Vaenius, p. xlvii), four pictures: Zaccheeus in the 
fig-tree, Call of St. Matthew, Beneficence of St. Nicholas, St. Nicholas 
saving his flock from perishing by famine. The composition, co- 
louring, and drawing of these pictures bear testimony to the paint- 
er's five years' residence in Italy. 

In the centre of this wall : **297. Rubens , Christ crucified be- 
tween the two thieves ('le coup de lance'), a very celebrated picture, 
painted for the church of the Franciscans in 1620. 

This picture is remarkable for its dramatic effect, and is by no means 
deficient in sentiment. Longinus, the Roman officer, mounted on a grey 
horse , is piercing the side of the Saviour with a lance. The penitent 
thief, a grey-haired man, is invoking the Saviour for the last time. To 
the left in the foreground stands the Virgin Mother, whom Mary the wife 
of Cleophas in vain endeavours to console. Farther back, St. John leans 
against the cross of the impenitent thief, weeping. Mary Magdalene, on 
her knees at the foot of the Cross, implores Longinus to spare the sacred 
body of her master. This is considered by many to be Rubens's chef 
(Toeuvre , and deserves the minutest inspection. There is no inaccurate 
drawing here, as in almost all the master's other works, and at the same 
time the composition and colouring are inimitable. The profile of the 
Magdalene is remarkably beautiful, expressive of horror and supplication, 
without being distorted. The whole composition is a striking example 
of that marvellous boldness of imagination in which Rubens is unrivalled. 



136 Route 15. ANTWERP. Museum. 

48. De Braekeleer , Defence of Antwerp against the Spaniards 
(4th Nov., 1576). At the entrance to the 2nd Saloon, on the left 
stands the chair occupied by Rubens as Dean of the Guild of 
St. Luke in 1635. To the right of the door, 626. A. Quellinthe 
Elder, St. Sebastian, a statue in wood. Then, 21. Th. Boeyermans, 
Pool of Bethesda. 

221 . Jordaens , Adoration of the Shepherds ; above it , 508. 
Seghers, Nuptials of the Virgin. 

*298. Rubens, Adoration of the Magi, painted in 1624. 

This gorgeous and imposing composition, on a similar scale with the 
Elevation of the Cross , but far less impressive , contains about twenty 
figures over life-size, besides camels and horses in the suite of the Three 
Kings , crowded into the picture , while the sumptuousness of the cos- 
tumes and vessels gives the whole an overloaded effect. The king holding 
the gohlet is a somewhat awkward figure. It must, however, be ad- 
mitted that the work exhibits marvellous freedom and boldness of out- 
line, great skill in arrangement, and a wonderful variety of attitude — 
all genuine attributes of Rubens. The picture is said to have been painted 
in a fortnight. 

On the right and left of the last : 372-74. M. van Coxie, Martyr- 
dom of St. George ; 53. De Grayer, Elijah fed by ravens. 

282. Erasmus Quellin , The Pool of Bethesda, a picture of vast 
dimensions (29 ft. in height) ; the lunette of this picture (No. 283) 
hangs above the door of the second saloon. 

In the centre of the first saloon : Kiss , Amazon fighting with a 
panther, a small replica of the marble group in the museum at 
Berlin ; Willemssens, Bust of Rubens. 

II. Saloon. On the left, 172. Fyt, Two sleeping hounds, 
with game. 77. Mart, de Vos, Christ convincing the doubting 
Thomas ; on the wings the Baptism of Christ and the Beheading of 
John the Baptist. *104. Corn, de Vos, Portrait of a functionary 
(knap , i. e. 'knave') of the Corporation of St. Luke, painted in 
1620 ; the artistically-executed cups of gold and silver on the table 
at which he stands were gifts to the Academy from princes and 
sovereigns. 

315. Rubens, Descent from the Cross, a small repetition of the 
picture in the cathedral ; 650 Rubens, Portrait of Gasp. Gevaerts; 
*188. Frans Hals, Half-length portrait of a fisher-boy (the 'Strand- 
looper van Haarlem'; painted, according to M. Bode, about 1640). 

*300. Rubens, 'Christ a la Paille', the body of Christ resting on 
a stone bench covered with straw , partly supported by Joseph of 
Arimathsea , and mourned over by the Virgin , with St. John and 
Mary Magdalene. On the wings the Virgin and Child, and St. John 
the Evangelist. 

This most interesting altarpiece (painted about 1617) shows by its 
carefully-executed details that it is one of the master's earlier works, pro- 
duced before he had adopted his hold and dashing touch. Here, too, we 
have a full and flowing outline and admirable ease of attitude, hut there 
is no symptom of the master's subsequent abuse of his power, in pro- 
ducing overwhelming masses of flesh and crowds of figures in forced 
postures. A happy mean is here observed, and there is greater beauty and 



Museum. ANTWERP. 15. Route. 137 

sentiment than in his later works. The colouring is delicate and harmo- 
nious. The weeping Mary Magdalene is a particularly expressive figure. 

402. After Rubens (original at Windsor) , Portrait of Malderus 
(d. 1633) , Bishop of Antwerp, attributed in the catalogue to 
Van Dyck. 

*357. Titian, Pope Alexander VI. presenting the Bishop of 
Paphos , a member of the noble family of Pesaro, to St. Peter, on the 
appointment of the bishop as admiral (painted about 1503 ; the 
heads freely restored); *655. Hobbema, Mill. 

**245, 246, 248. Quinten Massys, The dead Saviour, a soene 
(technically termed a 'Pieta.') between the Deposition from the 
Cross and the Entombment. It was formerly an altarpiece in 
the cathedral, completed in 1508, and is universally regarded as the 
master's chef d'oeuvre. 

Central Pictube. The funeral cortege is represented as halting at 
the foot of Mt. Calvary, whilst on its way from the Cross to the Se- 
pulchre. The dead Saviour is partly supported by Nicodemus , on 
whose right Joseph of Arimathsea supports the head with one hand, while 
with the other he removes the remaining shreds of the crown of thorns. 
The mother in an agony of grief kneels near the body of her Son, and is 
supported by St. John. On the left Mary Magdalene , to her right Salome. 
The corpse itself bears evident traces of the masters anxiety to attain ana- 
tomical accuracy. Its attitude is rigid, the countenance distorted by the 
pangs of the death-struggle. The face of the Virgin is almost as pale as 
that of the dead body itself. The man with the turban, bearing the 
crown of thorns , appears rather indignant than mournful. The expres- 
sion of Joseph of Arimathsea is that of pain mingled with benevolence. 
St. John has the rigid and almost square features , disfigured by grief, 
which had become the usual type of the apostle in the earlier period 
of art. 

The Wings , which are less satisfactory than the central picture, 
represent the martyrdom of St. John the Baptist, and St. John the Evangelist. 
In the former Herod is represented banqueting in an open hall, whilst 
the daughter of Herodias brings in the head of the Baptist. The task of 
depicting frivolity and vanity in the countenances of the king and the 
hardened mother, contrasted with an expression of greater feeling in the 
daughter, has evidently been attempted by the master, though not very 
successfully. The motion of the girl, intended to be light and elastic, is 
hard and forced. Some of the heads, however, are admirably finished. 
— The other wing represents St. John in the cauldron of boiling oil. The 
executioners, in the costume of Flemish peasants , with their sun-burnt, 
muscular arms, are attending actively to the fire. In the background the 
Emp. Domitian appears , mounted on a white horse , and attended by 
eight horsemen. 

Below the picture is placed the painter's tombstone, a copy of 
which is mentioned at p. 132. 

399. Van de Velde the Younger, Calm sea ; 339. Jan Steen, Boors 
dancing; 503. Wynants , Landscape with figures by A. van de 
Velde ; 345. Dav. Teniers the Younger, Flemish tavern ; No number, 
Jordaens, The meal; 405. A. VanDyck, Portrait of Caesar Alexander 
Scaglia , the Spanish ambassador at the Congress of Munster. — ■ 
*293. Rembrandt, Portrait of Saskia van Ulenburgh, his first wife, 
a repetition with alterations of the famous picture at Cassel (1633), 
and painted , according to M. Bode , by a pupil. — 684. Rubens, 
Jupiter and Antiope (1614). 



138 Route 15. ANTWERP. Museum. 

*404. VanDyck, The dead Saviour ('Pieta'), painted soon after 
his return from Italy (1628). 

The Virgin is represented supporting the head of the dead Christ on 
her knees ; St. John shows the wound made by the nail in the left hand 
to two angels, one of whom veils his face. The features of Christ bear 
traces of intense physical suffering. St. John and the angel whose beau- 
tiful face is visible wear an expression of profound grief, which however 
they can still express in words , whereas the anguish of the Virgin is 
unutterable ; her head is thrown back , her arms wildly extended. The 
picture is chaste , the colouring subdued (now unfortunately faded) ; yet 
the tendency of the master's school to a full and somewhat sensual out- 
line is apparent, although the work does not altogether lack sentiment. 

*307. Rubens , The doubting Thomas, on the wings half-length 
portraits of the Burgomaster Nic. Rockox (p. 128) and his wife 
Adrienne Perez. The portraits are far finer than the figures in the 
central picture (eomp. p. xlviii). Above, 212. A. Janssens, Personi- 
fication of the Schelde; 390. A. van der Neer, Landscape by 
moonlight. 26. J. and A. Both, Italian scene; 54. J. de Heem, 
Fruit; 107. Corn, de Vos, St. Norbert receiving the Host, and 
Sacred Vessels hidden during a time of war and heresy; 358. 
Valentin, Card-players. 

End wall: 108. Corn, de Vos, Adoration of the Magi; 335, 336. 
Snyders, Ducks and geese, Dead game. 

Side wall: 31. P. Brueghel the Younger, Bearing of the Cross. 
— 641. P. de Ryng, Still-life, 1651. — *306. Rubens, The Virgin 
instructed by St. Anna , a very attractive group ; colouring mellow 
and harmonious (about 1630); 464. Bern, van Orley and Joachim 
de Patinir, Adoration of the Magi ; 646. J. van Ruysdael, Water- 
fall. *403. Van Dyck, Entombment: the finely-balanced compo- 
sition of this expressive picture and its careful execution, in which 
the effect of brilliant colouring is intentionally renounced, assure 
it a place among the masterpieces of the first rank. — 651. Rubens, 
Portrait. 

406. Van Dyck, Christ on the Cross, a small picture , of ghast- 
ly, but most effective colouring; the full outline of the body, 
however , hardly accords with the suffering expressed by the fea- 
tures. Human resignation is admirably expressed , but there is 
perhaps a deficiency in divine dignity. 

344. D. Teniers the Younger, View of Valenciennes in a frame 
of military emblems, in front the bust of Philip IV.; 131. Gov. 
Flinck, Portraits; 329. D. Seghers, Ignatius Loyola, in a frame of 
flowers. 

*305. Rubens, Communion of St. Jerome. The figure of the 
saint, who is receiving his last sacrament , produces a most painful 
impression. The picture was painted in 1619, and Rubens's receipt 
for the price is still preserved (J-seven hondert en vyftig gulden, tot 
volcomen betalinghe van een stuck schilderye door myne handt ge- 
maeckV, i. e. 'seven hundred and fifty florins , in full payment for 
a piece of painting done by my hand'). 



Museum. ANTWERP. 15. Route. 139 

112. Frana de Vriendt, or Frans Floris , Fall of the Wicked 
Angels, painted in 1554, and highly esteemed by his contem- 
poraries. 

This extensive work is crowded with figures falling headlong in 
every conceivable attitude , and is destitute of any depth of perspective. 
Many of the figures are beautiful, even in their distorted positions. A fly 
painted on the leg of one of the falling angels has given rise to the absurd 
story that it was painted by Quinten Massys , and that Floris , whose 
daughter Massys was wooing , having been deceived by it , was satisfied 
with this proof of his skill, and gave his consent to the marriage. The 
name of the painter whose daughter Massys perhaps married (see p. 132) 
is unknown, while Floris was only 10 years old when Massys died. 

*299. Rubens, St. Theresa interceding for souls in purgatory, 
one of the most pleasing pictures of the artist's later period. — 576. 
Unknown Master, A large triptych, in the middle St. Eligius, the 
apostle of Antwerp, preaching. *401. Van Dyck, Christ on the 
Cross, at the foot of which are St. Catherine of Siena and St. Do- 
minic, with a stone hearing the inscription, 'Ne patris sui mani- 
bus terra gravis esset, hoc saxum cruci advolvebat et huic loco donabat 
Antonius van Dyck\ in allusion to the history of the picture, which 
was executed for the Dominican Nunnery in 1629 (when Van Dyck 
was in his 30th year), at the dying wish of the artist's father. — 
Marten de Vos, 83. Christ and the Pharisees ('Render therefore 
unto Caesar'); 85. The widow's mite (1601). — 185. Ant. Ooubau, 
Art-studies in Rome, 1662. 

In the centre of this long room : Debay the Elder, Girl holding 
a shell to her ear. Rauch, Victoria distributing wreaths. J. Ducaju, 
Statuette of Leopold II. W. Geefs, Genovefa. 

III. Saloon. On the left, 228. A. Key , Portraits of the Smidt 
family ; 229. Key, Smidt's second and third wives ; 186. Ooubau, 
Piazza Navona at Rome. Copy of the Adoration of the Lamb at 
Ghent (p. 40). 72-74. M.de Vos, Triumph of Christ, a winged pic- 
ture ; 10. Berchem, Italian landscape ; 467. Isaac van Ostade, Win- 
ter-scene ; 113. Fr. Floris (De Vriendt), Adoration of the Shepherds ; 
171. Fyt, Eagles; 647. Fr. Snyders, Fishmonger's shop. Below, 
316-318. Rubens, Two sketches of triumphal arches, executed 
in 1635 for the city of Antwerp on the occasion of the triumphal 
entry of Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria, the victor of Nordlingen 
and Calloo. Six other sketches are in the Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. One of the arches was to have been 80 ft. high and 60 ft. 
wide. In the centre : 318. Rubens, The triumphal car. To the 
right and left of this, 472, 473. Van Thulden, 'Triumphal Arch of 
Philip I', painted for the illustrated description of Rubens' s Trium- 
phal Arch published by Van Thulden and Gervatius in 1641. 
265. Murillo (copy) , St. Francis. — *313. Rubens, Christ on the 
Cross. In the centre stands a marble group by Oeefs, The Fisher, 
from Goethe. 

IV. Saloon. *349. Terburg, Mandoline-player ; 7. L. Bakhuizen, 
Dutch man-of-war; 500. Wouverman, Riders reposing; 183. 



140 Route 15. ANTWERP. Museum. 

Oo8sart (Mabuse), Virgin and Child. 145. A. Francken, Mar- 
tyrdom of SS. Crispinus and Crispinianus ; 666. Breenberg, Death 
of Ahel; 314. Rubens, Trinity, and two angels with instruments of 
torture ; 135. A. Francken, The miraculous feeding of the Five 
Thousand ; 88. M. De Vos, St. Luke painting the Madonna ; 656. 
Willem van Aelst, Luncheon; 658. A. del Campidoglio, Same sub- 
ject; 664. Berchem, Italian scene, with cattle; 661. P. Gysels, Still- 
life ; *665. Salomon van Ruysdael, Dutch river, with a ferry (1657). 
— 669. Karel du Jardin, Animals; 676. J. Weenix, Still-life ; 685. 
Phil, de Koning, Portrait of a boy; 670. Eglon van der Neer, 
Visiting a sick woman ; 371 . Michael van Coxie , Martyrdom of 
St. Sebastian. — 686. A. van de Velde, Pleasures of winter (1662); 

C. Decker, Landscape. — • *312. Rubens , Holy Family, 'La Vierge 
au perroquef , so called from the parrot at the side, one of his earlier 
works, presented by him to the Guild of St. Luke, on his admission 
as a member, in 1631, and hardly inferior in composition and 
colouring to his more celebrated works (comp. p. xlvii). — 662. 

D. Mytens, Portrait of a young lady with a hat and red feather. In 
the centre, A. Dumont, Bronze statue of Cupid. 

V. Saloon. At the entrance: *530 , 531, 255, 256. Four 
admirable little pictures on two diptychs, almost resembling minia- 
tures. On one of them Mary is represented with a lofty and rich 
crown , standing in the interior of a Gothic church ; on her right 
arm the Child half wrapped in the swaddling-clothes. On the back, 
the SaviouT in a white robe with the letters Alpha and Omega, and 
P. and F. (Pater et Filius) on a ground of red tapestry ; beneath 
are the armorial bearings of the two donors , date 1499. The other 
diptych bears the portraits of the donors , Abbots of the Cistercian 
Monastery of Les Dunes near Bruges. These works were formerly 
attributed to Memling, but are now believed to have been executed 
by Cornelius Horebout, a master who flourished at Bruges about the 
end of the 15th century. 

Most of the pictures in this saloon were bequeathed to the Mu- 
seum in 1840 by the Burgomaster Van Ertbom , whose bust stands 
in the middle of the room. Beginning on the left : — 

222. Jordaens, Portrait of a lady; 196. G. Hoeckgeest, Interior 
of the Nieuwe Kerk at Delft ; 437. W. van Mieris, Fish-dealers ; 
502. J. Wynants and A. van de Velde, Landscape ; *466. Adr. van 
Ostade, Smokers (1655); 319. Rubens and Jan Brueghel, Dead 
Christ mourned over by saints ; above it : 407. A. vanDyck, Portrait 
of a girl, the dogs by Fyt; 398. A. van de Velde, Landscape; 46. 
Albert Cuyp, Two riders; 125. Corn. Dusart, Rustic interior; 11. 
Berck-Heyde, Amsterdam with the town-hall. 

257-260. Simone Martini of Siena (d. 1344), Annunciation in 
two sections, Crucifixion, and Descent from the Cross, formerly 
at Dijon ; 383-385. Gerard van der Meire, Bearing of the Cross, 
a triptych; 412. Good copy of Jan van Eyck , Virgin, with the 



Museum. ANTWERP. 25. Route. 141 

Canon de Pala (original in the Museum at Bruges, p. 23). 223. 
Justus of Ghent (?), Adoration of the Shepherds; 387. Gerard van 
der Meire (?), Christ in the sepulchre; *241, *242. Quinten Massys, 
Christ and Mary, two heads remarkable for their beauty and dignity, 
once erroneously ascribed to Holbein (replicas in the London Na- 
tional Gallery). 43. L. Cranach the Elder, Caritas. 

Above, 132. Fouquet (early-French school), Madonna and Child ; 
29. Dierie Bouts (?), St. Christopher ; 42. Cranach the Elder, Adam 
and Eve ; 397. Roger van der Weyden (?), Portrait of Philip the 
Good of Burgundy (under glass); *410. John van Eyck, St. Barbara, 
an unfinished sketch of great beauty (1435); 181. J. Gossart (Ma- 
buse), Ecce Homo ; 243. Quinten Massys, Magdalene with the box of 
ointment; 3. Fra Angelico da Fiesole, St. Ambrose refusing Emp. 
Theodosius admission to the church at Milan on account of the 
massacre at Thessalonica ; 28. Dierie Bouts (?), Madonna ; 253. 
School of Roger van der Weyden, A canon of St. Norbert; *396. 
Roger van der Weyden , Annunciation . a small picture of most 
delicate execution , formerly in the Convent of Lichtenthal near 
Baden-Baden, once erroneously attributed to Memling (under glass). 
*4. Antonello da Messina (one of the first Italian masters to adopt 
Van Eyck's method of painting in oil), Mt. Calvary, Christ on the 
Cross with the malefactor at each side; in the foreground SS. Mary 
and John. The picture (which bears the date 1475) presents a 
curious combination of the Flemish minuteness of detail with 
Italian forms. 250. Quinten Massys, Head of Christ. *411. John 
van Eyck , Madonna in a blue robe, and the Child in her arms 
playing with a rosary ; to the right a fountain ; her feet rest on 
rich drapery held by two angels behind her. The picture , which 
bears the painter's name and motto, and the date 1439 , has con- 
siderable resemblance to the so-called Madonna of the Seminary in 
the Archiepiscopal Museum at Cologne ; 124. A. Diirer (?), Portrait 
of Elector Frederick III. of Saxony, in grisaille ; 386. Gerard van 
der Meire (?), Christ on the Cross. 

*393. Roger van der Weyden, Sacrament of the altar , flanked 
by two wings representing the six other Romish sacraments. 

The scene is in a spacious Gothic church, the architecture of which 
seems to unite the groups. This picture, the gem of the burgomaster's 
collection, is brilliantly executed. The crucifixion in the foreground 
introduces an effective dramatic element into the picture ; and the spec- 
tator can hardly fail to sympathise with the distress of the women 
mourning there, as well as with the holy joy which lights up the features 
of the dying persons receiving the extreme unction. The angels above the 
various groups, robed in symbolical colours, are particularly well drawn. 

204, 205, 206. Lucas van Leyden, SS. Luke, Mark, and Mat- 
thew ; 33. Fr. Clouet (1510-1572, a French artist, who followed 
the Flemish school of painting), Portrait of Francis II. of Franov 
when Dauphin; 64. Patinir, Landscape, with the Flight into 
Egypt; 244. Quinten Massys (?), The miser; *5. Antonello da 
Messina (more probably Memling?), Portrait; 208. Lucas van 



142 Route 15. ANTWERP. Museum. 

Leyden(i), Adoration of the Magi, to the left St. George, to the 
right the donor. 47. Herri met de Bits, The Repose in Egypt. — 
341. Sustermann, Portrait; 198. Holbein(f), Portrait of Erasmus of 
Rotterdam; 224. Justus of Ghent (?), The Benediction ; 180. Jan 
Oossart (Mabuse), The just judges; 263, 264. Jan Mostert, Portraits 
of a man and woman ; 179. Mabuse, The four Maries and John com- 
ing from the Sepulchre; 254. School of Roger van der Weyden, 
Portrait of a member of the Croy family. 

338. Steen , Samson and the Philistines ; 295. Rembrandt, 
Portrait of a Jew ; 34. Gonzales Coques or Cocx, Portrait ; 294. 
Rembrandt, The young fisherman ; 320. Jac. van Ruysdael, Land- 
scape, one of the earliest works of the master, and still revealing 
strongly the influence of J.Wynants; 9. Nic. Berehem, Pillage; 497. 
Weenix. HarbouT in Italy; 615. Rembrandt's School, Old man; 58. 
K. de Moor, Young lady; 501. Wouverman, Horsemen reposing. 

In another part of the building is the Musee Moderne, or Gallery 
of Modern Pictures, the entrance to which is between Nos. 32 and 
34 in the Rue de Ve'nus (PI. D , E, 4). Admission during the 
same hours as to the Collection of Ancient Pictures; catalogue 
attached as a supplement to the larger one. Every three years, 
between August and October, the great Belgian Exhibition of Art, 
held in the intervening years at Brussels and Ghent, takes place here. 

After passing through the vestibule we turn to the left into Room I. 
To the left, 112, 113. R. Mols, Quay at Antwerp, occupying the whole 
wall ; Verlat, Carriage-and-pair ; 72. Wappers, The brothers De Witt await- 
ing in their prison the entrance of the mob (p. 233) ; 12. Dyckmans, Blind 
beggar ; Bendemann, 40. Portrait of himself, 48. Penelope awaiting the re- 
turn of Ulysses; Wappers, 39. Portrait of himself, 38. The Shulamite 
maiden (from the Song of Solomon); 7. Calame, The Wetterhorn; 8. Rubio, 
Portrait of Calame; 36. W. Schadow, Caritas; 37. Bendemann, Portrait of 
Schadow; 40. A. Achenbach, Harbour of Ostend; 20. Navez, Holy Family; 
22. Overbeck, Christ avoiding his persecutors at Nazareth (St. Luke, iv., 28- 
30); 15. Ingres, Portrait of himself; 9. N. de Keyser, Charles V liberating 
Christian slaves on the capture of Tunis. 

Room II. 89. C. Cap, Episode from the Belgian national festival of 
1880; 39. Marinvs, Episode in the inundation of the Maas district in 1872; 
8i. Bource, Return from fishing; 60. Van Lerius, Lady Godiva; 45. Ooms, 
Philip II paying the last honours to Don John of Austria; 85. H. Schaefels, 
Battle of Trafalgar ; 55. Van der Ouderaa, Judicial satisfaction ; 71. Wap- 
pers, Mother and child; 68. Verlat, Lion attacked by buffaloes; 80. Asset- 
berghs, Sunset; 1. Beaufaux, The daughter of Herodias; 67. Verlat, Ma- 
donna and Child, between the four Evangelists ; 83. Coosemans, Winter- 
landscape; 82. Carpentier, Episode of the War in the Vendee in 1795. 

Room III. 110. Rosseels, Neighbourhood of Waesmunster; 114. Leys, 
Flemish wedding in the 17th century; 36. Leys, Rubens at a fete in his 
honour at Antwerp ; 38. J. Lies, 'The foe is coming' ; 4. Col, The barber's 
shop; 22. W. Geets, Anathema of Joanna of Castile; 105. Ge'rard, Wedding- 
guests; 79. Be Block, Closing of the school; 108. Linnig, Workshop of 
the Antwerp coppersmith Geert de Winter; 103. Douzette, Winter-landscape 
by moonlight; 37. Lies, Prisoners of War; No number, Fourmois, Moun- 
tain-landscape; 104. Geeraerts , Interior of the Dominican church at 
Antwerp; 90. Meyers, Banks of the Schelde near Mariekerke. 

Near the Museum are two Private Picture Galleries, which are 
always open to lovers of the fine arts. 



Bourse. ANTWERP. 75. Route. 143 

Mme. J. J. Wuyts, Rue du Jardin 12 (near the Rue Zirk, PI. E, 5), 
possesses a collection of about 100 pictures, by old painters, arranged in 
a hall lighted from above. The catalogue attributes some of them to 
the great masters: Rubens (Madonna), Van Dyck, Teniers (The jealous 
wife), Rembrandt (Portrait of a girl), Th. de Keyser, Jan Steen (The doc- 
tor's visit), Hobbema, Mieris, Maes, Brouwer, Velazquez (several portraits), 
Murillo, etc. The fees for admission are devoted to charitable purposes. 

M. Notebohm, Rue du Fagot 3 (PI. D, E, 5, 4; daily except Thurs- 
days and Fridays), possesses upwards of 60 good modern pictures: "P. 
Delaroche, Holy Family; Ary Scheffer, Faust and Marguerite, The king of 
Thule; Bellangi, Napoleon visiting the wounded after the battle of Auster- 
litz; Gallait, The happy and unhappy mother; Koekkoek, Landscapes: 
Lessing Luther burning the papal bull; Leop. Robert, Neapolitan fisher- 
men playing the mandoline; Oude, Norwegian landscape; Galame, Swiss 
landscape; J. A. van der Ven, Eve and the Serpent, and Jos. Oeefs, Girl 
at a brook, two marble statues. In a separate room, eight ancient works : 
Murillo, Assumption; SUngeland, Portraits. 



Between the Museum and the Cathedral lies the former Jesuits' 
Church (St. Charles Borromee ; PI. 21 ; E, 5), built in 1614-21 by 
the Jesuit Fr. Aguillon from plans by Rubens, and sumptuously 
adorned with marble and works of art. Rubens himself furnished for 
it no fewer than 39 pictures. The structure was unfortunately struck 
by lightning in 1718 and burned to the ground, with the exception 
of the choir with its two side-chapels containing three large altar- 
pieces (Assumption, Miracles of St. Ignatius Loyola, and St. Francis 
Xavier), now preserved in the Belvedere Gallery at Vienna. The 
church was rebuilt in the style of the original edifice, though with 
less magnificence. Handsome fapade. Pleasing bell-tower in the 
Renaissance style. 

The Interior is in the form of a basilica with galleries. Round the 
walls, to a height of about 10 ft. from the floor, runs a handsome car- 
ved wooden wainscoting with medallions representing scenes from the 
lives of SS. Ignatius and Francis Xavier, by Baurscheidt (d. 1745) and 
Van der Voort (d. 1737). The high -altar was designed by Rubens. Over 
the altar the three following paintings are exhibited alternately : C. Schut 
(d. 1655), Madonna enthroned; Seghers, Christ on the Cross; Wappers, The 
Virgin interceding. The statues of SS. Francis Borgia and Francis Xavier 
are by A. Quellin, those of SS. Ignatius and Aloysius by A. Collyns de 
Hole (17th cent.). The Virgin's Chapel still contains some specimens of 
the marble decoration of the building of 1618. The Chapel of St. Francis 
Xavier contains a painting by Seghers, St. Francis kneeling before the 
Virgin. In the Sacristy is a handsome ivory crucifix of the 17th century. 

The building to the W. of the church, recently restored, con- 
tains the Municipal Library, which is open to the public on week- 
days, 9.30 to 4. In front of it is a monument to Hendrik Conscience, 
the Flemish novelist (d. 1883), by Fr. Joris. 

The Longue Rue Neuve leads hence to the right to the *Bourse, 
or Exchange (PI. 8; E, F, 4, 5), Te-erected in 1869-72 on the site 
of a fine late-Gothic structure of 1531 (by Bom. van WaghemakereJ 
which was burned down in 1858. The new edifice , designed by 
Jos. Schadde , is in the same style as its predecessor , but on a 
much larger scale, and has an entrance on each of the four sides. 
The hall, which is covered with glass, is 56 yds. long and 44 yds. 



144 Route lb. ANTWERP. St. Jacques. 

wide, and is surrounded by a double arcade borne by 68 columns, 
opening towards the centre in Moorish-Gothic trefoil arches. Above 
these is a gallery borne by 38 columns, adjoining which are the Tri- 
bunal de Commerce and the Telegraph Office. The ceiling is borne 
by an elegant wrought-iron framework , and the walls are adorned 
with the arms of Antwerp, the Belgian lion, and the arms of the dif- 
ferent provinces of Belgium. In the angles between the arches are 
the arms of the chief sea-faring nations. Business-hour 1-2 p.m. 

The house of the Van Jmmersele Family, Longue Rue Neuve 31, 
is an interesting building of 1496, with a beautiful chapel. 

The *Church of St. Jacques (PI. 23 ; E, 4) , in the late-Gothic 
style , was begun in 1491 from designs by Her. de Waghemakere 
and carried on after his death by Dom. van Waghemakere, but 
was still unfinished in 1526 when the work was discontinued. In 
1602 after the subsidence of the religious troubles of the latter 
half of the 16th century, the works were resumed, and the church 
completed in 1656 (the chief portal being added in 1694). It is a 
cruciform structure , flanked with chapels on each side and in the 
choir also, and is the principal church in Antwerp after the cathedral, 
which it far surpasses in the sumptuousness of its monuments and 
decorations. The wealthiest and most distinguished families at 
Antwerp here possessed their burial-vaults, private chapels , and 
altars, the most interesting of which is that of the family of Rubens, 
in the choir , at the back of the high-altar. 

The principal entrance is on the S. side , in the Longue Rue 
Neuve (open for the inspection of the works of art between 12 and 
4 p.m. ; sacristan's fee lfr. for each pers. ; visitors knock at the door). 

The Interior , which is of harmonious proportions, is partly 
lighted by fine stained-glass windows, both ancient and modern, 
the former having been chiefly executed by A. van Diepenbeeck and 
Van der Veeken, the latter by J. Capronnier (p. 74). 

S. Aisle. 1st Chapel : A. van JDyck, St. George and the dragon ; 
opposite, wooden figure of St. Sebastian, by A. Quellin. The reliefs, 
representing scenes from the Passion , in this chapel and several 
of those following are by J. Geefs, J. de Cuyper, and L. de Cuyper. 
— 2nd Chapel : M. de Vos, Temptation of St. Anthony. Monument 
of the Burgomaster Van Ertborn (p. 140), with a Madonna by Ouido 
Reni. — 3rd Chapel : E. Quellin, St. Rochus cured of the plague, 
1660. This and the two following chapels contain twelve small 
scenes from the life of St. Rochus, executed in 1517. — 4th 
Chapel : Altarpieee and pictures opposite , by 0. Vaenius. — 5th 
Chapel: Fr. Floris , Women occupied with the Infant Christ and 
St. John ; opposite , monument of Churchwarden Nicolas Mertens 
(d. 1586) and his wife, with portraits, by Ambr. Francken. — 6th 
Chapel : M. Code , Baptism of Christ ; Marten de Vos , Martyrdom 
of St. James, the wings by Francken (Daughter of Jairus, Canaanite 
woman ; on the back, Gethsemane). 



St. Jacques. ANTWERP. 15. Route. 145 

Transept : Marble statues of the Apostles by Van der Voort, 
Kerricx, De Cuyper, and others. To the right and left at the beginning 
of the choir : Resurrection by E. Dujardin (1862), and Assumption 
by Boeyermans (1671). In the S. arm : Elevation of the Cross , a 
high -relief by Van der Voort, 1719. Above the portal: Honthorst, 
Christ expelling the money-changers from the Temple , the wings 
by De Crayer. 

Choir. The rococo high-altar is by Ykens, the ornamentation by 
Kerricx, L. Willemssens, etc. The choir -stalls were carved by the 
older and younger Quellin. The stained-glass window is by Van 
Diepenbeeck, 1644. — The S. transept is adjoined by the — 

Chapel of the Host, containing a marble altar and statues of 
SS. Peter and Paul, by P. Verbruggen , L. Willemssens, and Ker- 
ricx. The pictures are by P. Thys (Adoration of the Host ; altarpiece), 
E. van Donk (Peter's repentance), Jan Massys (Madonna and Child), 
etc. The *Stained Glass of 1626 represents Rudolph of Hapsburg 
giving his horse to the priest carrying the monstrance , with the 
donors below. 

Retro-Choir. — By the wall, Confessionals by A. Quellin, 
Willemssens, and others. Above the first of these: Gouban 
(d. 1618), Dead body of Christ; M. de Vos, Ecce Homo (1562); 
Verlinde, Madonna (1870). — 1st Chapel : H. van Balen the Elder, 
Trinity; opposite, Calling of St. Peter to the Apostleship (Peter 
giving Christ the fish with the piece of money), ascribed to A. van 
Noort, one of the masters of Rubens. Below, after VanDyck, Christ 
on the Cross (original in the Museum). — On the wall of the choir 
opposite : Corn. Schut, Mary weeping over the body of Christ. — 
2nd Chapel : Seghers, St. Ivo. — 3rd Chapel : Seghers , Appearing 
of Christ. Van der Voort , Christ scourged , a group in marble. 
Above the next door : Coronation of the Virgin, Nativity, and Ado- 
ration of the Magi, winged picture by A. Janssens (d. 1631). 

4th. *Bubens Chapel. The tomb of the illustrious painter (d. 
30th May, 1640, at the age of 64) was covered by a new tombstone 
in 1755, bearing a long inscription in Latin. The altarpiece of 
this chapel is a fine work by Rubens. 

The Holy Child is represented sitting in the lap of the Virgin in 
an arbour, and worshipped by St. Bonaventura. Behind the Madonna is 
St. Jerome, while on the other side is St. George with three holy women. 
According to tradition these saints are all family portraits. St. Jerome 
is said to he the father of Rubens, St. George the painter himself, and the 
three women his two wives and Mademoiselle Lunden , whose portrait 
in the National Gallery at London is famous under the name of the 
'Chapeau de paille\ The tradition is , however , doubtful, for the exe- 
cution of the work differs from that usual with Rubens in his later years, 
in which alone the portraits could have been painted. 

The marble statue of the Virgin, the two angels, and the upper 
portion of the altar, are probably the work of Luc. Fayd'herbe 
(d. 1694), with whom Rubens was intimate. On the right and 
left are the monuments of two female descendants of Rubens, exe- 

Baedeker's Belgium and Holland. 7th Edit. 10 



146 Route 15. ANTWERP. Theatre. 

cuted by W. Geefs in 1839 and 1850. Also, Th. Rombouts, Betro- 
thal of St. Catherine. 

5th Chapel : Jordaens , S. Carlo Borromeo among persons sick 
of the plague , praying to the Virgin. — 6th Chapel : Vara Lint, 
St. Peter taking leave of St. Paul ; A. Francken, Entombment, and 
the Risen Saviour appearing to Mary Magdalene. — 7th Chapel: 
Victor Wolfvoet, Visitation. Moons, Christ and the Disciples at 
Emmaus (1843). — On the wall of the choir, opposite: Peter Thys, 
The Trinity, and Abraham's Sacrifice. 

The Chapel or the Virgin, in the N. transept, contains 
stained glass by Be la Baer (1641); also, A. Quellin the Elder, 
Pieta, a small painted sculpture in wood on the altar, 1650. 

N. Transept. Above the portal, J. Honthorst, Christ among 
the Doctors in the Temple ; on the wings, Seghers, Annunciation, 
and Adoration of the Magi. Thys , Assumption of the Virgin ; 
E. Quellin the Younger, Death of St. Francis. — On the pillar, 
C. Schut, Body of Christ on the knees of the Virgin. 

N. Aisle. 2nd Chapel: M. de Vos , Glory, a winged picture ; 
Peter van Avont, Madonna and the Child in a garden, surrounded 
by angel musicians; stained glass representing the Last Supper, 
with portraits of the donors, 1538. — 3rd Chapel : *B. v. Orley, Last 
Judgment ; on the wings St. George and the Burgomaster Rockox 
(p. 128), the donor of the picture, with his three sons; and St. Ca- 
therine and the wife of the burgomaster , with their eleven daugh- 
ters. — 4th Chapel : Van Balen, Adoration of the Magi, on the wings 
Annunciation and Visitation ; Ryckaert, Portrait of J. Doncker and 
his wife (above their tomb). — 5th Chapel : Altarpiece of no great 
merit ; M. de Vos, Mary entering the Temple ; Tomb of Corn. Lant- 
schot (d. 1656). — 6th Chapel: Tomb of the Spanish general Del 
Pico (d. 1693). — In the nave, *Pulpit by Willemssens, with the 
Evangelists and allegorical figures of Faith, Religion, etc. (1675). 

The Institut de Commerce, in the Rue du Chene, to the S. of 
the church of St. Jacques, contains a commercial museum. 

At the E. end of the Longue Rue Neuve rises the new Flemish 
Theatre, or Schouwburg (PI. 52; E, 3), erected by Dens in 
1869-72. Inscription on the W. side , towards the Place de la 
Commune: 'Vrede baart kunst, kunst veredelt het volk' (peace 
begets art, art ennobles the people). — A little to the W., at the 
beginning of the Avenue des Arts , is a small square embellished 
with a bronze Statue of David Teniers (PI. 47 ; F, 3), the painter. 
Opposite is the Panorama of Waterloo, mentioned at p. 122. — 
Adjacent is the Rue Leys, see below ; the Avenue des Arts, etc., 
see pp. 147, 149. 

A few streets farther N. is situated the small church of St. An- 
toine (PI. 16; D, 3), or Church of the Capuchins, erected in 1589, 
and containing two valuable pictures. On the "W. wall of the left 
aisle, *Christ mourned over by his friends and two angels , by Van 



Royal Palace. ANTWERP. 75. Route. 147 

Dyck. In the choir, the first picture on the left, St. Anthony 
receiving the Infant Jesus from the arms of the Virgin, by Rubens. 
Opposite the last, St. Anthony with the stigmata, after Rubens. — 
Near this point, in the Avenue du Commerce, stands a new Scandi- 
navian Lutheran Church, in the Gothic style. 



Parallel with the Longue Rue Neue runs the street called Place 
ue Meir (PI. F, 5, 4), one of the broadest in Antwerp, formed by 
the arching over of a canal, and flanked with handsome new houses. 
In this street is the Royal Palace (PI. 41), erected in 1755 from 
plans by Baurscheidt, for a wealthy citizen of Antwerp. No. 52, a 
little farther to the E. , is Rubens's House (PI. 37), with two 
Corinthian columns , and richly decorated. It was built from the 
designs of Rubens himself in 1611, almost entirely rebuilt in 1703, 
and restored in 1864. On the top is a bust of its former illustri- 
ous owner, who died here on 30th May, 1640. The only remain- 
ing part of the original house is a handsome portico with sculptures 
by Fayd'herbe , now in the garden of the second house to the left 
(No. 7) in the neighbouring Rue Rubens (visitors admitted). 

The street prolonging the Place de Meir and leading to the Place 
Teniers (PI. 47; F, 3; see above) is called the Rue Leys. No. 12 
is the House of Hendrik Leys, the painter, who has embellished it 
with tasteful frescoes. 

The French Theatre Royal (PI. 51; F, 4) was completed in 1834. 
Over the windows of the circular part of the structure on the W. 
side are niches containing busts of the most distinguished drama- 
tists and composers of all nations. On the parapet above are the 
nine Muses. 

The Botanic Garden (PI. 35 ; G, 5), which is well-kept and con- 
tains a fine palm-house, is adorned with a statue of P. Coudenberg , 
an Antwerp botanist of the 16th cent., by De Cuyper. 

In the vicinity is the St. Elizabeth Hospital (PI. 32). — The tri- 
angular Place Leopold is embellished with an Equestrian Statue of 
Leopold I. (PI. 45; G, 4), in bronze, designed by J. Oeefs. The 
stone pedestal bears a double inscription, in Flemish and French. — 
The Maison des Orphelines , or girls' orphanage , Longue Rue de 
l'Hopital 29, with a relief above the door, was built in 1552. The 
chapel contains a portrait of Burgomaster Rockox. 

The new Bank , between this place and the Avenue des Arts, 
with its round corner-turrets, was designed by Beyaert , who has 
employed the Flemish Renaissance style in this case also (coinp. 
p. 69). The architectural details are admirably executed. 

The Gothic Church of St. George (PI. 22 ; G, 5) , by Sluys, 
consecrated in 1853 , with its two lofty spires , contains fine mural 
*Paintings by Ouffens and Swerts (p. 69), executed in 1859-68, 
The subjects are the Childhood and Youth of Christ, down to the 
Entry into Jerusalem (right aisle, beginning at the choir); the Suf- 

10* 



148 Route 15. ANTWERP. St. Andrew's Church. 

ferings of Christ, the Resurrection, Ascension, Descent of the Holy 
Ghost (left aisle, beginning at the door) ; Christ with the Virgin, 
Joseph, St. George, and the Apostles and Evangelists (in the choir). 

The Church of the Augustines (PI. 17; F, 5), erected in 
1615, possesses a large altarpiece with numerous figures, hy Ru- 
bens , representing the 'Nuptials of St. Catherine with the Infant 
Jesus'. This excellent work is unfortunately in bad preservation. 

Also, to the right of the principal entrance: Cels (1778), Elizabeth 
and Mary; Lens (d. 1872), Presentation in the Temple. On the left: Van 
Brie, Baptism of St. Augustine. Farther on, to the right, the Martyrdom 
of St. Apollonia as an altarpiece, by Jordaens; to the left, Van Dyck, 
The Vision of St. Augustine. The high- altar, over which is the above- 
mentioned work of Rubens, is by Verbruggen. On the right of the choir 
a modern chapel in the Romanesque style, with frescoes by Bellemans. 

The Church of St. Andrew (PI. 14; F, 6), a late-Gothic edifice 
of 1514-23, also contains some works of art. 

The pulpit, in carved wood, is by Van Geel and Van Hool (18th cent.). 
St. Peter and St. Andrew are represented in a boat on the sea, from 
which they are summoned by the Saviour; life-size figures, finely exe- 
cuted. In the N. Chapel of the Choik: Oovaerts, Flight into Egypt; 
Seghers, St. Anna instructing the Virgin. Choir: 0. Vaenius, Crucifixion 
of St. Andrew ; Erasmus Quellin the Younger , Guardian angel of youth. 
S. Chapel or the Choik: Franck, Last Supper (altarpiece); Seghers, 
Raising of Lazarus; E. Quellin, Christ at Emmaus; E. Quellin, Holy 
Family. By the choir are two statues, (left) St. Peter by A. Quellin the 
Younger, and (right) St. Paul by Zielens. In the Tkansepts several modern 
pictures, by Verlat, Van Eycken, and others. Side-altar on the S. : Pepyn, 
Crucifixion; on the N., Franck, St. Anna teaching children, a work with 
numerous figures. The aisles contain a number of large modern pictures. 
On a pillar in the S. Tbansept is a small medallion-portrait of Mary 
Queen of Scots (by Pourbus), with an inscription in memory of that un- 
fortunate sovereign, and of two of her ladies-in-waiting who are interred 
in this church. 

The adjacent Rue des Chevaliers terminates towards the N., 
beyond the Rue des Tailleurs, in the Place du Vendredi (comp. 
PI. F, 6), on the left side of which is the *Musee Plantin-Moretus, 
established in the' house of the celebrated printer Christ. Plantin 
(1514-89), who set up his printing-office at Antwerp in 1555. 
From 1579 down to 1800 the business was carried on without inter- 
ruption in this building, at first by Plantin himself, and afterwards 
by the family of his son-in-law Moretus. After the middle of the 
17th cent, the operations of the firm were confined to the printing 
of mass and prayer-books, for which Plantin had received a mono- 
poly from Philip II. for the dominions of the Spanish crown. When 
this privilege was withdrawn in the year 1800, the printing-office 
was closed, and it remained almost entirely disused down to 1875, 
when the building with its antique furniture , tapestry , paintings 
(90 portraits, including 14 by Rubens and 2 by Van Dyck) , and 
other collections, was purchased by the corporation of Antwerp. The 
'house therefore now presents a unique picture of the dwelling and 
contiguous business-premises of a Flemish patrician of the end of 
the 16th century. Adm. daily 10-4, Sat. excepted, free. Interest- 
ing catalogue by Max. Rooses, 1 fr. 



Musee Plantin ANTWERP. 15. Route. 149 

Ground Floor. In the vestibule we turn to the right at the foot of 
the staircase, and enter Room I, which contains some fine old Flemish 
tapestry and a tortoise-shell table. — Room II. contains several admi- 
rable family-portraits. To the right, above the modern mantel-piece in 
the Renaissance style, hangs a portrait of Plantin by Frans Pourbus the 
Elder (1578), which served as a model for the other portrait, by Rubens, 
to the right of the door of exit. Rubens also painted the portraits of 
Jeanne Riviere, Plantin's wife; of Martina Plantin (by the window); of John 
Moretus, son-in-law of Plantin (d. 1610); and of Adriana Gras, Arias Mon- 
tanus, Justus Lipsius, Abraham Ortelius, and P. Plantin. Most, however, are 
merely school-pieces. On the exit-wall are two sketches by Rubens; also 
two fine portraits by Thos. Bosschaert, surnamed Willebords: Balthasar 
Moretus, under whom the printing-office enjoyed a new lease of success 
and fame in 161S-41, and Gevartius, the Town Clerk, a friend of Moretus 
and Rubens. In the centre, under glass: Drawings, Title-pages, Vig- 
nettes, partly by Rubens, who, as appears from receipts which are still 
preserved (in the middle of the window-wall), frequently drew designs 
for printers; also Erasmus Quellin, Bernard van Orley, Marten de Vos, 
and others. Two fine cabinets of the 17th century. — Room III. also con- 
tains portraits. To the left of the entrance : Balthasar Moretus on his 
death-bed, by Bosschaert (Willebords); Magdalena Plantin and her hus- 
band, Gilles Beys, by an unknown painter. Among the other portraits 
are several copies by Rubens of Italian works, including Pope Leo X. after 
Raphael. In the centre: Miniatures from the 10th to the 16th cent.; 
specimens of Plantin's printing. Above the mantel-piece: Copy of the 
large hoar-hunt by Rubens, now at Munich. — We now cross the me- 
diaeval-looking Court, where we see numerous repetitions of Plantin's 
motto, 'Lahore et constantia.' One side is entirely covered by the bran- 
ches of an aged vine. Below the arcade, to the right, are the Sale 
Rooms, with a separate entrance from the street; they are embellished 
with old Flemish tapestry and oaken panelling (partly restored). One 
of them contains a painted spinet of the 17th century. On the other 
side of the court is the Printing Office, where everything is left ar- 
ranged as if work were to be resumed to-morrow. We first enter the 
Proof-readers' Room, where old proof-sheets, first impressions, etc., are 
still lying on the desks and benches. Next to this are the Proprietor's 
Office, with gilt-leather hangings, and the so-called Room of Justus 
Lipsius, with Spanish leather hangings, where the distinguished critic 
and philologist is said to have been lodged when visiting his publisher 
Moretus. A passage leads hence to the Type Room, with old matrices, etc., 
and to the Composing and Printing Room, by the exit-wall of which 
stand two presses of the 16th century. 

We now re-cross the court and ascend the stairs to the First Floor. 
Two rooms here contain specimens of the work of several famous print- 
ing-offices and Chinese porcelain, and two others a collection of woodcuts 
and a coloured view of Antwerp in 1565. We may next visit the library, 
and a room containing the titles to the different privileges enjoyed by 
Plantin. In other rooms are preserved copper-plates after Rubens, Jor~ 
daens, and Van Dyck, and numerous fine specimens of early printing. 
There is also a type-foundry, etc. 

Since 1859 the old fortifications of the city have been converted 
into handsome, broad boulevards, or Avenues (comp. p. 126). 
Numerous imposing edifices have been constructed here, such as 
the Bank, mentioned on p. 147, the Flemish Theatre (p. 122), near 
which is the statue of Teniers , and the new Palais be Justice 
(PI. 42; H, 5) by Baeckelmans, in the Louis Treize style. On the 
Place Marnix a monument has been erected to Philip van Marnix 
van St. Aldegonde (1 538-1 598), the well-tried comrade of William 
of Orange and author of the Compromise (p. 85). 



150 Route 15. ANTWERP. Zoolog. Garden. 

The site of the Lunette d'Herenthals is now occupied by the 
new Park (PI. G, H, 3), the ornamental water for which, spanned 
by a lofty chain-bridge (view), is furnished by the old moats. The 
park contains monuments to the Flemish poet Theodore van Ryswyck 
(PI. 49; d. 1849), erected in 1864, and to the painter Quinten Mas- 
sy s, erected in 1883. In the Avenue Louise Marie is a statue of the 
painter Hendrik Leys (PI. G, 4), by Ducaju, erected in 1873. — At 
the end of the park stands the new Church of St. Joseph (PI. 24 ; 
H, 2), built by Gif e in the Romanesque style , and adorned with 
frescoes and stained glass ; it contains a fine pulpit and altars. 
The space in front of the church is embellished with the Monument 
Loos, erected in commemoration of the destruction of the old 
town-walls , which were built during the Spanish domination and 
existed down to 1859. It consists of a statue of Antwerpia on a 
lofty base , surrounded with figures representing commerce and 
navigation. In front is a marble bust of Burgomaster J. F. Loos 
(1848-62). The monument was designed and executed by Jules 
Pecher. 

The ^Zoological Garden ('Dierentuiri ; PI. 36 ; F, 2), founded 
in 1843, lies on the E. side of the city, beyond the railway-station. 
It consists of a small park , with a fine collection of animals and a 
cabinet of natural history , and is one of the best in Europe (ad- 
mission 1 fr.). Concerts in summer on Sun., Tues., and Thurs. after- 
noons or evenings. The carnivora are fed daily at 5 p. m. (Sat. 
excepted), the seals at 11 a.m. and 4 p.m. The Panorama of the 
Battle of Worth has been mentioned at p. 122. 

The old E. suburb of Borgerhout is adorned with a Statue of 
Carnot, the defender of the city in 1811 (comp. PI. F, 1). 

In the former Berchem suburb, to the S. of the entrance to the 
Boulevard Leopold, rises the Monument of Van Schoonbeke (PI. 50 ; 
H, 2), one of the most distinguished citizens of Antwerp about the 
middle of the 15th cent., and near it a colossal statue, designed by 
Ducaju , of Boduognatus (PI. 44 ; H, J, 2), a Belgian chief, who 
opposed the invasion of Julius Csesar. — The Pepiniere (PI. K, L, 
4) has recently been converted into a pleasant park, in the English 
style, by Keilig, who laid out the grounds at the Bois de la Cambre, 
near Brussels (p. 100). The new Basilique du Sacre Coeur, in the 
adjacent Avenue de Me'rode, built by Bilmeyer and Van Riel, con- 
tains some stained - glass windows by L. Lefevre of Paris and an 
altar by Armand Oalliat of Lyons. 

Visitors who wish to inspect the new and formidable circumvallation 
of Antwerp may make nse of one of the tramway lines which connect 
the interior of the city with the various gates, e.g. the Porte de Malines 
(in the former suburb of Berchem, comp. PI. M,2), which is itself interest- 
ing in an architectural point of view. 



Along the Schelde extend the handsome and busy *Wharfs, or 
Quais, which are now in the midst of a process of complete recon- 



Steen. ANTWERP. 15. Route. 151 

struction and extension. The river, the width of which at Antwerp 
formerly varied from 900 to 2000 ft., is being confined to a channel 
with a uniform width of 1150 ft. and a uniform depth of 25 ft. 
These alterations, the total cost of which is estimated at 38,275,000 fr. 
(l,530,000i.), will, along with the new Docks, make Antwerp one 
of the first harbours in the world. The quay-frontage will be up- 
wards of 2 M. long. 

The picturesque appearance of the town as viewed from the river 
has unfortunately been much altered by these improvements. Al- 
most the only older buildings that have been left standing are the 
Porte de l'Escaut and the Steen. 

The Porte de l'Escaut (PI. F, 6), a gateway designed by Rubens 
and adorned with sculptures by A. Quellin, has been removed from 
its position on the Quai van Dyck to the Quai Plantin, a little lower 
down; it bears an inscription dedicated by the 'Senatus Popu- 
lusque Antwerpienses' to the 'Magnus Philippus' (1624). This prince 
was Philip IV., great-grandson of the Emp. Charles V., who reigned 
from 1621 to 1665, and under whom Spain entirely lost her prestige, 
having been deprived of Portugal in 1640, and finally of the Nether- 
lands in 1648. 

The Steen (PI. E, 6) , originally formed part of the Castle of 
Antwerp, which remained in the hands of the lords of the soil till 
1549, when Charles V. made it over to the burghers of Antwerp. 
It was afterwards the seat of the Spanish Inquisition , and is now 
occupied by the recently-founded Museum van Oudheden (daily, 
10-4, free), a collection of antiquities , handsome furniture of the 
15th-17th cent., weapons, and old views of Antwerp. The court 
is adorned with columns from the old Exchange (comp. p. 143). The 
dungeons, 'oubliettes', etc., still bear sombre witness to its former 
history. 

The *Dooks (PI. A, B, C, 4, 3, 2) lie at the N. end of the 
quays. The two older basins, the Orand and Petit Bassin, were 
constructed by Napoleon (1804-13), at a cost of 13 million francs, 
in consequence of a decree of 21st July, 1803, constituting Antwerp 
the principal naval station of the N.W. coast of France. The small 
dock is capable of containing 100, and the largest 250 vessels of 
moderate tonnage. The accommodation afforded by these docks 
proving insufficient, the Bassin du Kattendyk, 770 yds. long and 
110 yds. wide, was constructed in 1859-60; it is connected with 
the river by a sluice and with the Grand Bassin by the Bassin de 
Jonction, added in 1869. Adjoining it are the Bassin aux Bois, 
the Bassin de la Campine , and the Bassin du Canal , all of large 
dimensions. The total superficial area of the docks amounts to 100 
acres and the quays enclosing them are I 1 /.? M. long. Farther ex- 
tensions are projected. 

Between the two older docks rises the Maison Hanseatique 
(PI. 38; C, 5), a massive and venerable building, 265 ft. long and 



152 Route 15. ANTWERP. Vlaamseh Hoofd. 

213 ft. broad, erected in 1564-8 from the plans of Cornells de 
Vriendt , and originally employed as the warehouse of the Han- 
seatic cities. It bears the inscription : Saeri Eomani Imperii Domus 
Hansae Teutonic*, with the armorial hearings of the three cities 
of the League. It is named the ' Osterlingshuis' by the Flemings. 
In 1863 it was ceded by the Hanseatic towns to the Belgian govern- 
ment, as an equivalent for all river-dues exigible from their vessels. 

At the upper end of the Grand Bassin stands the Entrepot 
Royal (PI. C, 3), or royal custom-house and bonded warehouse, 
erected in 1829-32 at a cost of 4 million francs. Another large ware- 
house is the Entrepot St. Felix , on the Quai Godefroid , on the 
S. side of the Grand Bassin. 

A good survey of Antwerp is obtained from Vlaamseh Hoofd, 
or Tete de Flandre, on the left bank of the Schelde , to which a 
steamer crosses from the S. end of the quay (PI. E, 6) every l / t hr. 
(6 c). Napoleon considered this a more advantageous site than 
that of Antwerp, and proposed building a town here. — Railway 
through the Waesland to Ghent, see p. 55. 

During the siege of Antwerp in 1832 (p. 125) the Dutch cut through 
the dyke above Vlaamseh Hoofd, thereby laying the whole of the sur- 
rounding country, even the high-road, under three feet of water, so that 
no vehicle could reach the tete-de-pont of Antwerp. Twelve Dutch gun- 
boats cruised over the polders or fields, which lie much lower than the 
sea-level. In this condition the environs remained for three years. The soil, 
covered with sea-sand by the action of the tides, and impregnated with 
salt, was rendered quite unfit for cultivation, and in many places resembled 
the sea-shore. The restoration of the dyke alone cost 2,000,000 fr. 

About 21 M. to the N.E. of Antwerp (diligence daily in 4'/2 brs. ; 
fare 3 fr.) , and about 10 M. from Turnhout (p. 120) , lies Hoogstraeten 
(HStel de la Campine), a village with 2000 inhab., the centre of the 
Campine Anversoise, or moorland district round Antwerp. The late-Gothic 
Church of St. Catharine is an interesting brick building of the 1st half 
of the 16th century. The choir and transept contain beautiful stained 
glas9 of 1520-50, restored in 1846 ; fine stalls ; and the alabaster tomb of 
Count Lolaing-Hoogstraeten (d. 1540), the founder of the church, and his 
wife. The Hdtel-de-Ville, dating from the end of the 16th cent., is a plain 
brick structure in the Renaissance style. The old Chdteau , now a poor- 
house, lies on the brook March, a little to the ~8. of the village. 

16. From Antwerp to Rotterdam. 

(A.) Railway Journey. 

59 M. Railway in 3'/2-4 hrs. ; fares 8 fr. 90, 6 fr. 70, 4 fr. 75 c. (or 4 fl. 
75, 3 fl. 75, 2 fl. 45 cents). The only points of interest on the line are 
the handsome bridges over the Hollandsch Diep, the Maas at Dordrecht, 
and the Lek at Rotterdam. 

The train starts from the central station, traverses the suburb 
of Burgerhout, passes the station Anvers-Dam, near the docks, and 
intersects the new fortifications. 7 M. Eekeren, with numerous 
villas of rich Antwerp merchants. We then traverse the mono- 
tonous moorlands of the Campine Anversoise. 7'/-2 M. Cappellen, 
also with several country-seats. About 3 M. to the N.W., just 
beyond the Dutch frontier, lies the village of Putten, in the church- 



ROOSENDAAL. 16. Route. 153 

yard of which is buried Jacob Jordaens (A. 1678), the painter, who 
was denied a grave within the territory of Antwerp owing to his 
having been a Protestant ; the old tombstone is still preserved, and 
a bronze bust by Lambeaux was set up in 1877. — 13 M. Calm- 
pthout. — 18 M. Esschen (Belgian custom-house). 

23 M. Koosendaal, the Dutch custom-house , and junction for 
the Breda and Flushing line (R. 33). 

The railway next traverses a wooded district. — 28 M. Ouden- 
bosch with a new domed church; 33 M. Zevenbergen. — (The Bel- 
gian Grand Central Railway continues to Moerdijk on the Hollandsch 
Diep, whence a steamboat starts for Rotterdam twice a day.) — 
38 M. Zwaluwe, where the line joins the Maastricht-Rotterdam Rail- 
way, see p. 309. 

(B). Steamboat Journey. 

Steamboat on Tues., Thurs., and Sat. in 9 hrs. (2'/2 or l'/n A.) from 
the Quai Van Dyck (PI. E, 6), morning tide. The steamers are well fitted 
up, and provided with restaurants. Agents at Antwerp Van Maenen & Co., 
corner of the Quai Van Dyck and the Canal au Beurre ; at Rotterdam 
Verwey <fc Co., Boompjes (PI. D, 6). — In stormy weather the voyage is 
rough at places. 

The Steamboat threads its way between the nine islands form- 
ing the Dutch province of Zeeland , the character of which is 
indicated by its heraldic emblem of a swimming lion, with the motto : 
Luctor et Emergo. The greater part of the province, probably form- 
ed by the alluvial deposits of the Schelde, which here enters the 
sea, lies considerably below the sea-level, the only natural elevation 
being a few dunes, or sand-hills on the W. coast of the Islands of 
Schouwen and Walcheren. The rest of the province is protected 
against the encroachment of the sea by vast embankments, the aggre- 
gate length of which extends to 300 M., while the annual repairs 
cost a million florins (85,000i.). The most massive of these bul- 
warks are at Westcapelle, on the S.W. coast of the island of Wal- 
cheren The land is extremely fertile and admirably cultivated, pro- 
ducing abundant crops of wheat and other grain. 

Immediately after the departure of the steamboat , the passenger 
obtains a final view of Antwerp, extending in a wide curve along 
the bank of the Schelde. To the W. of the docks rises Fort Austru- 
weel or Oosterweel. 

Near the docks, in 1831, Lieutenant van Speyk, a gallant Dutch naval 
officer, sacrificed his life in vindication of the honour of his flag. A 
storm had driven his gunboat on shore, and a crowd of Belgians imme- 
diately hastened to the spot to secure the prize, calling on the comman- 
der to haul down his colours and surrender. The devoted Van Speyk, 
preferring death to capture, fired his pistol into the powder-magazine, 
which exploded instantaneously, involving friends and foes, as well as 
himself, in one common destruction. 

Farther on, Fort Calloo rises on the left and Fort St. Philippe on 
the right. At this point, between Calloo on the left and Oorderen on 
the right bank, Duke Alexander Farnese constructed his celebrated 
bridge across the Schelde, in 1585, during the siege of Antwerp 



154 Route Id. CALLOO. From Antwerp 

(see p. 123). All communication between the besieged and their 
confederates in Zeeland was thus entirely broken off. The citizens 
used every means in their power to destroy this formidable barrier, 
which was defended by numerous guns. After many fruitless 
attempts , the fire-ship of the Italian engineer Giambelli at length 
set the bridge on tire , and blew up a portion of it so unexpectedly 
that 800 Spaniards lost their lives. The besieged , however , were 
not in a position to derive any advantage from this signal success, 
and their auxiliary fleet anchored below Fort Lillo was too weak to 
attack the enemy single-handed. The damage to the bridge was 
speedily repaired , and Antwerp, notwithstanding a most obstinate 
defence, was sbortly afterwards Teduced by famine. 

The new Fort Frederic is now seen on the right. On the left, 
lower down, lies Fort Liefkenshoek, on the right Fort Lillo, both 
commanding the course of the river, and both retained by the Dutch 
till 1839, when they were ceded to Belgium (comp. p. xix). Then, 
on the left bank, Doel, a little beyond which is the Dutch frontier. 

The first Dutch place at the entrance to the Kreek Rak, a nar- 
row branch of the Schelde which was rilled up when the railway 
embankment was constructed (p. 210), is Fort Bath, where the 
English fleet landed in 1809. It was a place of importance during 
the Dutch-Belgian contests of 1831 and 1832. The steamer con- 
tinues to skirt the S. coast of the island of Zuid- Beveland, 
and at Hansweerd turns to the right into the Beveland Canal 
which intersects the island, having been constructed in 1866 to 
compensate for the filling up of the Kreek Rak. The E. coast of 
the island of S. Beveland, called the ' Verdronken Land' (literally 
'drowned land '), once a fertile agricultural tract, was inundated on 
2nd Nov., 1532, in consequence of the bursting of a dyke, when 
3000 persons are said to have perished. At the N. end of the canal, 
which is 5 M. in length , and is crossed by the railway to Goes 
(p. 210), lies Wemeldingen, the landing-place foT Goes. 

The steamer now traverses the broad expanse of the Ooster- 
Schelde in a N. direction, and enters the narrow Canal de Keete, 
which separates the islands of Tholen and Duiveland. To the right, at 
the entrance , is situated Stavenisse, the landing-place for Tholen, 
a small town on the E. side of the island, with an interesting 
church. The vessel next touches at Zyp, on the left, at the end of 
the canal, whence an omnibus runs to Zierikzee (Hotel Van Oppen) ; 
the lofty square tower of the cathedral is a conspicuous point. From 
Zierikzee we may visit Brouwershaven, another small town with an 
interesting church. To the right is the island of Philippsland. 

In 1575 the Canal de Keete was the scene of a famous exploit by 
1700 Spanish volunteers under Requesens, the successor of the Duke of 
Alva, who crossed it with intrepid bravery, partly by wading and partly 
by means of small boats, notwithstanding the incessant and galling fire 
of the Flemish defenders of the island , many of whom crowded round 
the assailants in boats. The capture of Zierikzee was the reward of this 
determined attack. 



to Rotterdam. WILLEMSTAD. 76. Route. 155 

We now quit the ramifications of the Schelde, and enter those 
of the Maas, the first of which is the Krammer, and the next the 
Volkerak. The towers of Nieuwe-Tonge and Oude-Tonge are now 
visible to the N.E. The entrance to the Hollandsch Diep, as this 
broad arm is named , is defended by two blockhouses, Fort Ruyter 
on the right, and Fort Ooltgensplaat on the left. Willemstad, a 
fortress with walls and ramparts erected by Prince William I. of 
Orange in 1583, next becomes visible. In 1792 it was bombarded 
by the French for a fortnight without success. 

The steamer traverses the Hollandsch Diep for some distance. 
The water here is sometimes pretty rough. Nearing Moerdijk (jp. 153), 
we obtain a view of the handsome railway-bridge which crosses the 
Diep from Moerdijk to Willemsdorp (see p. 309). 

The steamer now turns to the left into the Dordsche Kit, a very 
narrow branch of the Maas. In 1711, John William, Prince of Orange, 
was drowned in crossing the Diep at Moerdijk, when on his way to 
the Hague to meet Frederick William I. of Prussia, with a view to 
adjust the difficulties of the Orange succession. Here we observe 
a long series of the windmills which constitute one of the most 
picturesque features of Dutch scenery. Many of them are saw-mills, 
also sometimes furnished with steam-engines, while others are 
used for grinding cement. 

Dordrecht (p. 309); thence to Rotterdam (1 hr.), see R. 49. 

17. From Antwerp to Aix-la-Chapelle by Maastricht. 

91 M. Railway in 4 </z - 5 hrs. (fares 12 fr. 80, 9 fr. 90, 6 fr. 40 c; 
in the opposite direction 10 marks 30, 7 m. 90, 5 m. 20 pf.). The Dutch 
custom-house examination takes place at Maastricht, the German at Aix- 
la-Chapelle; in the reverse direction the Dutch examination is made at 
Simpelfeld, the Belgian at Lanaeken. 

Antwerp, see p. 121. 5^2 M. Bouchout. 9y 2 M. Lierre (Flem. 
Lier), a town of 16,700 inhab., with several silk-factories. The 
church of St. Gommarius, begun in 1445, completed in 1557, con- 
tains several fine stained-glass windows, three of which were pre- 
sented by the Emp. Maximilian. Lierre is the junction of the Ant- 
werp and Gladbach line (R. 18) and of a branch to Contich (p. 120). 

Next stations Berlaer, Heyst-op-den-Berg, with leather factories 
and considerable traffic in cattle and grain,- Boisschot; (26 M.) 
Aerschot on the Demer, where the railway crosses the Louvain and 
Herenthals line (p. 172), with a Gothic church containing a rich 
screen and handsome choir-stalls of the 15th century. 

The line now follows the valley of the Demer. 32 M. Testelt; 
34'/2 M. Sichem, whence omnibuses run to the pilgrimage-church 
of Notre Dame de Montaigu, l l /o M. distant. 37y 2 M. Diesi, with 
7300 inhab., and many breweries and distilleries, the junction of a 
branch-line from Tirlemont (p. 172) to Moll (p. 157). The train 
crosses the Demer. 40'/. 2 M. Zeelhem; 43»/ a M. Sehuelen ; 48 M. 
Kermpt. 



156 Route 18. GHEEL. 

50 M. Hasselt (Hotel Mauel) , the capital of the province of 
Limburg, with 11,800 inhah., was the scene of a victory gained by 
the Dutch over the Belgians on 6th Aug., 1831. The railway unites 
here with the older branch-line from Landen to Mastricht. 

From Hasselt to Maaseyck, 25'/2 M., railway in l l /t hour. Inter- 
mediate stations: Genck, Asch, Eelen. Maaseyck, see p. 194. 

From Hasselt to Liege, see R. 44 ; to Eindhoven and Utrecht, see R. 44. 

54 M. Dieperibeek ; 56 M. Beverst, the junction of the line to 
Liege and Utrecht (p. 295); 58!/ 2 M. Munsterbilsen ; 61 M. Eygen- 
hilsen ; 64 M. Lanaeken, the Belgian frontier-station. 

68 M. Maastricht, see p. 192. Route to Liege, see p. 192 ; to 
Roermond, see p. 194. The Meuse is crossed here. 

71 M. Meerssen; 75 M. Valkenberg, French Fauquemont, with 
picturesque ruins peeping from the trees on the right of the line ; 
79 M. Wylre; S3 l /. 2 M. Simpelfeld, with the Dutch custom-house. 

91 M. Aix-la-Chapelle, see Baedekers Rhine. 

18. From Antwerp to Miinchen-Gladbach 

(for Dilsseldorf). 

98'/ 2 M. Railway in 4-4 ] /z hrs. (fares 14 fr. 60, 11 fr. 30 c, 7 fr. ; in 
the opposite direction 11 m. 80, 9 m. 20, 5 m. 90 pf.). 

From Antwerp to (9 4 /2 M.) Lierre, see R. 17. li l / 2 M. Nylen ; 
171/2 M. Bouwel. 

21 M. Herenthals, on the Canal de la Campine, the junction 
of the line to Louvain (p. 172). — 25y 2 M. Oolen. 

30 M. Gheel (Hotel de VAgneau), a town of 10,000 inhah., 
which derives its principal interest from the colony of lunatics 
(about 1300 in number) established here and in the neighbouring 
villages. The district throughout which they are distributed is 
about 30 M. in circumference, and divided into four sections, each 
with a physician and keeper. The patients are first received into 
the Jnfirmerie, where their symptoms are carefully observed for a 
time, after which they are entrusted to the care of a nourricier, or 
hote, who generally provides occupation for them. They are per- 
mitted to walk about without restraint within the limits of their 
district, unless they have shown symptoms of violence or a desire 
to escape. This excellent and humane system, although appre- 
hensions were at one time entertained as to its safety , has always 
been attended with favourable results. — The handsome late- 
Gothic Church of St. Dymphna (who is said to have been an Irish 
princess , converted to Christianity , and beheaded at this spot by 
her heathen father) contains a fine *Altar , with the apotheosis of 
the saint. The choir contains the reliquary of the saint , painted 
with scenes from her life, probably by a contemporary of Memling. 
In the choir-chapels are two curious old *Cabinets, adorned with 
finely-executed carving and painting. A painted group in stone, 
protected by a railing, in the vicinity of the church, bears a Flem- 



KOERMOND. IN. Route. 157 

ish inscription, recording that St. Dymphna was beheaded on this 
spot, 30th May, 600. The town originally owed its reputation for 
the successful cure of lunatics to this saint, whose shrine was be- 
lieved to possess miraculous powers. 

34'/ 2 M. Moll, the junction of a line to Diest and Tirleniont 
(see p. 155). — 37 M. Baelen - Wezel ; 42i/ 2 M. Lommel. 

48 M. Neerpelt, the junction of the Liege-Utrecht line (p. 294). 
— 51 M. Lille-St. Hubert- Achel. — 53y 2 M. Hamont, the last 
Belgian station (custom-house). — At (55 M.) Budel, the first 
station in Holland, luggage is examined by Dutch custom-house 
officers. — 60»/2 M. Weert; 68'/ 2 M. Baexem ; 71 M. Haelen. 

74^2 M. Roermond (Munster Hotel; Lion d'Or; Hotel de I'Em- 
pereur), a small town with 10,000 inhab., at the confluence of the 
Boer and the Meuse, possessing considerable cloth-factories. The 
Minster, formerly the church of a Cistercian nunnery, consecrated 
in 1224, and recently restored, is a good example of the transition 
period. St. Christopher' s is adorned with several paintings. — Roer- 
mond is the junction for the Maastricht- Venlo line (p. 194). 

78 M. Melick-Herkenbosch. — 82'/ 2 M. Vlodrop, the last station 
in Holland, with the Dutch custom-house. — 83Y2 M. Dalheim, 
the Prussian frontier-station (luggage examined). — 88 M. Weg- 
berg ; 92 M. Bheindahlen ; 96 M. Rheydt, where the line to Aix-la- 
Chapelle diverges to the right. 

98 1 / 2 M. Gladbach, or Miinchen-Gladbach, see Baedeker's Rhine. 

19. From Brussels to Braine-le-Comte and Mons. 

38 M. Railway in 1 lir. 10 min. or 2 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 65, 3 fr. 50, 2 fr. 
35 c. ; express 5 fr. 80, 4 fr. 35, 2 fr. 90 c). Trains start from the Station 
du Midi at Brussels (p. 63). 

From Brussels to (9 M.) Hal, see p. 62. The Mons train di- 
verges here to the S. from the Tournai line (R. 11). — 10 M. Lem- 
becq (line to Ecaussines, see below, in progress). 12 M. Tubize is the 
junction of branch-lines to Virginal and Rognon (and Braine-le- 
Comte, see below); railway to Braine l'Alleud in progress (p. 115). 
Paving-stones are largely exported from the quarries near Tubize. 
Tunnel. 15 M. Hennuyeres. 

19 M. Braine-le-Comte, Flem. '<S Oraven Brakel, a town with 
7300 inhab., the junction of the Enghien-Grammont-Ghent (p. 160), 
the Manage-Charleroi (p. 161), and the Brussels-Erquelinnes lines, 
which last follows the direction described in R. 20 to station Ecaus- 
sines, and then proceeds to the S. via Baume and Bonne-Esperance. 
From Braine-le-Comte to Erquelinnes, 26 M. The next station in 
the direction of Jurbise and Mons is — 

22y 2 M. Soignies, atown with 7900 inhab., possessing a vener- 
able abbey-church (St. Vincent) in the Romanesque style , perhaps 
the most ancient building in the kingdom, founded about 650, and 



158 Route 19. MONS. From Brussels 

erected in its present form in the 12th century. Many of the tomb- 
stones in the churchyard date from the 13th and 14th centuries. 
Extensive quarries of mountain-limestone in the neighbourhood. — 
Branch-line to Houdeng and Baume (p. 157). 

The line then describes a wide curve, in a direction nearly 
opposite to that of Mons. 26 M. Neufvilles ; 27i/ 2 M. Masnuy. 
3OY2M. Jurbise, where the connecting lines to Ath-Tournai (p. 61) 
and St. Ghislain (p. 160) diverge. 

38 M. Mons, Flem. Bergen (Couronne, in the market, D. 2 fr. ; 
St. Jean, Monarque, Avenir, all near the station and very unpre- 
tending ; Grand Cafe, Cafe des Princes, Taverne Allemande, all in 
the market), on the Trouille, the capital of Hainault, with 24,100 
inhab., owes its origin to a fortress erected here by Csesar during 
his campaigns against the Gauls. The town was fortified by Jean 
d'Avesnes in the 14th century. Prince Louis of Orange took Mons 
by surprise on 24th May, 1572, and maintained it against the Duke 
of Alva till 19th September, thus giving the northern provinces an 
opportunity of shaking off the Spanish yoke. The town was captured 
by Louis XIV. in 1691, restored to the Spaniards in 1697, and 
again occupied by the French from 1700 to 1707. It fell into the 
possession of Austria in 1714, and was twice afterwards taken by 
the French, in 1746 and 1792. The fortifications, which were dis- 
mantled by the Emp. Joseph II., but reconstructed in 1818, were 
again removed in 1862, and their site converted into a pleasant 
promenade. In the promenade, near the station, rises a Statue of 
Leopold I., by Simonis, erected in 1877. 

The most interesting edifice at Mons is the late-Gothic Cathe- 
dral of St. Waltrudb (Ste. Waudru), situated on the left as the 
town is entered from the station. It was begun about 1450 from a 
design by Matthew de Layens, the architect of the H6tel-de-Ville 
at Liege, and his assistant Oilles Pole. The choir was completed in 
1502, the transept in 1519, and the nave in 1589 (with finishing 
touches added in 1621). The projected tower was never built, and 
the church possesses only a small spire above the cross and a Gothic 
turret above the transept. The exterior was formerly somewhat dis- 
figured by modern additions, but these have been removed and the 
building skilfully restored within the last 40 years. 

The Interior, which is 355 ft. long, 116 ft. wide, and 80 ft. high, is 
a model of boldness and elegance. The slender clustered columns, 60 in 
number, are without capitals, rising immediately to the vaulting and 
keystones. The church contains several monumental reliefs of the 15th and 
16th centuries, those of the latter period being by Jacob Duboucque ; some 
good stained glass of 1523 (Crucflxion, Maximilian and his consort Mary 
of Burgundy, with their sons), restored by Capronnier; and several pictures 
by Vaenius, Van Thulden, and other artists. A chapel in the ambulatory, 
to the left, contains an altar of the beginning of the 16th cent., with re- 
liefs from the life of Mary Magdalene. 

Traversing the Rue des Clercs, opposite the choir of the cathe- 
dral and then ascending to the left and passing through a gateway, 



to Mons. MONS. 19. Route. 159 

we reach the highest ground in the town , formerly crowned with 
fortifications on the alleged site of Caesar's Oastrum, and now laid 
out as a promenade. Fine views of the busy environs of Mons. To 
the right rises the Beffroi, or belfry, 275 ft. high, belonging to the 
old palace, which is now fitted up as a lunatic asylum. The tower, 
which is the only belfry in Belgium built entirely in the Renais- 
sance style, was erected in 1662 from a design by Louis Ledoux, 
and was restored in 1864. It contains a 'carillon', or set of chimes. 
Adjacent is the reservoir of the city waterworks. 

The centre of the town is formed by the Grande Place, in which 
rises the *H6tel-de-Villb, a tasteful late-Gothic edifice, erected 
in 1458-67, but never quite completed. The slated roof was added 
in 1606, the tower in 1718. The small wrought-iron ape on the 
staircase to the left of the main entrance probably once formed 
part of a tavern-sign, but is now regarded as one of the emblems 
of the town. 

Interior. One room contains a collection of portraits of eminent 
natives of Mons. The Gothic Room, recently restored with little success, 
is embellished with three large paintings of scenes from the history of 
the town, by Paternostre, Carlier, and Hennebicq. Another room is adorned 
with old Flemish tapestry after Teniers. 

On the right and left of the H6tel-de-Yille are two buildings 
with Renaissance facades, the Maison de la Toison d'Or and the 
Chapelle St. Oeorges. — A grand fete, called 'La Parade du Lu- 
mecon', is celebrated in the Grande Place on Trinity Sunday. 

The Library, in the Rue des Gades, possesses 40,000 vols, and 
numerous MSS. adorned with miniatures. The same building con- 
tains insignificant collections of antiquities and paintings. 

The boulevards and promenades that surround the old town 
are about 3 M. in length. Besides the statue of Leopold I., men- 
tioned at p. 158, they contain a handsome monument by Frison, 
erected in 1853 to the memory of the celebrated composer Orlando 
di Lasso, or Roland de Lettre, who was born at Mons in 1520, 
and an equestrian statue, by Jacquet, of Baldwin of Hainault and 
Flanders (d. 1205), who took part in the fourth Crusade and be- 
came king of Constantinople. Near this point is a public garden 
called Vauxhall (adm. Y2-I fr.). — Among the buildings on the 
boulevards are a large Hospital, a Prison, and a Normal Seminai~y 
for teachers in elementary schools. 

Mons is the centre of a great coal-mining district, known as Le 
Borinage. In 1878 the yield of the mines of Hainault amounted 
to 12 million tons, valued at 118 million francs, while the whole 
kingdom of Belgium produces not more than 15 million tons in all. 
Of the 100,000 miners in Belgium three-fourths belong to Hainault 
alone. In 1836-41 the annual yield of coal in Belgium was only 
3y 2 million tons. 

A general survey of the country around Mons may be obtained 
by taking the train to (12i/ 2 M. ; in 40 min.) Quievrain (see below) 



160 Route 20. GRAMMONT. From Ghent 

via Jemmappes , Quaregnon , St. Ghislain (once the seat of a 
wealthy Bernardine abbey, now a centre of the coal-trade), Boussu 
(with the castle of that name to the right), and Thulin. From 
Quievrain we return to Mons via. Elouges, Dour, Warquignies, Was- 
tries , Pdturages, Flenu (with one of the richest coal-fields) , and 
Cuesmes (in 55 min.). 

At Jemmappes (see above), Dumouriez, with an army of 50,000 men, 
defeated 22,000 Austrians under the Duke of Saxe-Teschen, who waa com- 
pelled to retreat beyond the Meuse, 6th Nov., 1792. 

Near Malplaquet, 3 M. to the S.E., Marlborough and Prince Eugene 
gained a victory over the French in 1709, but not without a loss of nearly 
20,000 men. In the vicinity, Pichegru defeated the Duke of York on 
18th May, 1794, capturing 60 guns and 1500 men. 

From Mons to Paris there are two railways. The more direct is by 
Hautmont, St. Quentin, Noyon, Compiegne, and Creil (160 M. ; fares 30 fr. 10, 
22 fr. 60 c). The other line leads via St. Ghislain, Quitvrain (see above), 
Valenciennes, Douai, Arras , Longueau (Amiens) , and Creil (177 M. ; fares 
35 fr. 40, 26 fr. 55 c). 

From Mons to Manage, see p. 161. 

From Mons to Charleroi, 29 M., railway in 2 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 20, 
3 fr. 10, 2fr. 10c). Stations Cuesmes, Byon, Sarmignies, Estinnes; (12V2 M.) 
Bonne - Espirance , whence a branch-line leads to Erquelinnes (p. 157) ; 
15 M. Binche, a town with 7500 inhab., where the female part of the 
community is chiefly engaged in the manufacture of 'fleurs a plat' for the 
Brussels lace-makers ; 18 M. Baume (p. 157) ; 20!/2 M. Mariemont , con- 
nected by means of a branch-line with La Louviere (p. 161). Near Marie- 
mont are the ruins of a chateau erected by the regent Mary of Hungary 
in 1548, but burned down six years later by Henry II. of France, and a 
modern chateau. Stations Morlanwelz, Carnieres, Piiton (branch-lines to 
Manage, p. 161 ; to Gosselies , see p. 162 ; and to Bonne-Esperance , see 
above), Fontaine VEvSque, Marchienne, and Charleroi (see p. 162). 



20. From Ghent to Charleroi and Namur by 
Braine-le-Comte. 

Railway to Charleroi (66V2 M.) in 2i/2-3V 4 hrs. (fares 7 fr. 90, 5 fr. 
95, 3 fr. 95 c); to Namur (90 M.) in 3'/4-5'/2 hrs. (10 fr. 5, 7 fr. 55, 4 fr. 15 c). 

Ghent, see p. 31. The train crosses the Schelde, and beyond 
Meirelbeke and Melle diverges to the S. from the Brussels line (R. 3). 
The first stations are unimportant. 

14 M. Sotteghem, where the railway crosses the Brussels and 
Courtrai line (p. 30). 

15 1/2 M. Erweteghem ; 18'/2 M. Lierde-Ste. Marie. 

22y 2 M. Grammont, Flem. Geeraardsbergen, an industrial place 
with 9200 inhab., on the slope of a hill, the junction of the Dender- 
leeuw - Ath - Jurbise line (p. 61). The Hotel-de-Ville contains an 
early-Flemish painting of Christ as the Judge of the earth, and the 
church of St.Barthelemy possesses two pictures by De Grayer. 

The train enters the province of Hainault. Stations Viane- 
Moerbeke, Gammerages, Herinnes. Near (32J/2 M.) stat. Enghien 
(p. 62) our line is crossed by the Brussels and Tournai railway 
(R. 11). From (37 M.) Rognon a branch diverges to Tubize (p. 157). 

4OV2 M. Braine-le-Comte (p. 157). The line to Charleroi and 



to Namur. QUATREBRAS. 20. Route. 161 

Namur now diverges from that to Mons (R. 19). Carriages are 
sometimes changed here. 

44^/2 M. Ecaussines possesses extensive quarries of blue lime- 
stone, which is cut in slabs and exported under the name of Flemish 
granite. Railways hence to Baume and Erquelinnes and to Lembecq 
(p. 157). Beyond Marche-les-Ecaussines and Familleureux the train 
crosses the Charleroi Canal , and near Manage enters a rich coal- 
district. 

50 M. Manage is the junction of our line with those to Mons, 
Pie'ton (p. 160), Ottignies, and Wavre. 

From Manage to Mons (15 M.) a branch-railway (in 1 hr. ; fares 1 fr. 
85, 1 fr. 40, 95 c), used chiefly for goods-traffic, intersects a valuable coal- 
field, called 'Ze Centre', the yield of which is brought into the market by 
means of an extensive network of railways. In connection with the coal- 
mines there is a rapidly increasing iron-industry. Stations La Louviere, 
Bois-du-Luc , Bracquegnies , all with extensive mines; then Havre", where 
the old chateau of that name rises to the left; Obourg, noted for its tobacco, 
and Nimy. The Maine, a rivulet from which the province derives its name 
(Hainault), is occasionally visible. Mons, see p. 158. 

The Manage and Wavre Railway (in iy 2 -2 hrs. ; fares 3 fr. 20, 2 fr. 
40, 1 fr. 60 c.) is the prolongation of this line to the N., but the trains 
do not always correspond. At (2'/2 M.) Seneffe a battle was fought in 1674 
between Prince Conde and William III. of Orange ; and the Austrians were 
defeated here by the French under Marceau and Olivier on 2nd July, 1794. 
— 5 M. Feluy-Arquennes. 

241/2 M. Nivelles-Nord, to the N. of Nivelles (p. 115); 25 M. Baulers, the 
junction of this line with that from Brussels to Luttre and Charleroi (p. 115). 

29 M. Genappe (HStel des Voyageurs), a village with 1680 inhab., is 
frequently mentioned in connection with the Battle of Waterloo (comp. 
p. 115). About 4 M. to the S. is situated ftuatrebras, which derives its 
name from the 'four arms' of the roads diverging hence to Charleroi, 
Nivelles, Brussels , and Namur. Here on 16th June , 1815 , a battle was 
fought between Ney's division and a part of the British army with its Ger- 
man and Belgian contingents. The French numbered about 17,000 men, 
the Allies 18,000; but of the latter 8000 only were British and German, 
and on the remaining 10,000 no reliance whatever could be placed. Practi- 
cally, therefore, the Allies were far outnumbered. At first, shortly after 
2 p.m., the success of the French, who were opposed by the Belgians 
only, was complete; but their progress was soon arrested by the British 
and German troops, and the battle raged with the utmost fury till dusk. 
Prodigies of valour were, as usual, performed by the 93rd Highlanders ; 
and most of the German troops (Hanoverians and Brunswickers) behaved 
with great bravery, although young and inexperienced. At one juncture 
the Duke of Wellington himself became involved, and only escaped by 
putting his horse to full gallop. About 4 o'clock the gallant Duke of 
Brunswick fell, while endeavouring to rally his troops. Towards the 
close of the battle the tide of success turned decidedly in favour of the 
Allies. Ney, to his great indignation, now learned that Erlon's corps, 
which had at first been ordered to support him , and would doubtless 
have ensured the victory to the French, had received fresh orders from 
Napoleon to move towards St. Amand to oppose the Prussians there. 
The brave marshal's discomfiture was complete, his troops were totally 
defeated, and under cover of the increasing darkness they retreated to 
their original position at Frasne. 

The village of Frasne, the headquarters of Ney on 16th June, lies 
»/< M. beyond Quatrebras, in the direction of Charleroi. The spirited 
pursuit of the French by the Prussians on the night after the Battle of 
Waterloo extended thus far, more than 6 M. from the battle-field. 

The ruined abbey of Villers (p. 178) lies 3 M. to the W. of Genappe. 

Baedeker's Belgium and Holland. 7th Edit. \\ 



162 Route 20. CHARLEROI. From Ghent 

32 M. Bousval; 3S l /-i M. Noirhat; 35>/ 2 M. Court St. Etienne (p. 178), 
where the train reaches the Charleroi and Louvain line. 

37 1 /* M. Ottignies. Thence to Wavre and Louvain, see p. 178. 

Beyond Manage are stations Godarville, Gouy-lez-Pieton, Pont- 
h-Celles, and (57 M.) Luttre (p. 115). The train traverses a more 
hilly district, describing numerous curves , and crossing the Char- 
leroi Canal several times. Beyond a deep cutting, a beautiful un- 
dulating and -wooded district is entered. Near (60 M.) Gosselies is 
the town of that name on an eminence (branch to Courcelles and 
Pie'ton, p. 160); 61 M. Boux; 63 M. Marchienne - au - Pont (to 
Mons, see p. 160); all of which places were the scene of sharp 
skirmishes between the Prussians and French on 15th June, 1815, 
the day before the Battle of Ligny (p. 178), a village which lies 
41/2 M. to the N. E. of Gosselies. 

The environs of Marchienne and Charleroi are remarkable for 
their picturesque scenery and industrial activity. Wooded hills, 
thriving villages, and well-cultivated fields are passed in rapid suc- 
cession, while the lofty chimneys of coal-mines, furnaces, iron- 
foundries, and glass-works are seen in every direction. There are no 
feweT than seventy different seams of coal in the vicinity of Char- 
leroi, some of which extend to a depth of 3000 to 4000 ft. The 
numerous barges on the canal give additional life to the scene. The 
line now reaches the Sambre , which it crosses repeatedly before 
arriving at Namur. 

66V2 M. Charleroi (*H6tel Dourin; Grand- Monarque), a town 
with 15,870 inhab., the central point of the Belgian iron industry, 
was founded by Charles II. of Spain in 1666 , in honour of whom 
the name (Charnoy) of the village which then occupied the site was 
changed to Charleroi. Under Louis XIV- it was fortified by Vauban. 
In 1794 it was besieged four times by the French , to whom it was 
ultimately surrendered on the eve of the Battle of Fleurus (p. 179), 
after the garrison had been reduced to the utmost extremities. On 
23rd May, 1794, the French were totally defeated here by the 
Austrian Gen. Kaunitz, who captured 25 guns and 1300 prisoners. 
The fortifications were reconstructed in 1816, but are now converted 
into promenades. Near the station is a prison in the Gothic style. 
The Musee ArcMologique, in the Boul. de l'Ouest, contains pre- 
historic , Roman , and Frankish antiquities found in this district, 
and also a mineralogical cabinet. 

Charleroi- ErqueUnnes - Paris, in G'A-S hrs., see Baedeker's Paris. 

Charleroi - Wavre - Louvain, see R. 25. 

Charleroi-Vireux (401/2 M.) in 2 hrs. (fares 5 fr. 50, 3 fr. 90, 2 fr. 
60c). From (12 M.) Berzie branch-lines diverge to Beaumont and Laneffe; 
from (14 M.) Walcourt two others diverge to Florenne and Philippeville 
and to Morialrni; from (30 M.) Mariembourg (with the chateau and park 
of M. A. Warveque) another leads to Chlmay, a town with 3000 inhab., 
where the park and chateau of the prince of that name are situated, and 
to Hastiere. 4OV2 M. Vireux, the French frontier-station, lies on the Meuse, 
above the fortress of Givet (p. 167). Beyond Vireux the line proceeds to 
Rheims and Paris. 



to Namur. NAMUR. 20. Route. 163 

Beyond Charferoi the Namur train crosses the Philippeville road, 
and passes the numerous metal -works of (69 M.) Couillet and 
(71 M.) Ch&telineau, the junction of the lines to Fleurus (p. 179), 
Jumet (6 M.), and Givet. Opposite Chatelineau lies the busy little 
town of Chdtelet, with 10,000 inhabitants. 

Chatelineau -Givet (34 M. ; in l 3 /4 hr.), a branch-line (fares 3 fr. 80, 
3 fr., 1 fr. 90 c.) , traversing a busy manufacturing and mining district, 
and connected by another branch with Walcourt (p. 162). Doische is the 
last Belgian, Givet (p. 167) the first French station. 

The mines and manufactories gradually disappear. The Sambre 
winds peacefully through beautiful grassy valleys, sometimes skirt- 
ing wooded hills. To the right of (75 Y2 M.) Tamines is situated 
the suppressed abbey of Ste. Marie d'Oignies, now an extensive mir- 
ror-manufactory. — [Branch-lines from Tamines to Fleurus (p. 179; 
5 1 / 2 M.), to Jemeppe-sur-Sambre and Gembloux (p. 167 ; 12 M.), and 
to Forres and Mettet (13 M.).] — To the right of stat. Floreffe, pic- 
turesquely situated on an eminence , rises a seminary for priests, 
formerly a Premonstratensian abbey (in the 'rococo' style). To the 
left farther on, are the abbey-buildings of Malonne, now a normal 
school. — 86'/ 2 M. Flawinnes. The valley of the Sambre here is 
thickly studded with ancient chateaux, modern villas, and manu- 
factories. 

90 M. Namur. — Hotels. "Hotel d'Harscamp, Marche-anx-Arbres 4, 
R. & L. 3, D. 3, B. IV2, A. 3/4 fr. ; Hot. de Hollande , Place de la 
Station 3, R., L., & A. 21/2, B. l>/ 4 , D. 3fr.; Hotel de Flandee, Cou- 
konne, Rochek de Canoale, all opposite the station. Good Restaurant at 
the station. 

Namur, Flem. Namen, the capital of the province, with 25,400 
inhab., lies at the confluence of the Sambre, which is crossed by se- 
veral stone bridges, and the Meuse. From the natural advantages 
of its position Namur has always been a point of strategic impor- 
tance, and it was fortified at an early period. The numerous sieges 
it has undergone (Louis XIV. in 1692, William III. in 1695) have 
left few of the older buildings, but its situation is very picturesque. 

On quitting the station , near which is a Statue of Leopold J. 
by Geefs, erected in 1869, we first incline to the left, and then turn 
to the right into the wide Rue de Fer, at the end of which the Rue 
St. Jacques diverges to the right and the Rue des Fosses to the left. 
In a line with the Rue de Fer runs the Rue de l'Ange, which we 
follow, turning to the right either at the first cross-street (Rue 
Haute Marcelle) or the second (Rue de la Croix), both of which lead 
to the Place St. Aubain, where the Cathedral is situated. 

The Cathedral (St. Aubain, or St. Alban), built in 1771-72 from 
the designs of Pizzoni, a Milanese architect, is a handsome Renais- 
sance edifice, with a dome and a fine interior. 

At the sides of the high-altar are statues of St. Peter and St. Paul in 
marble, by Delvaux , from whose chisel are also the figures of the four 
fathers of the church , Ambrose, Gregory, Jerome, and Augustine. The 
left transept contains the marble monument of a Bishop de Pisani (d. 1826), 
by Parmentier. At the back of the high-altar is a tombstone erected by 

11* 



164 Route 20. NAMUR. 

Alexander Farnese to his 'amatistimo avunculo' 1 Don John of Austria, the 
conqueror at Lepanto, who died in his camp near Bouge , 3 /4 M. to the 
N.E. of Namur, 20th Aug., 1578; his body was removed to the Escurial. 
The pulpit, of carved wood, is by Oeerts (1848). The treasury contains 
a golden crown of 1429, set with precious stones, and many other objects 
of value. 

The church of St. Loup , situated in the Rue du College, a 
continuation of the above-named Rue de la Croix, erected in 1621- 
53 in the style peculiar to the order of the Jesuits, is borne by twelve 
massive pillars of red marble. The choir is entirely covered with 
black marble, and the vaulted ceiling with sculptures. A large hole 
in the latter, made by a shell, is a reminiscence of the siege by 
Louis XIV. in 1692. 

The Rue de l'Ange ends in the Grande Place, in which stands 
the Hdtel-de-Ville, built in 1830. It contains the office of the Com- 
mandant, where permission may be obtained to visit the Citadel 
(see below). Farther to the E. are the large Hospice d'Harscamp 
and the church of JVotre Dame, the latter containing the monuments 
of two Counts of Namur. Near the Meuse is the Casino, a place of 
popular resort, erected in 1879. 

To the left of the bridge over the Sambre, to which the Rue du 
Pont leads direct from the H6tel-de-Ville, is the hall of the An- 
cienne Boucherie, now containing the *Museb Archbologiciue , an 
extensive and admirably-arranged collection of antiquities , chiefly 
of the Roman and Frankish periods. The objects were found in the 
Roman villa at Anthe'e, in the Frankish burial-ground at Turfooz, 
and in the Roman burial-ground at Flavion, where a large quantity 
of enamelled fibulae came to light. There are also several valuable 
objects both of an earlier and a later date. The museum is open to 
the public on Sundays, 10-1 ; to strangers daily on payment of a fee. 

The Citadel, on the right bank of the Sambre, between that 
river and the Meuse, is believed by many authorities to occupy the 
site of the camp of the Aduatici described by Caesar (De. Bell. Gall. 
ii. 29). It was fortified on modern principles by Coehorn (p. 210) 
in 1691, was restored in 1794, and has been frequently strength- 
ened since 1817. The summit commands a fine view of the valleys 
of the Sambre and Meuse. Admission, see above. 

An old stone bridge of nine arches , 470 ft. long, crosses from 
the quarter below the citadel to the suburb of Jambes (p. 165), on 
the right bank of the Meuse. There is here a small Zoological 
Garden (adm. 50 c. ; concerts in summer). 

The cutlery of Namur enjoys a high reputation, and is said to be 
not inferior to the English. 

On 20th June, 1815, the Liege and Brussels Gates of Namur were the 
scenes of hotly-contested engagements between the rear-guard of the French 
corps under Grouchy and the advancing Prussians. A monument in the 
Churchyard, about 1 M. beyond the Brussels Gate, was erected in memory 
of the fallen in 1857. 

Railway to Luxembourg and Treves, see R. 22 ; to Liege , see 
R. 29; to Tirlemont, see p. 172; to Dinant and Givet, see below. 



a Zon0Jox- 



La Meuse, 

de Dinant a Liege w^ 




165 



21. From Namur to Dinant and Givet. 



Railway to (17'/ 2 M.) Dinant in 1 hr. (fares 2 fr. 25, 1 fr. TO, 1 fr. 
10 c); to (31 M.) Givet in ly 2 hr. (fares 4, 3, 2 fr.). The railway affords 
but little view of the beautiful valley of the Meuse. The left bank of the 
river is recommended to the notice of pedestrians. The village-inns on 
the banks of the river are generally good, but are often full in summer. 

The valley of the Meuse above Namur is narrow , and enclosed 
by wooded hills and frowning cliffs. The banks are enlivened with 
picturesque villages and country-houses. Immediately after quitting 
the station, the train crosses the Meuse, remaining on the right bank 
until Dinant is nearly reached. 2 M. Jambes (p. 164); 5 M. Dave 
(see below); 9 M. Lustin ; 10'/ 2 M. Godinne ; 12y 2 M. Yvoir ; 
i7 l /2 M. Dinant (see below). 

The following villages on the banks of the Meuse are seen by the 
pedestrian only, or the traveller by boat : 1. La Plante, a long village, the 
usual limit of the walks of the townspeople of Namur; r. Dave, with 
an ancient chateau entirely restored, near which rises a huge and preci- 
pitous rock ; r. Taillefer, with iron-foundries ; r. Frene, with interesting 
rocks and grottoes; 1., opposite the latter, Profondeville, with marble- 
quarries ; 1. iron bridge connecting the village and station of Lustin (see 
above); 1. Riviere, with the chateau of M. Pierrepont; r. Godinne (in 
the neighbourhood of which, near the rock Frappe-Cul, is the cavern of 
Chauveau) ; 1. Rouillon, with the chateau of M. Demanet. 

The scenery between Rouillon and Dinant is remarkably picturesque. 
Above the village rises a precipitous tuffstone-rock, named La Roche aux 
Corneilles ('Roche aux Chauwes' in the patois of the district), from the 
flocks of jackdaws which generally hover round it. The rock is seen to 
the best advantage by the traveller descending the river. 

R. Yvoir, at the influx of the Bocq ; connected by means of a hand- 
some new bridge with Moulins, on the opposite bank, a suppressed Cister- 
cian Abbey converted into a foundry (1 hr. from which, in the valley of 
the Floye which opens here, is the ruined castle of "Montaigle, the finest 
relic of the kind in Belgium); 1. Arihie; r. Houx; r. Poilvache, with the 
ruins of a fortress on a lofty rock, destroyed by the French in 1554. 
Somewhat higher up are the ruins of the Tour de Monay. 

L. Bouvigne, one of the most venerable towns in the district, which was 
formerly engaged in constant feuds with Dinant, has now dwindled down 
to a mere village. The old ruined tower of Crevecoeur is a conspicuous 
object here. A romantic story attaches to it in connection with the siege 
of the town by the French in 1554. Three beautiful women are said to 
have entered the tower with their husbands , who formed part of the 
garrison , resolved to participate in the defence and to animate the de- 
fenders by their presence. The latter, however, after a heroic resistance, 
perished to a man , the three unhappy widows being the sole survivors. 
Determined not to fall into the hands of the enraged and brutal soldiery, 
they threw themselves from the summit of the tower in sight of the be- 
siegers, and were dashed to pieces on the rocks below. 

E. Dinant (*H6tel des Postes, pleasantly situated , R. 2-4, B. 
I1/4, D. 3, A. 3/ 4 , 'pens.' 8-10 fr. ; *Tite d'Or, 'pens.' 7i/ 2 fr. ; 
Hotel des Ardennes ; Hotel de I'Europe, Bellevue, 'pens.' 6-7, R. 
from 1^2 ft - -! Dr. William's hydropathic establishment), a town 
with 6400 inhab., is very picturesquely situated at the base of bar- 
ren limestone cliffs, the summit of which is crowned by a fortress. 
The river is spanned by an ancient bridge. 

In 1467 the inhabitants of Dinant, having roused the anger of 



166 Route 21. DINANT. 

Philippe te Ben, I>uke of Burgundy, by acts of insubordination, 
paid dearly for their temerity. The Duke, accompanied by his son 
Charles the Bold , who succeeded him a few years later , marched 
against the town, besieged and took it, and treated the townspeople 
with great cruelty. He is said to have caused 800 of them to be 
drowned in the Meuse before his own eyes. The unfortunate town 
was pillaged and burned , and the walls demolished. In 1554 
a similar fate overtook it, when it was taken by storm by the French 
under the Due de Nevers, and plundered. In 1675 the town was 
again taken by the French. The 'dinanderies' , or chased copper 
and brass wares of Dinant were formerly in high repute, but are 
now successfully imitated at Brussels. The 'couques de Dinant' 
are cakes not unlike gingerbread. 

The church of Notre Dame, a handsome edifice of the 13th cent, 
in the Gothic style, but with a few remaining traces of the transition 
period, has been recently restored. The portal is worthy of notice. 
The tower is upwards of 200 ft. in height. At the back of the 
church are steps in the rock, 408 in number, leading to the citadel, 
which was sold in 1879 for 7 million francs. Fine, but limited view 
from the top (1 fr.). A good view is also obtained from the suburb 
of St. Medard on the left bank. 

Dinant was the birthplace of Ant. Jos. Wiertz, the painter 
(1806-65; comp. p. 96), some of whose works are in the possession 
of families in the neighbourhood. 

Carriage to Freyr (see below) with one horse 5, two horses 8 fr. ; to 
Moniaigle (p. 165), 10 or 15 fr. — Carriage to Han (p. 168) in 4 hrs., 18-25 fr. 
The road leads by Celle, and passes Ardenne and Oiergnon, both belonging 
to the private domains of the King of Belgium. The picturesque lower 
part of the valley of the Lesse begins at Ardenne. 

From Dinant to Givet the line follows the course of the Meuse. 
22^2 M. Waulsort. From (26 M.) Hastiere (*Bellevue, unpretend- 
ing) a branch -line diverges to Mariembourg (p. 162) and Anor. 
28V2 M. Heer-Agimont (Belgian douane). 

Pedestrians may walk through the suburb of Rivage , a succession of 
houses and villas picturesquely situated , and then , 1 M. above Dinant, 
pass through a kind of natural gateway, formed by detached masses of rock 
on the left and a bold and isolated pinnacle of rock on the right, called 
the Roche a Bayard (the name of the horse of the 'Quatre Fils d'Aymon'). 
In the vicinity are quarries of black marble, near which is Anseremme 
(Beausijour, 'pens.' 6-7 fr.), a pretty village with overhanging cliffs. (The 
traveller who desires to walk through the whole of the picturesque part 
of the valley should cross the river here by boat and then follow the left 
bank. Road bad at places.) The Lesse fall3 into the Meuse at Anseremme. 
Beyond this point the road ascends. 

The finest point on the road is the Chateau of Freyr, the ancestral 
seat of the Beaufort-Spontin family, with well-kept gardens, situated at 
the foot of wooded hills on the left bank of the river. Immediately oppo- 
site to it rise precipitous rocks of grotesque shapes , occasionally over- 
hanging the river. The banks are picturesquely flanked by lofty cliffs 
from this point to Falmignoul. [About 6 M. to the S. of Falmignoul lies 
Beauraing (Hdtel du Centre), with the magnificent old chateau of the 
Due d'Ossuna, recently restored ; thence to Givet 5'/z M., the French fron- 
tier lying a little more than halfway.] The road next leads by Waulsort 



SEDAN, 21. Route. 167 

(].), with a chateau and beautiful gardens, flasliere (L , see above), and 
Hermeton (1.)- On the right bank are Blaimont, and then Heer, where red 
marble is quarried. 

A line view of Givet with its fortifications and the windings of the 
river is obtained from the summit of a hill rising above the road as the 
town is approached. 7 ! /2 M. Givet, see below. 

31 M. Givet (*Mont d'Haur, R. 2, D. 31/2 fr. ; Ancre ; The 
d'Or), with 5100 inhab., situated on the Meuse , which is crossed 
by a bridge here, is the first French town on the line (French 
custom-house), and consists of Oivet-St. Hilaire on the left bank, at 
the base of a hill on which Charlemont lies, and Oivet-Notre-Dnme 
on the Tight bank. Both parts of the town are strongly fortified, 
and almost entirely surrounded by moats. The composer Mehul (d. 
1818) was born here , and a monument has been erected to his 
memory. The chateau of Beauraing, see p. 166. 

Givet is connected with Oharleroi by two railways, the Vireux- 
Charleroi (p. 162), and the Doische - Chatelineau line (p. 163); 
by the former the journey occupies 4^4, hy the latteT 2l/ 4 hrs. 

Railway from Givet in 2>/2 hrs. to Sedan (Hotel de la Croix cTOr; 
Hdtel de V Europe), a small town and fortress , prettily situated, where a 
memorable battle took place between the Germans and French on 1st 
Sept. , 1870, terminating in the total defeat of the latter and the capture 
of the emperor and 83,000 men (including 1 marshal, 39 generals, 230 
staff-officers, and 3000 other officers). The French army numbered 124,000 
men, the German 240,000, but part of the latter only was actually engaged. 
Carriages and guides to the battle-field may be obtained at the hotel. 



22. From Brussels to Luxembourg and Treves, 

via Namur. 

Rochefort. Han-sur-Lesse. 

Railway to Luxembourg (136 M.) in 61/2 hrs. (fares 16 fr. 30, 12 fr. 10 c, 
8fr.); from Luxembourg to Treves (33 M.) in iy 4 hr. (fares 4 marks 20, 
2 m. 90, 1 m. 90 pf.). 

The Station du Luxembourg is in the Quartier Leopold (see 
Plan of Brussels, p. 62). 1 M. Etterbeek, a suburb of Brussels. 
The next stations, Watermael , Boitsfort, and Groenendael, with 
their pleasant woods and picturesque villas, are favourite resorts of 
the citizens of Brussels for picnics and excursions. From the next 
station, La Hulpe, a glimpse is obtained to the right of the Mound 
of the Lion (p. Ill) on the distant field of Waterloo. On the left, 
near Rixensart, is the chateau of Count Merode. 

15 M. Ottignies is the point of intersection of the Louvain- 
Charleroi (R. 25) and Louvain - Manage - Mons (p. 161) lines. — 
I7Y2M. Mont St. Quibert, with pretty environs. On the right is the 
chateau of Birbaix with fine gardens. At Chastre the Province of Bra- 
bant is quitted, and that of Namur entered. — 24 M. Gembloux, 
junction for the lines to Fleurus and Ramillies-Landen (p. 173) 
and to Jemeppe-sur-Sambre (p. 163). An old abbey here contains 
the royal agricultural institution. 28!/ 2 M. St. Denis-Bovesse ; 31 M. 



168 Route 22. MARCHE. From Brussels 

Rhisne. The train passes through several cuttings in the blue lime- 
stone rocks, and affords a strikingly picturesque view of — 

34!/2 M. Namur (see p. 163). The line now intersects the 
Forest of Ardennes, a wild, mountainous district, affording many 
picturesque views. Immediately after quitting Namur the train 
crosses theMeuse and commands another remarkably fine panorama 
of the town and its citadel. 40 M. Naninne ; 4472 M. Courriire ; 
451/2 M. Assesse ; 48 1/2 M. Natoye. — 521/2 M. Ciney (Grand H6tel), 
formerly the capital of the Condroz (Condrusi of the Romans), as 
the district between the Meuse and Ourthe was once called. (Route 
to Huy and Landen, see p. 196.) 58 M. Leignon; bS 1 /^ Haversin. 

From (65 M.) Aye an omnibus runs (in 1/2 hr. ; ^ fr.) to 
Marche (Cloche d' Or) , the chief town (2900 inhab.) of the 
Famine , a productive agricultural district. Marche was formerly 
a fortress. Lafayette was taken prisoner by the Austrians here in 
1792. The village of Waha, l l / 2 M. to the S., contains a small 
and simple Romanesque church, which was consecrated in 1051. 

661/2 M. Marloie, where the direct line to Liege (Ligne de 
V Ourthe) diverges (p. 191). The line now descends considerably, 
and affords a beautiful view of the valley of the Wamme to the left. 

70 M. Jemelle, with numerous marble and limestone quarries 
and lime -kilns, lies at the confluence of the Wamme with the 
Lomme, a tributary of the Lesse. — Continuation of the Railway, 
see next page. 

The new railway from Jemelle through the valley of the Lomme 
to Beauraing is now open as far as (21/2 M.) Rochefort (fares 40, 
30, 20 c). 

Rochefort (*H6tel Byron, R. and A. 2fr., 'dejeuner a la four- 
chette' 2 fr. ; *H6tel de VEtoile, D. 2i/ 2 fr.), with 2400 inhab., and 
once the capital of the County of Ardennes, occupies an elevated 
site on the Lomme, commanded by the ruins of an old castle (pri- 
vate property, no admission). The environs are remarkable for a 
number of curious caverns in tho limestone rock, many of which 
have been made accessible. 

The entrance to the -Orotte de Rochefort, one of the finest and most 
easily visited , is at the upper end of the town. It is the property of a 
M. Collignon, who discovered it, and who keeps the paths in the interior 
in good condition (admission 5 fr., for parties of 20 or upwards 2'/2 fr. 
each ; fee of 1 fr. to guide, extra). A rapid visit to it takes 1V4-2 hours. 
The stalactites are purer and even more varied than those in the grotto 
of Han, though the latter is far more imposing. The 'Salle des Merveilles' 
and 'Salle du Sabbat', the finest points, are illuminated with magnesium 
light; the height of the latter (said to be 300 ft.) is revealed by means 
of a lighted balloon. 

In summer an omnibus plies regularly from Rochefort to the 
Grotto of Han, a visit to which should on no account be omitted (re- 
turn-fare 2fr.). The village of Han-sur-lesse (Hdtel de Bellevue) 
lies 31/2 M. from Rochefort, on the N. side of a range of hills, 



to Luxembourg. ST. HUBERT. 22. Route. 169 

through which the Lesse forces its way by the so-called Trou de 
Han or de Belveaux. The road to Han diverges, at the Hotel By- 
ron in Rochefort, to the right from the high-road (which continues 
straight on to St. Hubert ; see below), and cannot be mistaken. [On 
this side of the 5th kilometre-stone stands a finger-post indicating 
the road to Hamerenne and Rochefort, which pedestrians may take 
on their way back.] 

The entrance to the *Trou de Han lies about 172 M. from 
Han, on the other side of the above-mentioned range of hills; the 
omnibus from Rochefort drives direct to the cavern without touch- 
ing at Han. The pedestrian should, however , secure the services 
of a guide at the hotel in Han (one of the brothers Lanoy). — Ad- 
mission for a single visitor 7 fr. ; two or more, 5 fr. each ; 2 fr. 
more is exacted for awakening the echoes by a pistol-shot, for 1-4 
pers., and 50 c. for each additional person ; fee to the guide extra. 

The Trou de Han is nearly 1 M. in length and consists of a series of 
chambers , opening into each other, and varying in height. The nume- 
rous stalactite - formations have been fancifully named in accordance 
with their forms, Trdne de Pluton, Boudoir de Proserpine, Galerie de la 
Grenouille, etc. The most imposing chamber is the 'Salle du D6me, which 
is 500 ft. long, 460 ft. wide, and 180 ft. high. A visit to the cavern is ex- 
tremely interesting, and occupies 2-4 hrs. Visitors emerge at the other 
end in a boat. August, September, and October are the best months 
for inspecting the cavern; in spring the swollen state of the river 
often renders access impossible. The cave has been visited by tourists 
since 1814. The stalactites have unfortunately been sadly blackened by 
smoky torches, but the grotto is now lighted with naphtha and magne- 
sium. — Scarcely 1/2 M. farther is the Perte de la Lesse, also well worth 
a visit, where the river dashes into a subterranean abyss. 

The next station of the new railway is Eprave, 2^2 M. beyond 
Rochefort, at the confluence of the Lomme and the Lesse, with 
another frequently-visited grotto. Valentin Guerit, the innkeeper 
and guide, will be found obliging and well-informed (fee 1 i j^-1 fr.). 



71i/ 2 M. Forrieres ; 75 M. Grupont. The train follows the sinuos- 
ities of the Lomme. To the left, on a rocky buttress, rises the strik- 
ingly-picturesque Chateau Mirwart, with its four towers. From 
(84 M.) Poix an omnibus runs (in 1 hr. ; 75 c.) to St. Hubert 
(Hdtel du Luxembourg), a town with 2500 inhab. , celebrated for 
the chapel containing the relics of the saint who has given his name 
to the place. The abbey has been converted into a Reformatory for 
young criminals. The Church, in the Flamboyant style, with dou- 
ble aisles and interesting crypt, dates from the 16th cent, (facade 
and towers erected in 1700). A chapel on the left near the choir 
contains a *Sarcophagus adorned with basreliefs by W. Geefs. 

St. Hubekt, the tutelary saint of sportsmen, was once a profligate and 
impious prince , who did not scruple to indulge in the pleasures of the 
chase even on the solemn fast -days appointed by the Church. While 
thus irreverently engaged on the holy fast of Good Friday , he suddenly 
beheld the miraculous apparition of a stag with a cross growing out of 
its forehead between its antlers. Thus warned by Heaven of the danger 
of adhering to his sinful courses, he at once desisted from the hunt, vo- 



170 Route 22. ARLON. From Brussels 

luntarily relinquished all the honours and advantages of his noble rank, 
and determined thenceforth to devote himself to a life of piety and self- 
abnegation. He accordingly presented the whole of his fortune to the 
Church, became a monk, and founded the abbey and church which are 
still called by his name. The holy man is said to have enjoyed miracu- 
lous powers during his life-time, and long after his death numerous mir- 
acles were wrought by means of his relics. 

85 M. Hatrival. 90'/2 M. Libramont, on the watershed between 
the Lesse and the Semois, is the station for Recogne, a village to 
the right, on the road to Bouillon (see below) and Sedan, the 
route by which Napoleon III., accompanied by French and Prussian 
officers and a Belgian escort, proceeded to LibTamont on 4th Sept. , 
1870, to take the train for Germany. 

From Libkamont io Limerle, 32 M., branch-railway in IV2 hr. (fares 
3 fr. 95, 2 fr. 95 c, 2 fr.). Stations: Bernimont, Wideumont-Bercheux, 
Morhet, Sibret. — 17 M. Bastogne (Collin), an old town of 2000 inhab.; 
the church, dating from the 15th cent., contains ancient mural paintings 
and a figure of St. Christopher executed in 1520. Diligence to (14 M.) 
Wiltz (p. 204), and thence to (7 M.) Kautenbach (p. 204). This excursion 
is also suitable for the pedestrian. — The other stations are unimportant. 

Another branch-line runs from Libramont to (JVs M.) Bertrix (seebelow). 

96 M. Longlier, the station for Neufchdteau (Hotel des Postes), 
a small town of 2000 inhab., once fortified, which lies ^M. to 
the right; 101 M. Lavaux ; 103 M. Mellier. — 106 M. Marbehan 
(*Cornet's Inn), with a new church. A branch-line diverges here to 
Poncelle, Croix-Rouge, Ethe, and (15^2 M.) Virton (see below). 

HO1/2 M. Habay-la-Neuve ; 113y 2 M. Fouches. 

1191/2 M. Arlon, Flem. Arel (*H6tel du Nord; *H6tel de 
V Europe), a prosperous little town with 7200 inhab., situated in a 
well-cultivated plain , 1330 ft. above the sea-level, is the capital 
of the Belgian province of Luxembourg. It was the Orolaunum 
View of the Antoninian itinerary, and was once fortified. Fine view 
from the church. The Hotel du Gouvernement Provincial contains 
an unarranged collection of Roman antiquities found in the neigh- 
bourhood, including some interesting stone-carvings. 

Fkom Arlon to Longwy (for Longuyon and Nancy), 14 M., railway 
in 3 /t hr. (fares 1 fr. 75, 1 fr. 35 , 90 c). Intermediate stations : Autel, 
Messancy, Athus (see below), and Mont St. Martin. Longwy is the French 
frontier-station and seat of the custom-house. 

From Arlon to Gedinne , 70 M. , railway in 3'/2 hrs. (fares 8 fr. 
55, 6 fr. 40, 4 fr. 30 0.). — As far as (10 M.) Athus the line is the same 
as that to Longwy. It then turns to the W. 14 M. Halanzy; 19 M. 
Signeulx; 21 M. Euette. 

25 M. Virton ("Cheval Blanc; Croix cTOr), the junction of a line to 
Marbehan (see above), is a prettily-situated little town with 2500 inhab., 
whose chief occupation is farming and cattle-breeding. 

28'/2 M. Meix-devant-Virton; 33 M. Belle-Fontaine-lez-Etalle ; 37 M. Izel. 

40 M. Florenville ("Poste ; Hdtel du Commerce), a small town near the 
French frontier, from which many pleasant excursions may be made into 
the forest of Ardennes. The winding valley of the Semois, the brook on 
which Florenville lies, is very picturesque. About 472 H. to the S. of 
Florenville lie the ruins of the abbey of Orval, founded in 1124. The 
church was rebuilt in the 16-17th centuries. Adjacent is a tolerable inn. 

47. M Straimont; 49 M. St. Midard; 53 M. Bertrix (branch to Libramont, 
see above). — 60 M. Paliseul, on the road to Sedan (p. 167). About halfway 
lies Bouillon, where Napoleon III. spent the night of 3rd-4th Sept. 1870 




1 Abattoir 

2 MheneeJftblioth.Jfitse'es B.8. 

3 Sains etlavoirs B.2. 

4 Chambre des deputes B.3. 

5 Doiuutes B.2. 

6 .Ecole de musiqiui A.2. 

7 Seminaire B.3. 

8 .ffyfoe tfAlphonse B.2. 

9 Cathedral? B.3. 
ID StQmeffonde B.1.2. 
II .StJpa/i c.a 



| 12 Safec SttfaOiia/ 

13 SfMcfrel 

1* (liapStQuirui 

15 Temple Israelite 

16 Temple protectant 

17 Eve'che 

18 Bopital ctvQ.. 
IS ffijfe/ <fo Gauvernement 

20 2T<fc fa maisan Eoyale B.2.3. i 

21 J£<fc vUle^tuseePeseatore B.3. 

22 Maisan curiaje B.3. I 



B. 0. 1. 1 23 3bmtm.de la prmcesse A.2 
C.2. [ 24 Patois de Jttsfc- B.C.2 

C.4. i 25 Pastes et Telearaphes A.B.3. 
B.3. 26 Prisons et drptlemendicite C.3 
B.3. | 27 Theatre B.2 

B.2. 
C.2. 
B.3. 



Oeo graph Jbistalt -v 



Wagner L"DebBsJjsip*i£ 



to Treves. LUXEMBOURG. 22. Route. 171 

in the Hotel de la Toste. To the S. of Bouillon lie Les Ammerois, a 
chateau and park of the Count of Flanders. — 64 M. Oraide-Bievre ; 70 M. 
Gedinne. 

123 M. Autel; 1251/2 M. Sterpenich; 126 M. Bettingen (Luxem- 
bourg douane ; luggage, however, not examined before arrival at 
Luxembourg), the junction for branch. -lines to Steinfort (to the 
N.) and to Clemency, Potage, and Esch sur l'Alzette (to the S.). 
128 M. Capellen; 130 M. Mamer ; 132!/ 2 M. Bertringen. 

136 M. Luxembourg, formerly Liitzelburg (Hotel de V Europe, 
well spoken of ; Hotel de Luxembourg ; Hotel de Cologne ; Hdtel des 
Ardennes ; *Faber , s Restaurant ; Cafes Italien, Metzler, de la Place ; 
good photographs at Bruck's book-shop), formerly a fortress of the 
German Confederation, a town with 16,700 inhab., is the capital of 
the grand-duchy of Luxemburg, which is united to Holland by a 
personal union. The situation of the town is peculiar and pictur- 
esque. The Oberstadt, or upper part, is perched upon a rocky table- 
land, which is bounded on three sides by abrupt precipices, 200 ft. 
in height. At the foot of these flow the Petrusbach and the Alzette, 
which are bounded by equally-precipitous rocks on the opposite 
bank. In this narrow ravine lies the busy Vnterstadt or lower 
portion of the town, consisting of Pfaffenthal, the S., Clausen, the 
E., and Grund, the S. suburb, separated by a rocky ridge in the 
valley of the Alzette. The view of the town with its variety of 
mountain and valley, gardens and rocks, military edifices and 
groups of trees, obtained from the Treves road, is singularly strik- 
ing, and is enhanced by the huge viaducts of the railway and the 
road to the station. 

The fortifications, which were partly hewn out of the solid rock, 
were condemned to demolition by the Treaty of London in 1867, 
and the glacis has now been converted into a public park, command- 
ing an admirable view. 

The construction of the works gradually progressed during 500 years 
under various possessors, — Henry IV., Count of Luxembourg, afterwards 
German Emp. as Henry VII. (d. 1312), his son John, the blind king of 
Bohemia (killed at Crecy, 1346) , the Burgundians , the Spaniards, the 
French (whose celebrated engineer Vauban constructed a great part of 
the fortress), the Austrians, the French again, and finally the German 
Confederation, by whom it was evacuated in 1866. 

Apart from its curious situation and pretty environs, Luxembourg 
offers little to detain the traveller. The old Hotel-de- Ville contains 
an interesting collection of Roman glass, bronzes, and other anti- 
quities, found chiefly in the Roman camp at Dalheim ; also Frank- 
ish and later antiquities. — A small collection of pictures was 
bequeathed to the town in 1855 by M. J. P. Pescatore, and is always 
open (PI. 21 ; fee). — Of the magnificent castle of the Spanish 
Governor Prince Mansfeld (1545-1604), in the suburb of Clausen 
(PI. D, 1, 2), on the right bank of the Alzette (to the N.W.), no 
vestige is left, except a small portion of the wall and two gateways, 
into which several interesting Roman sculptures are built. 



172 Route 22. TRfeVES. 

From Luxembourg to Sfc>a, see R. 31; to Metz, by Thionville, see Bae- 
deker's Rhine. 

At (1431/2 M.) Oetringen the line enters the pretty valley of the 
Sire. At the foot of a wooded hill to the left lies the chateau of 
Villers, with its park, the property of the family of that name. On 
the right Schuttringen, with a chateau. 149 M. Roodt. The line 
now runs on the right hank of the Sire. 153 M. Wecker. The train 
crosses the Sire four times, and at (157 M.) Mertert enters the valley 
of the Moselle. Beyond (159 M.) Wasserbillig, at the confluence of 
the Saur and Moselle, the train enters Prussia. 160'/2 M. Igel, where 
the famous *Column of Igel , one of the finest Roman monuments 
on this side of the Alps, 75 ft. in height, is visible from the train. 
At (I66Y2 M.) Karthaus the train crosses the Moselle. 

169 M. Treves (* Hotel de Treves ; Maison Rouge ; *Luxemburger 
Hof, *Stadt Venedig, unpretending ; Post), charmingly situated on 
the Moselle, and interesting on account of its Roman and other an- 
tiquities, see Baedeker's Rhine. 

23. From Brussels to Liege by Louvain. 

62 M. Railway in 2-3'A hrs. (fares 7 fr. 50, 5 fr. 65, 3 fr. 75 c; 
express 9 fr. 40, 7 fr. 5, 4 fr. 70 c). 

The train starts from the Station du Nord, and traverses an 
agricultural and partly-wooded district. At (2 M.) Schaerbeek 
the Malines line diverges; 5 M. Dieghem, with paper-mills; 6 M. 
Saventhem, the parish-church of which contains a good picture by 
Van Dyck, representing St. Martin dividing his cloak, a gift of the 
master himself ; 9*/2 M. Cortenberg ; 13 M. Velthem; 15 M. Herent. 

18 M. Louvain, see R. 24. 

Bkanch-line hence to the N. to Rotselaer and (10 M.) Aersehot, a station 
on the Antwerp and Hasselt line (p. 155), and thence to Herenthals on the 
Turnhout and Tilburg line (p. -120). 

From Louvain to Charleroi, see R. 25. 

From Louvain to Malines, see p. 120. 

Beyond Louvain the Norhertinian ahhey of Pare , founded in 
1131, is seen on the right. 25 M. Vertryek. 

29'/2 M. Tirlemont, Flem. Thienen (Hotel du Nouveau Monde, 
near the station ; Hotel de Flandre , in the market-place), a clean 
and well-huilt, but dull town with 13,700 inhah. , was once like 
Louvain occupied by a much larger and wealthier population. The 
walls, which are nearly 6 M. in circumference, now enclose a large 
extent of arable land. In the spacious market-place is situated the 
church of Notre Dame du Lac, founded in 1298, enlarged in the 
15th cent., but not yet completed. The adjacent H6tel-de-Ville 
has been recently restored. The Church of St. Germain , situated 
on an eminence, probably dates from the 12th cent. ; high-altar- 
piece a Pieta, by Wappers. The celebrated Jesuit Bollandus 
(d. 1655) was a native of Tirlemont. He was the first compiler of 
the Acta Sanctorum , and his successors who continued the work 
styled themselves Bollandists. 



LANDEN. 23. Route. 173 

From Tirlemont to Diest (p. 155), 19 M., branch-railway in 50min. 
(fares 2 fr. 35, 1 fr. 80, 1 fr. 20 c). Intermediate stations: Neer - Linter, 
Oeet-Betz, Haelen. 

Feom Tiklemont to St. Tkond and Tongeren , 27 M. , railway in 
21/4 hrs. (fares 3fr. 35, 2 f r. 50, lfr. 70 c). The first station is Neer-Linter 
(see above). — 9V2 M. Leau, Flem. Zout-Leeuw (Restaurant of Line de 
Waters), formerly a fortress, with a handsome late-Gothic Town-hall (16th 
cent.) and the Gothic church of "St. Leonhard (13th and 14th cent.). The 
latter contains carved altars with early-Flemish paintings, and a magni- 
ficent tabernacle sculptured in stone, 100 ft. high, one of the finest works 
of the Belgian Renaissance, executed in 1554 by Cornells de Vriendt, archi- 
tect of the Antwerp H6tel-de-Ville, by order of Martin de Wilre, Seigneur 
of Oplinden, who is buried beside it. — 12 l /2 M. St. Trond (see below), 
the junction for the Landen-Hasselt line. — 16 M. Ordange ; 20'/2 M. Looz; 
24 M. Pirange. — 27 M. Tongeren, see p. 294. 

From Tirlemont to Namur, 27>/2 M., railway in l 3 / 4 hr. (fares 3 fr. 35, 
2 fr. 50, 1 fr. 70 c). Stations unimportant. Ramillies is the junction of the 
Landen and Gembloux line (see below). Namur, see p. 163. 

Beyond (33 M. ) Esemael the line intersects the plain of Neer- 
winden (the village lies to the left), the scene of two great battles. 
In the first of these, on 29th July, 1693, the French under Marshal 
Luxembourg defeated the Allies under William III. of England. 
In the second the French under Dumouriez and Louis Philippe 
(then ' General Egalite 1 , afterwards king of France) were defeated 
by the Austrians under the Prince of Cobourg (great -uncle of the 
late king Leopold), and driven out of Belgium. 

38 M. Landen , the junction of several lines , is historically 
interesting as the birth-place of Pepin, the majordomo of the royal 
domains of the Austrasian monarch Dagobert I. (628-38). He died 
here about the year 640, and was buried at the foot of a hill which 
still bears his name. His remains were afterwards removed to Ni- 
velles (p. 115), where his consort Ida (d. 659) founded a convent. 
His fifth lineal descendant was Charlemagne, who ascended the 
throne of the vast Franconian empire 128 years later. 

From Landen to Hasselt, branch-line in l x /4 hr. (fares 2 fr. 20, 1 fr. 70, 
1 fr. 10 c). This route presents few attractions. 6 M. St. Trond, or 
St. Truyen (Hdtel du Commerce), the most important station, with 11,500 
inhab., possesses several old churches (Notre Dame, Gothic, restored; 
St. Martin, Romanesque); it is the junction for the Tirlemont -Tongeren 
line (see above). 17^2 M. Hasselt, see p. 156. 

From Landen to Gembloux (Fleurus and Charleroi), 23 M., railway in 
1 hr. (fares 2 fr. 80, 2 fr. 10, 1 fr. 40 c). Stations (12 M.) Ramillies (see 
above), Qemoloux (p. 167), Fleurus, and Charleroi (see p. 162). 

Landen is also the junction for a line coming from Ciney, which 
intersects the Namur-Liege line at Hup (see p. 195). 

Next stations Oingelom, Rosoux, and Waremme, beyond which 
the line crosses an ancient and well-preserved Roman road, called 
by the country-people Route de Brunhilde , which extended from 
Bavay (Bavacum Nerviorum) , near Mons , to Tongres , 9 M. to the 
N.E. of "Waremme. The latter was the capital of the ancient pro- 
vince of Hesbaye , the natives of which were once famed for their 
strength and bravery, as the old proverb, 'Qui passe dans le Hes- 
bain est combattu Vendemairt, suggests. Beyond (53 M.) Fexhe 
the land of the Brabanters, a somewhat phlegmatic race of Germa- 



174 Route 24. LOUVAIN. Hotels. 

nic origin, is quitted, and that of the active and enterprising Celtic 
"Walloons entered. A smiling and highly-cultivated district is ex- 
changed for a scene of industrial enterprise. Numerous coal-mines, 
foundries, and manufactories are passed in the vicinity of (58 M.) 
Ana, which lies 490 ft. higher than Liege. (Branch-line to Ton- 
grea, p. 294.) 6OI/2 M. Haut-Pre. 

The line now descends rapidly (1 : 30) , affording a line view of 
the populous city of Liege and the beautiful and populous valley 
of the Meuse. A large brick building on the hill to the left is a 
military hospital. 

62 M. Liege, see p. 180. 

24. Louvain. 

Hotels. Hotel de SdSde (PI. a), Place du People; Hotel de la Cour 
de Mons, Rue de Savoie; Hotel du Nokd, Hotel du Nouveau Monde, 
both at the station, unpretending. — Cafi Mathieu, Rue de la Station, 
opposite the theatre. The beer of Louvain is a sickly beverage, but Bava- 
rian beer may also generally be obtained. — Cabs, or Vigilantes, 1 fr. per 
drive. — Tramway from the station to the H6tel-de-Ville, and the Porte 
de Bruxelles. 

Attractions : Hotel-de-Ville , exterior (p. 175) ; St. Pierre, under the 
guidance of the sacristan (p. 175); Halles, exterior (p. 177); choir-stalls 
at St. Gertrude's (p. 177). 

Louvain, Flem. Leuven or Loven, on the Byle, which flows 
through part of the town and is connected by a canal with the Rupel 
(p. 120), is a dull place with 38,100 inhabitants. The greater part 
of the space enclosed by the walls built in the 14th cent, is now 
used as arable land. The ramparts surrounding the walls have been 
converted into promenades, nearly 5 M. in circuit. 

The name of the town is derived from Loo, signifying a wooded 
height, and Veen, a marsh, words which are also combined in 
Venlo. In the 14th cent., when Louvain was the capital of the 
Duchy of Brabant, and residence of the princes, it numbered 
44,000 inhab., most of whom were engaged in the cloth-trade, and 
the town contained no fewer than 2000 manufactories. Here, as 
in other Flemish towns, the weavers were a very turbulent class, 
and always manifested great jealousy of the influence of the nobles 
in their civic administration. During an insurrection in 1378, 
thirteen magistrates of noble family were thrown from the window 
of the H6tel-de-Ville, and received by the populace below on the 
points of their spears ; but Duke Wenceslaus besieged and took 
the city, and compelled the citizens to crave his pardon with every 
token of abject humiliation. The power of the nobles soon regained 
its ascendancy, and their tyrannical sway caused thousands of the 
industrious citizens to emigrate to Holland and England whither 
they transplanted their handicraft. From that period may be dated 
the decay of Louvain. 

The large new railway-station was completed in 1879. In front 
of it stands a monument to Sylvaan van de Weyer(d. 1874), a native 



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mtel-de-Ville. LOUVAIN. 24. Route. 175 

of Louvain, who was one of the most ardent promoters of the revo- 
lution of 1830, and became the ambassador of the provisional 
government at the London Conference. The statue is by K. Oeefs. 

The Rue de la Station , on the right side of which is the 
Theatre, built by Lavergne in 1864-67, leads straight to the Place 
de l'Hotel-de-Ville (Grande Place; PI. D, E, 3). 

The **H6tel-de-Ville (PL 20), a very rich and beautiful example 
of late-Gothic architecture , resembling the town-halls of Bruges, 
Ghent (in the older part), Mons, and Oudenaerde, but surpassing 
them in elegance and harmony of design, was erected in 1448-63 
by Matthew de Layens. The building consists of three stories, 
each of which has ten pointed windows in the principal facade, and 
is covered with a lofty roof surrounded with an open balustrade. 
At the four corners and from the centre of the gables spring six 
slender octagonal turrets , terminating in open spires. The three 
different facades are lavishly enriched with sculptures. The statues 
on the lowest story represent celebrated citizens of Louvain, those 
on the second story the various grades of the mediaeval burghers, 
and those on the uppermost the sovereigns of the land. The pro- 
minent corbels which support the statues are embellished with 
almost detached reliefs, representing scenes from Old and New 
Testament history, in some cases with mediaeval coarseness. These 
sculptures had suffered greatly from exposure to the weather, and 
were carefully restored in 1842 by Ooyers. 

The Interior is uninteresting. Most of the apartments are fitted up 
in a modern style, and adorned with pictures by Vaenius , De Grayer, 
Mierevelt, etc. The Salle Gothique is being adorned with frescoes by 
Hennebicq, consisting of scenes from the history of Louvain and portraits 
of eminent citizens. — On the second floor is a small museum contain- 
ing an Ascension by Mich. Coxie, specimens of De Grayer and Mierevelt, 
and a number of other ancient and modern pictures, including several 
copies. Here also are preserved those parts of the original sculptures of 
the facade which could not be made use of in the restoration ; a stone 
model by Josse Metsys of the projected towers of St. Pierre (1525) ; some 
local antiquities, etc. Catalogue 25 c. 

^ The Gothic Church of St. Pierre (PI. 16 ; E, 2, 3), opposite the 
H6tel-de-Ville, a noble cruciform structure flanked with chapels, 
was erected in 1425-97 on the site of an earlier building. The 
unfinished "W. tower does not rise beyond the height of the roof. 

The Interior (sacristan, Rue de Malines 41, 1 fr. ; more for a 
party) is 101 yds. long and 29V2yds. broad. The choir is separated 
from the nave by an elaborate Jube, or Rood Loft, in the Flam- 
boyant style, executed in 1490, consisting of three arches adorned 
with statuettes, and surmounted by a lofty cross. The twelve- 
branched Candelabrum was executed by John Massys. 

Nave. Vestibule inside the principal portal finely carved in 
wood, 16th century. 

1st Chapel on the N. side : late-Gothic font in copper, formerly 
furnished with a lofty and heavy cover, which was removable by 



176 Route 24. LOU VAIN. 8t. Pierre. 

the still-preserved cast-iron handle, by J. Massy s. — The following 
chapels on the same side contain rococo marble sculptures. 

The 1st Chapel on the S. side contains an altarpiece copied 
from the original of De Crayer, -which was carried off by the French, 
and is now in the Museum at Nancy, representing S. Carlo Bor- 
romeo administering the Sacrament to persons sick of the plague. 
An old winged picture by Van der Baeren (1594), the Martyrdom 
of St. Dorothea ; statue of St. Charles, by Ch. Geerts (1855). 

The 2nd Chapel (that of the Armourers) contains a curious, 
blackened image of Christ, which is regarded, with great veneration 
in consequence of the legend that it once caught a thief who had 
sacrilegiously entered the church. The railing is adorned with 
armour and cannon. 

The Pulpit, carved in 1742 by Bergi, a work of very ques- 
tionable taste, represents Peter's Denial on one side, and the Con- 
version of St. Paul on the other. The lifesize wooden figures are 
overshadowed by lofty palm-trees , also carved in wood, and the 
whole is coated with brown varnish. 

The 3rd Chapel contains a picture of M emling's school, represent- 
ing the consecration of a cook as bishop, under Gregory V. 

Retro-Choir. 5th Chapel : *Dieric Bouts, Martyrdom of St. 
Erasmus, a painful subject; in the background the Emperor, richly 
attired , with three attendants ; the scene is represented in a care- 
fully-executed landscape with blue mountains in the distance ; on 
the wings, St. Jerome on the left and St. Anthony on the right. — 
6th Chapel : De Crayer, The Holy Trinity. *Dieric Bouts, Last 
Supper, painted in 1467. This is the central picture of an extensive 
altarpiece, the wings of which are in the museum at Berlin (Feast 
of the Passover and Elijah in the wilderness), and in the Pina- 
kothek at Munich (Abraham and Melchisedech, and the Gathering 
of manna). The symbolical character of the composition is of course 
not traceable in the central piece alone. One characteristic of Die- 
ric's style is his attempt at individualisation by making the complex- 
ions strikingly dissimilar. The signature 'Memling' is spurious. 

The 7th Chapel formerly contained a celebrated 'Holy Family' 
by Quinten Massys, which was sold to the Brussels Museum in 1879 
for 240,000 fr. (see p. 78). 

8th Chapel : Descent from the Cross, by *Roger van der Wey- 
den (?), a winged picture on a golden ground, with the donors at 
the sides, bearing the doubtful date 1443, but probably a late and 
reduced repetition of a picture in the Museum at Madrid. The 
same chapel contains the tombstone of Henry I. , Duke of Brabant 
(d. 1235), the founder of the church (the pedestal is modern). 

9th Chapel : Handsome marble balustrade by Papenhoven of 
Antwerp (1709), representing Children playing, Confession, Bap- 
tism, and Communion. 

In the choir , opposite , rises a beautiful Gothic Tabernacle 



University. LOUVAIN. 24, Route. 177 

(50 ft. in height), by Layens (p. 175), executed in 1450. — The 
N. transept contains a good copy of Van Dyck's Raising of the 
Cross, and a painted wooden statue of the Virgin and Child, of 1442. 

The Church of St. Gertrude (PI. 12; D, 2) was erected in the 
Flamboyant style, at the close of the 15th cent., with the exception 
of the choir, which was added in 1514-26. The *Choir-stalls, dat- 
ing from the first half of the 16th cent., and embellished with sta- 
tuettes and 28 reliefs of scenes from the life of the Saviour, are 
considered the finest specimen of early wood-carving in Belgium ; 
they were executed by Mathias de Waydere, whose name was discov- 
ered in the archives in 1879. The sacristy contains a reliquary of the 
14th century. (Sacristan at No. 22, near the principal portal.) 

The Church of St. Michael (PI. 15 ; E, 3), erected by the Jesuits 
in 1650-66, contains modern pictures by Mathieu , De Keyser, 
Wappers, and others. The proportions of the interior are remarkably 
symmetrical , and the architectural details show a curious affinity 
to the Gothic style. The facade is also worthy of notice. 

The Church of St. Quentin (PI. 17; D, 4), on an eminence near 
the Porte de Namur (founded in 1206, re-erected in the 15th cent.), 
and that of St. Jacques (PI. 13 ; D, 2), possess several pictures of 
the school of Rubens. The latter contains several modern works, a 
St. Hubert by De Crayer, and a fine Tabernacle in stone, executed 
in 1467 and poorly restored in 1878. 

The Halles (PI. 25 ; D, B, 3), 66 yds. long and 151/2 yds. wide, 
were erected as a warehouse for the Clothmakers' Guild in 1317, and 
made over to the University in 1679. The upper story was added 
in 1680. The interior is disfigured by alterations and additions, 
but the arches and pillars of the hall on the ground -floor still 
bear testimony to the the wealth and taste of the founders. The 
Library, one of the most valuable in Belgium (70,000 vols., 
400 MSS.), is adorned with a sculptured group representing a scene 
from the Flood, executed by Oeerts in 1839. The entrance-hall 
contains portraits of former professors, and a large picture by Van 
Brie, Christ healing the blind, painted in 1824. 

The University, founded in 1426, was regarded as the most famous 
in Europe in the 16th cent., and the theological faculty in particular was 
remarkable for its inflexible adherence to the orthodox dogmas of the 
Church. The number of students is said to have exceeded 6000 at the 
period when the celebrated Justus Lipsius (d. 1606) taught here. Under 
Joseph II. its reputation somewhat declined, but it continued to exist 
until the close of last century. So extensive were its privileges, that no 
one could formerly hold a public appointment in the Austrian Nether- 
lands without having taken a degree at Louvain. After having been 
closed by the French republicans , the university was revived by the 
Dutch government in 1817. A philosophical faculty was afterwards in- 
stituted, notwithstanding the determined opposition of the clergy, and 
complaints to which the innovation gave rise are said to have contri- 
buted in some degree to the Revolution of 1830. Since 1836 the univer- 
sity has been re-organised, and has assumed an exclusively ecclesiastical 
character. It possesses 5 faculties, and is attended by 1600 students, 
many of whom live in 4 large colleges (Pedagogies du St. Esprit, Marie- 

Baedekek's Belgium and Holland. 7th Edit. 12 



178 Route 25. OTTIGNIES. 

Thirese, Adrian VI, and Juste Lipse). — The technical academy connected 
with the university (Ecole du Qinie Civil, des Arts et Manufactures et des 
Mines) is rapidly increasing, and an Ecole <T Agriculture was opened in 1878. 

The Rue de Namur contains several old houses with handsome 
facades , and a court (in the Refuge des Viellards) in the Renais- 
sance style. 

The Penitencier, a prison for solitary confinement , is in the 
Boulevard du Jodoigne, between the Porte de Tirlemont and Porte 
de Pare. It was opened in 1860, and is the largest in Belgium, 
having room for 634 convicts. The Maison d' Arret (PI. 21), com- 
pleted in 1869, has accommodation for 204 prisoners. 

'Caesars Castle', as the ancient stronghold of the counts and dukes, 
situated on an eminence near the Porte de Malines, was called, has al- 
most entirely disappeared. It derives its name from an unfounded tra- 
dition that it was originally erected hy the great Roman general. The 
Emp. Charles V. and his sisters were educated in this castle by the 
learned Adrian Dedel, afterwards Pope Adrian VI. 



25. From Louvain to Charleroi. 

40 M. Railway in 2V4-3 hrs. (fares 5 fr. 20, 3 fr. 90, 2 fr. 60 c). 

The line passes several places memorable in the campaign of 
1815. The country traversed is at first flat. Stations Heverle, with 
a chateau and park of the Due d'Arenberg ; Weert St. George, 
Orez-Oastuche; (14^2 M.) Wavre, to which the Prussians retreated 
after the battle of Ligny, with a handsome monument by Van 
Oemberg, 1859; Limal; (18 M.) Ottignies, where the Brussels and 
Namur line is crossed (p. 167); Court St. Etienne, La Roche. 

The train now passes close to the imposing ruins of the Cister- 
cian abbey of *Villers, founded in 1147 and destroyed in 1796, and 
stops at (25 M.) Villers-la- Ville. The ruins lie about i / 4 M. to 
the N. of the station. The road to them skirts the Thyle. At the 
entrance to the abbey is *Dumont's Inn , where each visitor pays 
Y2 fr- Beyond the court is the rectangular Refectory, a tasteful 
structure in the transition style , with two rows of windows. The 
Cloisters, chiefly Gothic, date from the 14th -16th cent., and are 
adjoined by the Gothic Church, erected in 1240-72, with sub- 
sequent additions. The latter contains tombstones of Dukes of 
Brabant of the 14th century. The old brewery in the transition style 
is also worthy of notice. An eminence outside the Porte de Bru- 
xelles, to the W., commands a good survey of the whole ruin. 

27 1 / 2 M. Tilly is believed to have been the birthplace of the 
general of that name. 29 M. Marbais; 30^2 M. Ligny, famous 
for the battle of 16th June, 1815 (see below). — 33 M. Fleurus 
(p. 179), junction for the lines to Gembloux-Ramillies-Landen 
(p. 173), to Tamines (p. 163), and to Nivelles-Baulers (p. 115). 
35V2M. Ransart, the junction of a line from Jumet (p. 163) to Ta- 
mines (p. 163); 38 M. Lodelinsart, a busyplacewith coal-mines and 
glass-works, whence a branch-line diverges toChatelineau(p. 163). 



LIGNY. 25. Route. 179 

Battle Fields. This district is famous in military annals as the scene 
of a number of important battles, the last and greatest of which was that 
of Ligny. 

Sombreffe, near Marbais, andGM. from Quatrebras (p. 161), was occu- 
pied on 15th June, 1815, by the 2nd and 3rd Prussian Corps d'Armee under 
Marshal Blucher, who late in the evening received intelligence that Gen. 
Bulow with the 14th corps could not come to his assistance as originally 
concerted. The brave marshal accordingly resolved to fight alone, if ne- 
cessary. Wellington had agreed to co-operate with Blucher, but the 
British troops were too far distant, to render assistance, whilst those 
whose position was nearest to the Prussians were fully occupied at the 
Battle of Quatrebras. It is well authenticated that the Duke expressed 
his disapprobation of Bliicher's position, observing to the Marshal that 
'with British troops he would have occupied the ground differently'. 
The chief disadvantages of the ground occupied by Blucher near St. 
Amand and Ligny, which he regarded as the keys of his position, were, 
that there was too little security in the direction in which the commu- 
nication with the British was to be maintained, and that the villages in 
advance of the line were too distant to be reinforced without enormous 
loss. It is also on record, that the Duke, after his interview with the 
Marshal on the morning of the simultaneous battles, remarked to one 
of his staff, 'The Prussians will make a gallant fight ; they are capital 
troops, and well commanded; but they will be beaten. 1 And the Prus- 
sians did fight most gallantly, well sustaining the military reputation 
of their country; their officers too, including the high-spirited old Mar- 
shal himself, acted their part most nobly. But their utmost efforts were 
fruitless ; they sustained immense loss, were overmatched, and finally re- 
pulsed, but not conquered. 

According to the official statistics of both sides the total force of 
the French at Ligny amounted to 71,220 men, with 242 guns, that of the 
Prussians to 83,410 men , with 224 guns , but a large proportion of the 
French army was composed of veteran soldiers, while most of the Prussian 
troops were comparatively young and inexperienced. The French artillery 
was also numerically superior, and far more advantageously placed. 

The retreat of the Prussian army on the night after the Battle of 
Ligny, by Tilly and Mont St. Guibert to Wavre (p. 178), is perhaps without 
parallel in the annals of military warfare. So perfect was the order and 
so great the skill with which it was effected, that next day the French 
were entirely at a loss to discover in which direction their enemy had 
disappeared, and at length came to the conclusion that they must have 
taken the direction of Namur. It was not till late on the afternoon of 
the 17th that the real route of the Prussians was discovered , and Marshal 
Grouchy was dispatched in pursuit of Blucher. The parts acted by the 
different armies were now interchanged. Napoleon and Ney, united , now 
proceeded to attack Wellington , while Blucher formed the 3rd Corps 
d'Armee under Thielmann at Wavre, in order to keep Grouchy in check, 
and himself hastened onwards with his three other corps towards Belle- 
Alliance, where he arrived on the evening of the 18th, in time to act a 
most prominent and glorious part in a victory of incalculable importance 
to the fate of the whole of Europe (p. 115). 

About lVs M. to the S. of Ligny lies Fleurus, celebrated for the 
battles of 1622 and 1690. On 26th June, 1794, a battle also took place 
here between the Austrian army under the Prince of Cobourg , and the 
French under Marshal Jourdan, in which the latter gained an advantage. 
The Austrians had stormed the French intrenchments, captured twenty 
guns, and driven the French back to Marchienne-au-Pont (p. 162), when 
the Prince owing to some misunderstanding, ordered his troops to re- 
treat. This false movement, as the event proved, ultimately contributed 
to the loss of the whole of Belgium. It is a curious historical fact, that 
on this occasion a balloon was employed by the French in order to 
reconnoitre the Austrian position, hut with what success it does not appear. 

40 M. Charleroi, see p. 162. 

12* 



180 



26. Lifege and Seraing. 

Railway Stations, i. Station des Guillemins (PI. A, 1, 2), on the left 
bank of the Meuse, for Aix-la-Chapelle , Brussels, Namur, Paris, and 
Luxembourg. 2. Station de Vivegnies, on the S.E. side, a long way from 
the centre of the town, for the Dutch trains. 3. Station du Palais, near 
the Palais de Justice (PI. F, 2), and 4. Station de Jonfosse (PI. D, 1) 
both on the connecting line between the two stations first mentioned, on 
which trains run hourly in each direction, between 5.30 a.m. and 11 p.m. 
('/ 4 hr. ; fares 35, 25, 20 c). 5. Station de Longdoz (PI. C, 4), on the right 
bank, for Maastricht, Namur, and Paris. 

Hotels. "Hotel de Suede (PI. a ; B, 3), Rue de THarmonie 7, close to 
the theatre; *H6tel d'Angleterke (PI. b; E, 2), Rue des Dominicains 2, 
R. 3 fr. ; Hotel de l'Edrope (PI. c ; E, 2), Rue Hamal 6, these two at the 
hack of the theatre; Hotel de France (PI. g; E, 3), Rue de la Cathedrale 
13; Hotel Deux Fontaines (PI. h; E, 2), see below; Hotel Schillek 
(PI. d; E, 3), Place du Theatre 6; Pommelette (PI. e; E, 3), Rue Sou- 
verain Pont 44, noisy; Grand Monaeque, opposite, No. 33; Hotel Dou- 
nen (Freres Provencaux), Rue Souverain Pont 46 (PI. E, 3); Moheen, an 
unpretending German inn, Rue du Pont d'Avroy 31 ; Hotel de Flandee, 
Rue de la Regence 45; Hotel Charlemagne, Place St. Lambert; Hotel 
de Dinant, Rue St. Etienne 2. The Hotels de l'TJnivers, du Chemin de 
Feb, and others, near the principal station (Guillemins), aDd the Hotel 
de l'Industeie, opposite the Gare de Longdoz, are convenient for travellers 
arriving late or starting early by railway. 

Restaurants. "Bernay, Rue des Dominicain 22, expensive; "Cafi Vini- 
tien, by the theatre; Cafi-Restaurant Continental, Place Verte; Deux 
Fontaines (PI. h; also a hotel), Rue Haute-Sauveniere 2, near the theatre; 
Cafi Charlemagne (also a hotel), Place St. Lambert. 

Cafes. "Cafi Vinitien, by the theatre; Cafi de la Renaissance, also 
a restaurant, in the Passage; Cafe' Continental, Cafi Charlemagne, see 
above; Trink-Sall, Square d'Avroy (p. 182). 

Beer. -Mohren, Rue du Pont d'Avroy 31, Vienna beer, also dining- 
room (hotel, see above); Taverne Anglaise, by the theatre (D., from 12 
to 3, 2-3 fr., 'plat du jour 1 1 fr., English beer); Taverne de Strasbourg, 
Rue Lulay, near the Passage. 



Cabs. Tariff for one or 
more persons 



A. By time 



B. Per drive 



: 1 hour . . . 
Per additional 

V* hr. 
: In the town . 
To the Citadel 
or the Char- 
treuse . . 



Closed Carriages. 



One-horse 

1 fr. 50 c. 

— 75 - 

1 

2 - — - 



Two-horse 
2 fr. 50 c. 



- 25 

- 50 



Open Carriages 
One-horse 



2fr. 

1 
1 



50 



50 



Two-horse 
3 fr. — c. 



50 



50 - 



3 

two-horse 50 c. — Double fares 



Waiting, each 1 /t hr., one-horse 25, 
from 11 p.m. to 6 a.m. 

Tramway. From the Place du Thi&tre (PI. E, 2, 3) to the stations 
Guillemins (PI. A, 2) and Longdoz (PI. C, 4), and to the N.E. suburb of St. 
Lionard (PI. G, 6). From the Place St. Lambert (PI. E, F, 3) to the sub- 
urb of Ste. Marguerite and to Haut-Pri on the W. , and to the Pont des 
Arches and Amercoeur on the E. Comp. the Plan. 

Steamboats up-stream to Seraing (p. 188), and down to the Cannon 
Foundry (p. 181), starting from the Ecluse du Siminaire, Boulevard Frere 
Orban (p. 182), every 20 min. in summer and every J /z nr - in winter. 

Weapons. Liege contains 180 manufactories of arms, or rather 
depots of arms, for the pieces are made and mounted by the workmen 
in their own houses. These mechanics, 40,000 in number, work at their 
own risk, as a piece containing the slightest flaw is at once rejected. — 
Three of the chief stores for weapons for show or sport are: Arnold, 
Rue de la Cathedrale 66; Demoulin, Boul. de la Sauveniere 102; J. B. 
Rongi Fill, Place St. Jean 2. 




2 I 



Wr^A 












■jlSfSSS? 








IJthenee D3 

Z Bourse IS'.Jndri ) F3 

3CitadeUe G3* 

4 Conservatoire rqyale C 2 
EgKses 

5 St ^Jntoine F 3 

6 des Avgicsiin. C 2 

7 St.Barfluelenar F * 

8 St.Chrixtophe D £ 

9 fe.fr OT :r F 2 

10StJ)eins E3 

11 &t.Jactfues C 2 

12&.,fem E2 

tf&JKiT-An El 

14- St Xeo7<i* DES 

15 St.Pcatl D 3 

lG.SY.TTio&en. E* 

HStMemacU 5 

18Sf *CT-r<n> F2 

V&Entrepox E 3 

20.Erecfte C 3 

Zi-Fonderxe (l& Caiionji (r6 

12FalIe (Ecolr I F2 

fiSopitul nalitaav. E 1 

24* Hospice de Bcariere E J* 

25 " desFetimwsbici-a'aoleSi\ 

26 " desBoinj/mshicurah.Di 

27 " cZe* (hftlteJam F 2 

28 " <&-* Sourds nxuets D .1 
'iSHdtel de YiUe F3 
30 " Fravuwitil F 3 
ZlJardzn d'aceJanaiaMon . AB3 
32 " ootaiuoue C 1 
7&NxnuifajCtiurc dlArmes 

defEtat G6 

3*J!fc7tf dePiM F*5 

Jioniimfiil. : 

•JO Statue de Charlema qne C -1 

Sff " A-Ihinumt D 3 

37 " Gretry E 2 

38 Jfiu e'e ( .ST. Andre I F * 

39-fVtMW Celhdaij'e G 5 

tOPa/aii <Ze .Justice F 3 

M/luA-fl^c Zemenrrier E 3 

4&PoftK et telegraph* E 3 

43 Tlleatre royal E 2 

14 UnrrersTte' ' D 3 

4* 5 Arademie rqyale F 4 

46 Theatre tin Gvnmase F 3 



Trannrar^ 



LIEGE. 26. Route. 18 f 

J ? 4 *" a Telegraph Office (PI. 42 ; E, 3), Rue de l'Universite" 34. 
united States Consul : Mr. Geo. C. Tanner, who lives at Verviers (Rue 
du Palais 21; p. 198). 

Principal Attractions : Palais de Justice, the court (p. 182) ; Church of 
St. Jacques (p. 186); St. Paul's (p. 185); view from the Citadel (p. 187). 

Liege, Flem. Luik, Ger. Luttich, with 130,000 inhab., the cap- 
ital of the Walloon district, and formerly the seat of a principality 
of the name, lies in a strikingly-picturesque situation. The ancient 
and extensive city rises on the lofty hank of the broad Meuse , at 
the influx of the Ourthe. Numerous chimneys bear testimony 
to the industry of the inhabitants, while the richly - cultivated 
valley contributes greatly to enhance the picturesque effect. The 
scenery around Liege is the finest in Belgium. 

The Meuse flows through the city in a partly-artificial channel, 
and forms an island , which is connected with each bank by fouT 
bridges, the railway-bridge (p. 198) not included. The principal 
part of the town, with the chief public buildings and churches lies 
on the left bank. The quarters on the right bank and on the island 
consist mainly of factories and the dwellings of the artizans. Most 
of the streets in the old part of the town are narrow and the build- 
ings insignificant. Several new streets, however, have lately been 
made, and extensive quays and squares have been laid out. The 
city is surrounded by nine suburbs. 

The coal-mines which form the basis of the commercial pros- 
perity of Liege, are situated in the immediate vicinity, and many 
of them extend beneath the houses and the river. One of the 
chief branches of industry is the manufacture of weapons all kinds, 
which have enjoyed both a European and a Transatlantic reputa- 
tion since the end of last century. As however, the weapons of 
Liege are not made in large manufactories (p. 180), they find form- 
idable rivals in the cheaper productions of England and America. 
The Liege zinc foundries, engine-factories, and other branches of 
industry, are also of great importance. Among the chief industrial 
establishments are the royal Gun Factory (PI. 33), the Cannon 
Foundry (PI. 21), and the Societe de St. Lionard (machinery, loco- 
motives), all in the suburb of St. Leonard (PI. G, 5, 6). 

The Walloons (p. 174) are an active, intelligent, and enterprising 
race. i Cives Leodicenses sunt ingeniosi, sagaces et ad quidvis audendum 
prompW is the opinion expressed by Guicciardini with regard to the 
Liegeois. Indefatigable industry and a partiality for severe labour are 
among their strongest characteristics, but they have frequently manifested 
a fierce and implacable spirit of hostility towards those who have at- 
tempted to infringe their privileges. On such occasions they have never 
scrupled to wield the weapons which they manufacture so skilfully. 
The history of Liege records a series of sanguinary insurrections of the 
turbulent and unbridled populace against the oppressive and arrogant 
bishops by whom they were governed. Foreign armies have frequently 
been invoked by the latter to chastise their rebellious subjects. Thus 
Charles the Bold of Burgundy took the town in 1468, razed its walls, 
and put thousands of the inhabitants to death by the sword or by 
drowning in the Meuse. Maximilian I. also took violent possession of 
the town on two occasions. In 1675, 1684, and 1691 it was captured by 



182 Route 26. LIEGE. Palais de Justice. 

the French, and in 1702 it had to yield to Marlborough. In the revolu- 
tionary wars of 1792-94, Liege was the scene of several contests between 
the French and the Anstrians. The bishops retained their supremacy till 
the French Revolution in 1794, when the city was finally severed from 
the German Empire. In ancient times the bishops possessed a Walloon 
body-guard of 500 men; and Walloon soldiers, like the Swiss, were |in 
the habit of serving in the armies of Spain, France, and Austria. They 
enjoyed a high reputation for bravery, which has been justly extolled by 
Schiller in his 'Wallenstein'. 

Leaving the Station des Quillemins (PI. A, 2), we follow the 
Rue des Guillemins in a straight direction to the *Square d'Avroy 
(PI. B, C, D, 2), which is tastefully laid out on ground once 
occupied by an arm of the Meuse. it is embellished with several 
bronze statues , most of them cast by the Compagnie des Bronzes 
at Brussels, and with the Trink-Hall, a cafe" built in an Oriental 
style. The square commands a good view of the town. The equest- 
rian Statue of Charlemagne (PI. 35) was made and presented to the 
town by the sculptor Jehotte. The emperor , who is said to have 
conferred on the city its earliest privileges, is represented in a com- 
manding attitude, as if exhorting his subjects to obey the laws. 
The pedestal in the Romanesque style is adorned with statues of 
Pepin of Landen, St. Begga, Pepin of Heristal, Charles Martel, 
Pepin the Little, and Queen Bertha. The square is bounded by 
the Avenue d'Avroy and the Avenue Bogier. On the side next the 
river is a terrace , with two fine groups in bronze by L. Mignon. 
Along the river runs the handsome Boulevard Fr'ere-Orban. Ad- 
jacent, in the Boulevard Piercot, is the new Conservatoire of Music. 

The Square d'Avroy is continued towards the N. by the Boule- 
vard d'Avkoy and by the Boulevabd db la Sauventerb (PI. D, 

E, 4), both shaded with trees and forming favourite evening-prome- 
nades. A fine view of the Church of St. Martin (p. 186), which 
stands on an elevated site, is obtained here. 

The Boulevard de la Sauveniere leads in a wide curve to the 
Place du Theatre (PI. E, 2, 3), which may be regarded as the 
centre of the town. The Theatre (PI. 43) was built in 1808-22 after 
the model of the Odeon at Paris , and was thoroughly restored in- 
ternally in 1861 . The facade is adorned with eight columns of red 
Belgian marble. Performances take place in winter only. In front 
of the theatre is a bronze Statue of Oretry (PI. 37), the composer 
(d. 1813), designed by W. Oeefs. The heart of the master, who was 
a native of Liege, is deposited beneath the granite pedestal. 

A little farther on we reach the Place St. Lambert (PL E, 

F, 3), on which once stood the Cathedral of St. Lambert, ruined 
by the French sansculottes and their brethren of Liege in 1794, 
and completely removed in 1808. Here also for several centuries 
has stood the episcopal palace, which is now used as the — 

*Palais de Justice (PL 40; F, 3), erected in 1508-40 by Car- 
dinal Eberhard de la Marck, a kinsman of the 'Wild Boar of Arden- 
nes', whose turbulent career (see p. 207) is so admirably described 



H6tel-de-Ville. LIEGE. 26. Route. 18H 

by Sir Walter Scott in his 'Quentin Durward'. The facade towards 
the Place St. Lambert was re-erected in 1737 after its destruction 
by fire, and the whole was restored in 1848-56, when the W. wing, 
accommodating the Oouvernement Provincial (PI. 30), was erected. 
The facade of the latter is embellished with sculptures and it con- 
tains a large frescoed hall. The building contains two courts, sur- 
rounded by vaulted arcades, exhibiting a curious blending of the 
late- Gothic and Renaissance styles. The cleverly-executed capi- 
tals, which consist of grotesque masks, fantastic foliage, figures, 
etc., are by Francois Borset of Liege. The ribs of the vaulting are 
in blue, and the intervening surfaces in light-yellow limestone. 
The first court, which serves as a public thoroughfare, is adorned 
with a modern fountain, and has been in part freely but skilfully 
restored. The second court, which has arcades on two sides only, 
has been laid out as a garden and contains several architectural 
fragments. During the sitting of the courts the Palais de Justice 
may be entered from the Rue du Palais or from the S.E. angle of 
the first court. The buildings enclosing the second court, the ex- 
terior facades of which have been restored, contain the Archives and 
an Archaeological Museum. 

The Musee Archeologique is open on Sun., 11-1, free; at other times 
it is opened by the concierge, who lives in the back corner of the first 
court, for a fee of 1 fr. It occupies the second floor of the S. wing of the 
second court. The Roman Room contains antiquities found chiefly in the 
province of Liege : in the middle is a glass-case containing a "Ewer and Ba- 
sin, a fragment of a bronze Ticket granting honourable discharge to a legion- 
ary (of the time of Trajan; 98 A.D.), the Stamp of a Roman physician, 
and other objects in bronze. At the back of the room is the so-called "Fon- 
taine d'Angletir (p. 189), with bronze figures of a lion, ram, scorpion, and 
fish, heads of Satyrs and Medusa, etc. The other show-cases contain Sigil- 
lata and other Roman vessels in terracotta, roofing tiles, and Qallo-Fran- 
kish Antiquities in gold, silver, glass , and terracotta. — The Galerie 
d'Oteeppe is devoted to furniture, pottery, glass, and other objects of 
the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. — Another long Gallery contains 
plaster-casts, and architectural and sculptural fragments. 

The ground in front of the W. facade of the Gouvernement Pro- 
vincial (see above) ascends rapidly and is embellished with pleasure- 
grounds and a fountain. The steps ascend to the Place St. Pierre, 
with the churches of Ste. Croix (p. 187) and St. Martin (p. 186). 
— Opposite the N.W. angle of the same wing is the Station du 
Palais (p. 180), at the end of the tunnels by which the junction- 
line passes under the lofty W. quarters of the city. 

The Place de St. Lambert is adjoined on theN.E. by the 
Grand Mahche (PI. F, 3), in which rises the H&tel-de-Ville (PI. 29), 
built in 1714, and containing, among other pictures, a portrait by 
Ingres of Napoleon as First Consul , who presented it to the town 
himself in 1806. Adjacent is the domed church of St. Andrew 
(PI. 2), now used as the Exchange. The square also contains three 
poor fountains. The Fontaine des Trois Graces in the centre was 
erected in 1696 by Delcour. The two others bear the arms of the 
burgomasters of Liege, and those of the Bavarian Palatinate. 



184 Route 26. LIEGE. University. 

The neighbouring Church of St. Antoine (PI. 5 ; F, 3), erected 
in the 13th cent., was rebuilt in the 16-17th cent., and lately 
restored by Systermans. The choir is embellished with four wood- 
carvings of scenes from the life of St. Bruno, and frescoes by Carpey 
of subjects from the history of St. Anthony (1860-68). 

The Municipal Museum (PI. 38; F, 4), an unimportant col- 
lection of works of Liege artists and others, is contained in the old 
Cloth Hall (1788), Rue Feronstre"e 65. It is open on Sundays and 
holidays from 10 to 1 , on other days on payment of a gratuity ; porter 
at the Academie des Beaux Arts (PI. 45), No. 42 in the same street. 
Among the painters represented are : Berth. Flemalle, Carlier, Chau- 
vin, Lairesse, Vieillevoye, Paul Delaroche (22. Mater Dolorosa), Le- 
poittevin (77. Landscape), Wiertz (Contest for the body of Patroclus, 
repetition with alterations of the Brussels picture, p. 96), Wauters, 
Alb. de Vriendt, V. van Hove, De Haas, Koehler, Roelofs, etc. 

A new and spacious street, the Hue Leopold, leads to the S.E. 
from the Place de St. Lambert to the Pont des Arches (PI. E, 4), 
which spans the Meuse in five flat arches, and has recently been 
adorned with allegorical statues. It was constructed in 1860-63, 
on the site of an older bridge mentioned as early as the 6th cent., 
and afterwards repeatedly destroyed and renewed. In 1685 a strongly 
fortified tower was erected on the old bridge, to prevent communi- 
cation between the two quarters of the city during civic revolts. 
The bridge affords a good survey of the different parts of the city, 
extending along both banks of the river. 

The Rue Leopold has been continued on the right bank to meet 
the new Boulevards de la Constitution and Saucy. — The tramway- 
line which crosses the Pont des Arches leads to the Faubourg 
d'Amercceur, at the foot of the Chartreuse (p. 188). 



Several of the busiest streets in Liege lead south-westwards 
from the Place du Theatre , among others the Rue de la Regence 
and the Rue db l'Univbrsitb. In the latter, immediately on the 
right, is the Passage Lemonnier (PI. 41; E, 3), constructed in 
1837-39 , and one of the first of the glass - roofed arcades with 
shops now so common in the larger European towns. 

In the vicinity is the Church of St. Denis (PL 10 ; E, 3), found- 
ed in 987, but the present edifice dates almost entirely from the 
latter half of the 15th cent. , with additions of the 18th century. 
The left transept contains a large altar adorned with figures carved 
in wood, executed about the end of the 15th cent. , representing the 
Passion, and the Martyrdom of St. Denis. The statues of the Virgin 
and St. Denis at the sides of the high-altar are by Delcour (1707). 
The modern stained glass in the choir is by Capronnier. 

At the end of the Rue de l'Universite", and with its back to the 
quay of that name, rises the University (PI. 44 ; D, 3), erected in 
1817, and partly incorporated with an old Jesuit college. The de- 



Cathedral. LIEGE. 26. Route. 185 

tached structure, with an Ionio colonnade, is the Aula, or hall, with 
the inscription 'Universis Disciplinis', which is lighted from the 
roof. The buildings comprise lecture-rooms, academic collections, 
a library (about 100,000 vols.), excellent apparatus for instruction 
in physical science, and a natural history museum containing a 
line collection of the fossil bones of antediluvian animals found in 
the numerous caverns of the environs, especially in that ofChokier 
(p. 195). In 1879 the Belgian government granted funds for the 
erection of new physiological, physical, and chemical laboratories. 
The Ecole des Mines, a well-attended institution, an Ecole des Arts 
et Manufactures, and a training-school for teachers (Ecole Normale 
des Humanites) are connected with the university. There are more 
than 50 professors in all, and 1200 students, half of whom attend 
the mining and polytechnic schools. 

The Place in front of the university is embellished with a bronze 
Statue of Andre Durnont (PI. 36), an eminent geologist (d. 1857), 
a professor in the university here, and author of the Carte Geolo- 
gique of Belgium. 

A little above the university, the Meuse is crossed by the Pont 
de la Boverie, a bridge of four handsome arches, which leads to the 
Quartier de Longdoz and the railway-station of that name. 

To the W. of the university, and not far from the Passage Le- 
monnier, rises the ^Cathedral, or Church of St. Paul (PI. 15 ; D, 3), 
founded by Bishop Heraclius in 968, and renewed in 1280 (from 
which period dates the handsome Gothic choir) , while the nave 
and additions were completed in 1528. It was originally an abbey 
church, and was raised to the dignity of a cathedral in 1802 (comp. 
p. 182). The tower (1812) contains a set of chimes. 

The Interior is 92 yds. long, 37 yds. broad, and 80 ft. high. The 
nave and aisles are separated by round pillars. The Nave is encircled 
by a handsome triforium-gallery ; the vaulting is embellished with Re- 
naissance arabesques, executed in 1579, and restored in 1860. The -Pulpit, 
carved in wood under the direction of the eminent sculptor IF. Oee/s of 
Brussels, is worthy of special notice. These specimens of wood-carving 
show the perfection the art has attained in Belgium. Five figures in 
marble, also by W. Oeefs, representing Religion, SS. Peter and Paul, SS. 
Lambert and Hubert, serve to support the pulpit. The fallen angel at 
the back is by Jos. Oeefs, a brother of the principal master. — Right 
(S.) Aisle: 2nd Chapel, Christ in the sepulchre, executed in marble by Del- 
cour in 1696; 3rd Chapel, St. Paul bidding farewell to St. Peter, also by 
Delcour. The principal subject in the stained-glass window of the right 
transept (1530) is the Coronation of the Virgin. At the end of the right 
aisle, near the choir, is a painting by Erasmus Quellin, representing SS. 
Gregory, Jerome, Ambrose, and Augustine, four Fathers of the Church. — 
The Choir contains both ancient and modern stained glass ; the five 
windows in the apse date from 1557-87, the modern windows are by 
Capronnier. The choir-stalls were executed in 1864, from designs by 
Durlet of Antwerp; they are in the Gothic style, with small columns and 
reliefs, representing, on the right, the Resurrection of Believers, and, on 
the left, the Translation of the relics of St. Hubert. The high-altar is to 
be renewed. — Left (S.) Aisle: Stained glass by C'apronnier; 2nd Chapel, 
lairesse, Assumption ; 3rd Chapel, Marble statue of the Virgin , by Rob. 
Arnold, a Carthusian monk of the 18th century. 



1 86 Route 2fi. LlftGE. St. Jacques. 

The Treasury is worthy of attention ; it contains, among other objects, 
a statuette of St. George in gold enamel , presented by Charles the Bold 
in expiation of his destruction of the town in 1468 (p. 181). 

The *Church of St. Jacques (PI. 11 ; C, 2), near the Square 
d'Avroy (p. 182), was founded by Bishop Balderie II. in 1016, and 
received its Romanesque W. tower in 1163-73, hut dates in its 
present form from 1513-38. It is a magnificent edifice in the late- 
Gothic style, with a polygonal choir encircled by small chapels. 
The Renaissance portal on the N. side was added by Lombard in 
1558-60. The church has been sumptuously and tastefully restored 
since 1833. 

The Interior is 87 yds. long, 33 yds. broad, and 75 ft. high. Its de- 
coration, particularly the filigree ornamentation bordering the arches, and 
the gorgeously-coloured enrichment of the groined vaulting, reminds one 
of the Moresco-Spanish style. The fine stained - glass windows of the 
choir, dating from 1520-40, represent the Crucifixion, the donors, their ar- 
morial bearings, and their tutelary saints. The elaborate stone-carving in 
the choir (winding staircase in two flights), and the organ-case in the nave, 
carved by Andreas Severin of Maastricht (d. 1673), also deserve notice. — 
The transept, of which the left arm is 20 ft. longer than the right, con- 
tains marble altars in the Renaissance style. Over the left altar is a 
fine Mater Dolorosa, of the beginning of the 16th cent. ; in the right 
transept is the tomb of Bishop Balderie II., founder of the church, restor- 
ed in the Renaissance style. — The aisles contain modern reliefs of 
scenes from the Passion. 

The Church of St. Jean (PI. 12 ; E, 2) was erected in 982 by 
Bishop Notger , on the model of the cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle, 
but entirely rebuilt in 1757. The octagonal ground-plan of the 
original edifice has , however, been adhered to, a long choir having 
been added on the east. The Romanesque tower belongs to the 
beginning of the 13th, the cloisters perhaps to the 14th century. 

On an eminence commanding the city rises the conspicuous 
Church of St. Martin (PI. 13 ; E, 1), founded by Bishop Heraclius 
in 962, and rebuilt in the Gothic style in 1542, almost simulta- 
neously with the Church of St. Jacques. Unlike that edifice, how- 
ever, its proportions are severe and simple, but imposing. It has 
been recently restored. 

The Interior, consisting of nave and aisles with spacious lateral 
chapels, is 90 yds. long and 23 yds. wide. The stained glass of the 
choir and transept is of the 16th cent., the modern reliefs, representing 
the story of St. Martin, were executed by P. Franck, and the landscapes 
above are by Juppin (d. 1729). — The first lateral chapel on the right is 
adorned with fourteen marble medallions by Belcour, in memory of the 
origin of the festival of Corpus Christi (Fete de Dieu), which was first 
instituted in this church in the year 1246, in consequence of a vision 
beheld by St. Juliana, Abbess of the neighbouring convent of Cornillon, 
and eighteen years later was ordained to be observed throughout Christ- 
endom by Pope Urban IV. , who had been a canon at the cathedral of 
Liege at the time of the 'vision'. A marble slab under the organ bears 
an inscription commemorating the 500th anniversary of the festival. — 
On 4th Aug., 1312, the church was destroyed by fire, having become 
ignited during a fierce conflict between the burghers and the nobles. Two 
hundred of the adherents of the latter, who had been forced by the in- 
furiated populace to take refuge in the church, perished in the flames. 

The tower commands an admirable prospect (the sacristan lives to 
the W. of the principal tower; adm. 1 fr., small fee to the attendant). 



Citadel. LIEGE. 26. Route. 187 

The Church of Ste. Croix (PL 9 ; F, 2), which is passed on the 
way to St. Martin's , was founded by Bishop Notger in 979 on the 
site of an old castle , but afterwards repeatedly altered. The Ro- 
manesque W. choir, built about 1175, with its octagonal tower and 
gallery of dwarf columns, recalls the architecture of the lower Rhine 
(p. xxxviii); the B. choir and the nave are in the Gothic style of 
the 14th century. The whole church has been recently restored. 
The nave and aisles, of equal height , and borne by slender round 
columns , are remarkable for their light and graceful effect. The 
pillars are of blue limestone, the walls and vaulting of yellowish 
sandstone. The pointed arches in the transept are rilled with four- 
teen medallion -reliefs of the Stations of the Cross (14th or 15th 
cent.). The stained glass in the choir was executed in 1854 by 
Kellner of Munich and Capronnier of Brussels. 

The Church of St. Barthelemy (PI. 7 ; F, 4) , a basilica of the 
12th cent. , with double aisles (originally single only) , and two 
Romanesque towers , has been completely modernised. The Bap- 
tistery , to the left of the choir, contains an interesting *Font in 
bronze, cast in 1112 by Lambert Patras of Dinant. It rests on 
twelve oxen , and is embellished with reliefs , representing John 
the Baptist preaching , the Baptism of Christ in Jordan , Peter 
baptising Cornelius the centurion, and John the Evangelist bap- 
tising Crato the philosopher. The church is also adorned with 
pictures by Flemalle, Defour, Fisen, and others. — Adjacent is the 
Mont de Piete (PI. 34 ; F, 4, 5), Quai de Maastricht 10, an inter- 
esting limestone and brick building of 1560, with a lofty roof and 
curious turrets. 

The Zoological Garden, or Jardin d' Acclimatation (PI. A, B, 3 ; 
admission 1 fr.), contains only a small collection of animals , but 
the grounds are prettily laid out and afford a fine view of part of 
the upper town. Concerts are frequently given here in summer. 
Adjoining the gardens is the public Pare de la Boverie (PL A, 3, 4). 

The Botanic Garden (PI. G, 1) is open the whole day ; the hot- 
houses (fine palms) are shown on application to the head-gardener. 



The finest *View of Liege is afforded by the Citadel (PL G, 
3, 4) , 520 ft. above the sea-level , eTected by the Prince-Bishop 
Maximilian of Bavaria in 1650 , on the site of earlier fortifications. 
It may be reached in 20-25 min. by ascending one of the steep 
streets, Rue Pierreuse or Rue des Remparts, or by the somewhat 
less fatiguing flight of steps at the N.E. end of the Rue Hors-Cha- 
teau (PL G, 4). Admission is usually granted without difficulty on 
application to the Commandant at the Bureau de Place, Rue Beck- 
mann 49 (PL C, 2; 9-12). The view embraces the extensive city 
lying on both banks of the river, with its numerous towers and 



188 Route 26. SERAING. 

chimneys , and the populous and industrious valleys of the Meuse, 
the Ourthe, and the Vesdre. The prospect is hounded towards the 
S. by the mountains of the Ardennes ; towards the N. it extends to 
the Petersherg near Maastricht, beyond which stretch the broad 
plains of Limburg. 

The Caserne St. Laurent (PI. D, E, 1) is another good point of 
view. It is entered at the back from the Faubourg St. Laurent ; 
we then cross the court, passing the guard , to the terrace hi front 
(no fee). 

The fortified heights of the Chartreuse (PI. B, C, 6), on the 
opposite bank of the Meuse, also command a charming though dif- 
ferent prospect. The best point is the garden of the Hospice de la 
Chartreuse for old men, about half-way up the hill ; entrance from 
the road 'Montagne de la Chartreuse', (ring; */%-! fr. on leaving). 
— Still higher lies Robermont , where the Prince of Coburg was 
defeated by Marshal Jourdan, 19th Sept., 1794, in the last battle 
fought by the Austrians on Belgian ground. The cemetery of 
Liege is near Robermont. 



Seraing. — 5 M. Railway in 15-16 min., either on the right bank 
of the Meuse from the Station de Longdoz to Seraing, or on the left bank 
from the Station des Guillemitis to Jemeppe. 

Steamboat every 20 min. in summer, and every '/2 hr. in winter, from 
7 a.m. till dusk (fares 50 and 35 c. ; see p. 180). — The traveller should 
take the steamer in going i?/\-i hr.), and the railway in returning. 

The *Excursion to Seraing affords a most interesting insight 
into the extraordinary industry of the Walloon country, and the 
steamboat trip is picturesque. After passing under the handsome 
railway-bridge of Val Benoit (p. 198), we notice on both banks 
numerous iron-foundries and steel-factories of all kinds. — L. Ougree 
(rail, stat., right bank). R. Solessin, with blast-furnaces and coal- 
pits , and Tilleur. The steamboat stops at the elegant suspension- 
bridge which connects Seraing and Jemeppe (5000 inhab.). The 
railway-stations are each about 3 U M. from the bridge. 

Seraing, a town with 27,500 inhab. , situated on the right 
bank of the Meuse, has acquired a European reputation on account 
of its vast ironworks and manufactories. They were founded in 
1817 by John Cockerill , an Englishman , to whom the works be- 
longed jointly with William I., King of the Netherlands, down to 
the revolution of 1830, when he purchased the king's share and 
thus became sole proprietor. A monument was erected to him 
here in 1871. After Cockerill's death in 1840 the works were 
purchased by a company with a capital of 12t/2 million francs 
(raised to 15 millions in 1871). The present director is M. E. 
Sadoine, without whose special permission visitors are not admitted 
to the works. 

A building on the Meuse, which was formerly a summer-palace 
of the bishop, immediately below the suspension-bridge, now forms 



TILFF. 27. Route. 189 

the entrance to the establishment. It contains the residence of the 
director and the archives and library of the works. The workshops 
and offices occupy an area of 270 acres, and employ about 11,000 
hands, whose salaries and wages amount to upwards of 10 million fr. 
annually. In 1882 there were 337 steam-engines, of 14,488 horse- 
power collectively , in constant operation , and 1200 tons of fuel 
were daily consumed. The annual value of the products amounts 
to 45 million fr. , and the works are capable of producing yearly 100 
locomotives, 70 steamboat-engines, 1500 other steam-engines, the 
materials for 14 iron-clads, and 10,000 tons of cast iron for the con- 
struction of bridges and other purposes. Down to 1882, the work- 
shops of Seraing had turned out 52,600 engines or pieces of ma- 
chinery, including the first locomotive engine built on the Continent 
(1835) and the machinery used in boring the Mont Cenis Tunnel 
(I860). The establishment comprises every branch of industry con- 
nected with the manufacture of iron, such as coal-mines, ironstone- 
mines, puddling furnaces, cast-steel works, and engine-factories. 
The hospital and orphanage in connection with the establishment 
are maintained at an annual cost of 45,000 fr. The welfare of the 
workmen is also provided for by savings-banks, by sick funds, and 
by good elementary and technical schools. 

In the vicinity of Seraing (up the river) are the extensive 
coal-mines and blast-furnaces of the EspSrance company; and farther 
distant, the glass-works of Val St. Lambert, established in a sup- 
pressed Cistercian Abbey, one of the largest manufactories of the 
kind in Europe. 

27. From Li&ge to Marloie. 

40V2 M. Kailway (Ligne de VOurthe) in 1 hr. 55 min. (fares 4 fr. 95, 
3 fr. TO, 2 fr. 50 c). 

The train starts from the Station des Ouillemins at Liege, and 
follows the Pepinster line (p. 198) as far as (IV2 M.) Angleur (with 
a zinc-foundry of tho Vieille Montagne Company), where it turns 
to the S. into the beautiful valley of the Ourthe, a tributary of the 
Meuse, which intersects the principal part of the Belgian Ardennes 
in numerous windings from N. to S. On the slope to the left at 
the entrance to the narrower part of the valley, which is called 
the 'Streupas' (pas e"troit), stands the chateau of Beau-Fraipont, 
with its massive square tower. The train then passes the foot of 
an eminence crowned with the turreted chateau of Colonster. On 
the opposite bank is the chateau of Ancre. 

6 M. Tilff (Hotel des Etrangers ; Hdtel de I'Amiraute), a large 
village prettily situated on the right bank of the stream, and reach- 
ed from the railway by an iron bridge, is much resorted to in sum- 
mer by the citizens of Liege. Modern Gothic church. About l ji M. 
below it is the Villa Neef, with pretty grounds. About V2 M. above 
Tilff, high above the road, is the entrance to a not very easily ac- 



190 Route 27. HAMOIR. 

cessible stalactite cavern (admission 1 fr., costume 35 c, candles 
20 c. each). On the height above it is the chateau of BriaVmont. 

The train then passes the chateau of Monceau, crosses the river, 
traverses some rock-cuttings and a tunnel , and reaches (10 M.) 
Esneux (H6tel de Bellevue, on the Ourthe), strikingly situated on 
and at the foot of a lofty and narrow rocky isthmus, washed on 
both sides by the river, which here forms a bend upwards of 3 M. 
in length. The lower part of the village is connected with the 
upper by a long flight of stone steps, while the carriage-road de- 
scribes a long circuit. Fine views from the top, particularly from the 
Beaumont. This is the most picturesque spot in the lower valley 
of the Ourthe, and is a favourite point for excursions from Liege. 

Near (12 M.) Poulseur the train crosses the river, the banks of 
which are disfigured with extensive limestone and slate quarries. 
Above the village rise the ivy-clad ruins of Poulseur, and on the 
opposite bank are the scanty relics of the castle of Montfort, to 
which numerous legends attach, once a seat of the 'Quatre Fils 
Aymon' (p. 207), and now almost undermined by the quarries. The 
valley contracts. The train crosses the Ourthe, and then the Am- 
bleve (p. 205) near Douflamme, not far from its mouth, and passes 
through several cuttings. 

15 M. Comblain - an - Pont (*H6tel et Pension Nin&ne, in the 
village, often full), a village prettily situated on the left bank of 
the river, 3/ 4 M. from the station, which lies at the foot of a pre- 
cipitous cliff. On a rocky eminence rises the ivy-clad tower of an 
ancient church. The scenery between Poulseur and (3*/2 M.) Com- 
blain-au-Pont will reward even the pedestrian. Excursion through 
the valley of the Ambleve to Spa and Trois-Ponts, see R. 32. 

The train now passes through a tunnel to Comblain-la-Tour 
(H6tel de 1' Ourthe), situated at the mouth of the Comblain brook, 
with rocky environs disfigured by slate-quarries. The valley soon 
expands and becomes more attractive. At (20 M.) Hamoir (Hdtel 
de la Station), a considerable village situated chiefly on the right 
bank, the river is crossed by two bridges, the older of which has 
been partly destroyed at the end next to the right bank. On the 
right bank, farther up, lies the chateau of Hamoir-Lassus, with a 
large park. One of the most picturesque parts of the valley is be- 
tween Hamoir and Bomal (see below), the scenery being pleasantly 
varied by meadows, richly-wooded slopes, and frowning cliffs. 

"Walk. Beyond the chateau of Hamoir-Lassus , at the first houses 
of the village of that name, enquire for the path across the hill to Sy, 
a small group of houses in a narrow gorge, and at the railway-bridge 
cross by boat to the left bank. A path through the meadows here passes 
the mouth of the tunnel and through an arch of the bridge, suddenly 
affording a view of a narrow and sombre rocky valley. At Palogne cross 
to the right bank again, and ascend with a boy as guide to the picturesquely 
situated ruins of the castle of Zogne, which like the Chateau d'Ambleve 
was one of the chief seats of the redoubtable Count de la Marck (p. 207). 
Within the precincts of the castle is the Cave Notre-Dame , a stalactite 



BOMAL. 27. Route. 191 

grotto. Near the castle runs the Aywaille (p. 206) and Bomal road, by 
which the latter village may now be reached. 

Between Hamoir and (25 M.) Bomal the train crosses the river 
several times, and penetrates a lofty cliff by means of a tunnel. The 
large village of Bomal (H6tel de la Station), at the mouth of the 
Aisne, commanded by the chateau with its terraced gardens, is a 
handsome-looking place. 

Excuesion recommended to the picturesque rocky valley of the Aisne, 
ascending by Juzaine and Aisne to (4 M.) Roche-it-Frene (Courtoy-Liboutte), 
and returning by Mormont, Eveux, and Barvaux. 

The train again crosses the Ourthe, stops at the substantially- 
built village of (27 M.) Barvaux (*H6tel de Liege; *Aigle Noir), 
and then quits the river in order to avoid the long bend which it 
makes towards the W. 

On the Ourthe , 2 M. above Barvaux , lies the ancient and pictur- 
esquely-situated, but now insignificant town of Durbuy (Hotel de la Mon- 
tagne), with 420 inhab. only. The principal features of the place are a 
mediaeval bridge, an old chapel, the ruined tower of an ancient fortifi- 
cation, and the modern chateau of the Due d'Ursel. Pleasant walk along 
the left bank of the river from Barvaux to Durbuy (2 hrs.), and back by 
the road (2 M.). 

Beyond (32!/2 M.J Melreux, the line touches the Ourthe for 
the last time, crosses it, and then proceeds to (39 M.) Marche and 
(40 1 / 2 M.) Marloie, where it unites with the Brussels and Luxem- 
bourg railway (p. 168). 

Above Melreux the valley of the Ourthe presents several other points 
of attraction, especially in the neighbourhood of La Roche (Hdtel des 
Ardennes; Hdtel des Etrangers), a small town 11 M. from Melreux, situ- 
ated at the junction of several valleys , and commanded by the frowning 
ruins of a castle. Diligence from La Roche in the evening to (20 M. ; by 
the river double that distance) the small town of Houffalize (Hdtel des 
Ardennes, R. <fc B. 2, D. 2, 'pension 1 5fr.), the principal place on the 
upper Ourthe, with 1200 inhab., picturesquely situated, and surrounded 
with pretty walks. Diligence hence to Bovigny and Gouvy, see p. 204. 

28. From Liege to Maastricht (Venlo, Rotterdam). 

19 M. Railway from Liege to Maastricht in l-H/4 hr. ; trains start 
from the Station de Longdoz (fares 2 fr. 40, 1 fr. 80, 1 fr. 20 c). 

Travellers to Maastricht who intend to return to Liege should leave 
the bulk of their luggage at Liege, in order to avoid the formalities of 
the Dutch douane in going, and those of the Belgian in returning. Luggage 
registered to Maastricht is not examined till arrival in that town. 

The train describes a wide curve to the left, and passes under 
the Fort de la Chartreuse, runs near the Meuse for a short distance, 
and reaches (3 M.) Jupille, a small manufacturing town of very an- 
cient origin, with 3600 inhabitants. It was once a favourite resi- 
dence of Pepin of Heristal, who died here in 714, and was also 
often Visited by Charlemagne. The train now quits the river, which 
makes a bend towards the W. — 5 M. Wandre; 6 M. Cheratte. 

8M. Argenteau, the station for Hermalle, a basket-manufacturing 
place on the opposite bank of the river. Argenteau is the most pic- 
turesque place in the lower valley of the Meuse. Above the village 
rises an abrupt rock, clothed with oak-plantations on the summit. 



192 Route 28. MAASTRICHT. From Liege 

and crowned with the new chateau of Count Mercy- Argenteau. The 
court is connected by means of a lofty bridge with another rock, 
where the pleasure-grounds are situated. The park extends for a 
considerable distance to the N. The curious formation of the sand- 
stone rock somewhat resembles that of the 'Saxon Switzerland'. 

10 M. Vise (Hotel de Brabant), the seat of the Belgian custom- 
house, with 2800 inhab., once a fortified town, was the headquar- 
ters of Louis XIV. when he besieged Maastricht in 1673. The 
train crosses the frontier and enters the Dutch province of Limburg. 

12y 2 M. Eysden, with the Dutch custom-house and an old 
chateau, is situated amid fruit-trees and luxuriant pastures. — 
15 M. Oronsveld. On the opposite bank of the Meuse are seen the 
sandstone rocks of the Petersberg, rising 330 ft. above the river. 

19 M. Maastricht. — Hotels. *H6tel du Lkvrier, or Hasenwind 
('greyhound''), in the Boschstraat, near the market, R. & L. I1/2 fl., B. 
60 c. ; Zwabte Akend, or Aigle Noie, a good second-class inn, opposite 
the Levrier; Deelon, Daenen, two unpretending inns with restaurants, 
near the Peter's Gate and the church of Kotre Dame. The hotels are all 
at a considerable distance from the railway-station. 

Guide to the caverns, including torches, 2V2-3 fl. (5-6 fr.); bargaining 
advisable. 

Carriage from the station into the town 50 c. ; from Maastricht to the 
entrance to the galleries 3 fl. 

Maastricht (Maas-Trecht, Trajectum ad Mosam), the Trajectum 
Superius of the Romans, the capital of the Dutch part of the pro- 
vince of Limburg, with 29,600 inhab., lies on the left bank of the 
Meuse, and is connected with the suburb of Wijk on the right bank 
by means of a bridge of nine arches, built in 1683. It was formerly 
one of the strongest fortresses in Europe, but is no longer used for 
military purposes, and the works are being demolished. 

Maastricht was besieged by the Spaniards, under the Duke of 
Parma, during four months, in 1579. The garrison consisted of 
1000 soldiers (French, English, and Scotch), 1200 of the towns- 
people, and 2000 peasants from the environs. Notwithstanding the 
tenfold numerical superiority of the Spaniards, they were repulsed 
nine times by the sallies of the intrepid defenders. At length, 
greatly reduced in numbers, and exhausted by famine, the garrison 
was compelled to succumb. The victors wreaked their vengeance 
on the ill-fated burghers with savage cruelty. The greater part of 
the population , which is said to have comprised 10,000 weavers 
alone (?) , perished by fire and sword , or in the waters of the 
Meuse. The fortress has sustained numerous other sieges, of which 
the three most memorable terminated with its capitulation , viz. 
that of 1632 by Prince Fred. Henry of Orange, that of 1673 by Louis 
XIV., and that of 1748 by the French under Marshal Saxe. Maas- 
tricht was almost the only town in the S. part of the Netherlands 
which was successfully maintained by the Dutch against the Bel- 
gian insurgents after the eventful month of September, 1830. 

The Stadhuis, or H$tel-de- Ville, with its clock-tower , situated 



to Rotterdam, PETERSBERG. 25. Route. 193 

in the great maTket-place , was erected in 1659-64 , and contains 
several pictures of the Dutch School and well-executed tapestry 
(1704), representing the history of the Israelites in the wilderness. 
The town-library is also in this building. 

By following the street immediately opposite theH6tel-de-Ville, 
and afterwards turning to the right, we reach the square, in which 
stands the Church of St. Servaas. 

The Cathedral of St. Servaas belongs in its older parts to the 
11th or 12th cent., and the crypt, rediscovered in 1881, is perhaps 
still more ancient. The interior was subsequently restored in the 
Gothic style. One of the altarpieces is a Descent from the Cross 
by Van Dyck. 

The Chukch Tkeasukt ( Schatkamer), which since 187b 1 has occupied 
a chapel of its own, and is shown to visitors for a fee of l /i fl., is 
worthy of inspection. The most interesting object which it contains is 
the late-Romanesque reliquary of St. Servaas (12th cent.), in the form of 
a church, 5 ft. 9 in. in length, 19 in. in breadth, and 27 in. high. It is 
executed in gilded and enamelled copper, and embellished with filigree 
work and precious stones. 

The Church of Notre Dame, oiLieve Vrouwenkerk, a late-Roman- 
esque edifice of the 11th cent., has been disfigured by subsequent 
additions , especially the unsuitable vaulting of last century. 

The principal attraction at Maastricht is the subterranean laby- 
rinth of sandstone-quarries which honeycomb the *Petersberg in 
every direction , having been worked for upwards of a thousand 
years. A visit to them occupies 1V2-2 hrs. We leave the town 
on the S. by the Peter's Gate, near which the guides live. After 
about 10 min. we pass the village of Peter sdorf, with a conspicuous 
modem brick church, and in about 15 min. more arrive at the 
suppressed Servite monastery of Slavanden, now the property of a 
private club (Casino) ; admission, however , is seldom denied to 
strangers (refreshments, fine view). The entrance to the Petersberg 
is close by. 

The Petersberg range , extending from Maastricht to Liege , is 
composed of a yellowish, sandy, and calcareous stone, or chalky 
tufa, which has been deposited by the water of the ocean, and 
contains numerous conchylia, fragments of coTal , sharks' teeth, 
fossil turtles , bones of a gigantic marine monster resembling a 
crocodile, and other traces of its remote subaqueous origin. Maiiy 
of these interesting fossils are preserved in the collection at Liege 
(p. 185), and others may be seen at the Athenaeum at Maastricht. 
The so-called orgues geologiques , cylindrical openings of 1-7 ft. 
in diameter, and generally vertical, perforating the formation to a vast 
depth, and now filled with clay, sand, and rubble, are a singular 
phenomenon which has not yet been satisfactorily explained. It is 
conjectured that they were originally formed by submarine whirl- 
pools, the action of which is known to produce circular orifices in 
rocks of much harder consistency , and that they were afterwards 
enlarged by the percolation of water. 

Baedeker's Belgium and Holland. 7th Edit. 13 



194 Route 28. MAASEYCK. 

The economical value of the stone consists in the facility with 
which it is sawn into symmetrical blocks, and in its property of 
hardening on exposure to the atmosphere. The galleries , which 
vary from 20 to 50 ft. in height, are supported by pillars averaging 
15 ft. in diameter, left for the purpose. The first excavations are 
believed to have been made by Roman soldiers , and the same 
systematic mode of working has been observed ever since that 
period. Ouicciardini 's (p. xiii) description of the quarries three 
centuries ago is still applicable. 

'Viscera montis scatent lapide quodam molli, arenoso, et parvo negotio 
sectili, cujus ingens assidue hie effoditur copia, idque tam accurata conser- 
vandi et montis et fodientium cura, tamque altis, longis, flexuosis, et 
periculosis quoque meatibus.' 

The galleries constitute a vast labyrinth , of about 12 M. in 
length , and 7 M. in breadth , and are all so exactly similar in ap- 
pearance , that their intricacies are known to a few experienced 
guides only. Most of the entrances are closed , as adventurous 
travellers have not unfrequently perished in the foolhardy attempt 
to explore the quarries alone. The dead bodies, which have occa- 
sionally been found in the more remote recesses, have been preserv- 
ed from decomposition by the remarkable dryness of the air, and 
the lowness of the temperature. Thousands of names are rudely 
scratched on the pillars, and a genuine inscription of the year 1037 
is even said to have been discovered. During the bloody wars of 
the 17th cent, the caverns were used as a place of refuge by the 
inhabitants of the surrounding districts. 

One of the phenomena pointed out by the guides is the gradual 
formation of a small natural reservoir in the roots of a fossil tree, 
by the dropping of water from the branches , which still remain 
embedded in the ceiling, the intermediate part having been removed 
in the course of the excavations. A curious effect is produced by 
the guide leaving the party temporarily and carrying his torch 
into the side-galleries , from which its light shines into the central 
one from time to time. The soft, friable nature of the stone 
deadens every sound , so that his footsteps soon seem as if far in 
the distance. The invariable temperature in the quarries is about 
55° Fahr. , and the change from the heat of a blazing sun to the 
coolness of the caverns is very perceptible. 

Railway to Aix-la-Chapelle, Hasselt, and Antwerp, see R. 17. 

To Rotterdam by Venlo (140 ] /2 M.) by Dutch railway in 6-6'/4 hrs. 
(fares 11 fl. 60, 9 fl. 25, 5 fl. 80 cents). As far as Venlo the line runs 
towards the N., following the course of the Meuse, which, however^ is 
rarely visible. Stations Bunde, Beek-Elsloo, Geleen, (14 M.) Sittard ('Hotel 
Hahnen) , Susteren (from which a diligence runs several times daily in 
1 hr. to the small town of Maaseyck, 5 M. distant, on the left bank of 
the Meuse, the birthplace of the brothers Van Eyck, to whom a handsome 
monument in marble was erected here in 1864; railway to Hasselt, see 
p. 156); then Echt, Maasbracht, and — 

29'/2 M. Roermond, the junction of the Gladbach and Antwerp line 
(R. 18). — Next stations Swalmen. Reuver, Tegelen, and (44 M.) Venlo 
(p. 307). Thence to Rotterdam, see R. 49. 



195 
29. From Liege to Namur. 

371/2 M. Railway in ly 4 -2 hra. (fares 4 fr. 80, 3 fr. 60, 2 fr. 40 c; 
express 5 fr. 70, 4 fr. 30, 2 fr. 85 c). This line is part of that from Co- 
logne and Liege to Paris. 

This part of the valley of the Meuse is remarkably picturesque 
and attractive. Bold cliffs , ruined castles , rich pastures , and 
thriving villages are passed in uninterrupted succession, while 
numerous coal-mines and manufactories with their lofty chimneys 
bear testimony to the enterprising character of the inhabitants. The 
whole district is densely-peopled, the land well-cultivated, and the 
scenery pleasantly diversified with hop-gardens , corn-fields , and 
meadows , but many of the prettiest points escape the railway- 
traveller. The quarries on both banks yield excellent marble. 

Ougree, Seraing (p. 188), and Val St. Lambert are stations on the 
right, Tilleur and Jemeppe stations on the left bank of the river, all 
picturesquely situated, with numerous manufactories and coal-mines. 

7 M. Flemalle , a considerable village , where a branch-line, 
constructed mainly for goods-traffic, crosses the river. 

Farther on , to the right , on a precipitous rock rising almost 
immediately from the river, stands the chateau of Chokier, with its 
red tower and massive walls , dating partly from the last century. 
It is the ancient seat of the Surlet de Chokier family, a member of 
which was regent of Belgium for five months previous to the election 
of King Leopold. Then , at some distance from the river, on the 
left, the castle of Aigremont, with its white walls, rising conspic- 
uously on the crest of a lofty hill, belonging to Count d'Outremont. 
It is said to have been originally erected by the Quatre Fils Ay- 
mon , four traditionary heroes of the middle ages. In the 15th 
cent, it formed the central point of the warlike exploits of William 
de la Marck, the 'Wild Boar of the Ardennes' (p. 207). To the left, 
opposite stat. Engis, stands the chateau of Engihoul, at the base of 
a limestone rock. In 1829 numerous fossil bones were discovered 
by Dr. Schmerling in the limestone rocks around Engis, which 
led him to the conclusion that a prehistoric race of human beings 
had once peopled this district. 12 M. Hermalle, with a handsome 
chateau and park, is another picturesque spot, between which and 
Neuville the scenery is less attractive, and the banks are flatter. 

14M. Amay, a village at some distance from the river, possesses 
a Romanesque church with three towers. Neuville, a modern 
chateau, beyond which the scenery again becomes more picturesque, 
lies nearly opposite (I5V2M.) Ampsin, where a ruined tower stands 
on the bank of the river. The train continues to skirt the hills on 
the left bank, of which no view is obtained. 

18 M. Huy, Flem. Hoey (*Aigle Noir, 'pension' G fr. ; Mouton 
Bleu), is a town with 12,100 inhab. , on the right bank of the 
Meuse (station on the left bank), at the mouth of the Hoyoux. The 
Citadel, constructed in 1822, but now condemned to demolition, 

13* 



1 96 Route 29. ANDENNB. 

rises from the river in terraces. The -works are partly hewn in the 
solid roek, and command both banks of the river. The hills on the 
left bank are here 1 /% M. distant from the river. The *Collegiate 
Church (Notre Dame), a fine structure in the most perfect Gothic 
style, was begun in 1311, but renewed after a fire in the 16th 
century, and recently restored. Handsome "W. portal with good 
sculptures. In 1868 a statue by J. Geefs was erected on the prome- 
nade skirting the Meuse, to Jos. Lebeau, a Belgian statesman, bom 
at Huy in 1794, one of the most zealous promoters of the election 
of King Leopold. 

The abbey of Neufmoustier , founded by Peter the Hermit 
(d. 1115), formerly stood in one of the suburbs of Huy, and the 
great preacher of the Crusades was himself buried there. A statue 
has been erected to him in the garden of the old abbey. This was 
one of no fewer than seventeen religious houses which Huy 
possessed under the regime of the bishops of Liege , although the 
population of the town was then about 5000 only. 

Fkom Hut to Landen, 22>/ 2 M., in l'/«-lV» hr. (fares 2 fr. 75, 2fr. 5, 
I fr. 40 c). The train may be taken either at the station of Slatle (see 
below), a suburb on the left bank of the Meuse, or at Huy-Tilleul, to the 
S. of the town. The two stations, which are l'/j M. apart, are connected 
by a bridge across the Meuse. — At (3 3 /4 M.) Moka, with a ruined castle, 
the line begins to ascend the picturesque valley of the Mehaigne, a tri- 
butary of the Meuse. Stations : Huccorgne ; Fumal, with an old castle ; 
Fallais, with a Romanesque church , and the ruins of a castle destroyed 
by Louis XIV. ; Braives-Latinne. The country now becomes flat. The last 
stations are Avenues, Hannut, Avernas-Bertrie. Then Landen, see p. 173. 

Fbom Hot to Cinet, 25 M. , in 2"/* hrs. (fares 3 fr. 5, 2 fr. 30, 1 fr. 
55 c). The trains start from Huy-Tilleul (see above). — The pleasing valley 
of the Hoyoux, which the line ascends, is also interesting for pedestrians. 
— 3 3 /4 M. Bane. — 7 M. Modave, whence a visit may be paid to the Chateau 
of Modave, situated on a lofty rock, built by the Counts Marchin in the 
17th cent., and now the property of M. Braconnier of Liege. Then, Cla- 
vier- Terwagne, Avins-en-Condroz, Havelange, Hamois, Emptinne. — Ciney, 
see p. 168. 

19 J /2 M. Statte, a suburb of Huy on the left bank of the Meuse, 
and junction of the line from Landen to Ciney, which here crosses 
the river (see above, and comp. Map). 

20*/2 M. Bas-Oha, with an old castle now restored, and vine- 
yards on the neighbouring hills. On the height opposite are the 
scanty ruins of the castle of Beaufort, destroyed in 1554. 

25 M. Andenne-Seilles. On the left bank, where the railway- 
station is situated, lies the straggling village of Seilles, the last in 
the district of Liege. There are several lime-kilns here, and a cha- 
teau restored in the style of the 15th century. Opposite Seilles, and 
connected with it by means of an iron bridge, lies Andenne, with 
7100 inhab., a busy town, with paper, fayence, and other manu- 
factories. Down to 1785 a religious establishment of 32 sisters of 
noble family, who were not bound by any vow to abstain from ma- 
trimony, had existed here for upwards of a thousand years. It is said 
to have been founded by St. Begga, a daughter of Pepin of He'ristal 



MARCHE-LES-DAMES. 29. Route. 197 

(p. 173), and the order was probably identical with that of the Be- 
guiues, who are also permitted to marry. The establishment was 
transferred to Namur by Emp. Joseph II. 

29 M. Sclaigneaux is the station for Sclayn, a pretty village on 
the opposite bank. At (30 M.) Nam'eche, another pleasant village in 
the midst of fruit-trees, the riveris crossed by an iron bridge. On the 
opposite bank lies Samson, a village at the foot of a picturesque cliff 
of white limestone. Above Samson are situated a modern chateau 
and the ruins of a castle believed to date from the 12th cent, or 
earlier. Near it, in 1858, was discovered a Frankish burial-place, 
in which upwards of 250 skeletons with weapons and ornaments 
were found. A long breakwater here projects into the river in order 
to deepen the navigable channel. The rocks between Sclayn and 
Namur are not unlike the curious formations of the 'Saxon Switzer- 
land'. On the left rises the chateau of Moisnil; then that of Bru- 
magne, the property of Baron de Woelmont. 

32 M. Marche-les-Dames, adjoining which are the ironworks 
of Enouf. The chateau of the Due d'Arenberg, with its terraced 
gardens, peeping from amidst groups of trees on the rocky slope, 
occupies the site of an abbey founded in 1101 by 139 noble ladies, 
the wives of crusaders who had accompanied Godfrey de Bouillon 
to the Holy Land. 

37V 2 M. Namur, see p. 163. 

30. From Liege to Aix-la-Chapelle. 

341/2 M. Railway to Verviers (I51/2 M.) in 35-60 min. (fares 1 fr. 
80, 1 fr. 35, 90 c. ; express one-fourth higher); from Verviers to Aix-la 
Chapelle (19 M.) in 40-65 min. (fares 5 fr. 25, 3 fr. 75, 2 fr. 65 c). In 
the reverse direction : express from Aix-la-Chapelle to Liege 4 marks 60, 
3 m. 40 pfennigs; from Cologne to Liege 13 m. 80 pf., 10 m. ; from Co- 
logne to Brussels 21 m., 15 m. 70 pf. (The German mark, worth Is. 
Engl., is divided into 100 pfennigs.) Between Verviers and Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle (and Cologne) several of the express trains have first-class carriages 
only, but in Belgium they always consist of the three classes. — At Her- 
besthal, the Prussian frontier-station, small articles of luggage are exam- 
ined; but that in the luggage -van is not examined till the traveller 
arrives at Aix-la-Chapelle (or at Cologne, if booked to, or beyond Cologne). 

The country traversed by the line between Liege and the Prussian 
frontier is remarkable for its picturesque scenery, busy manufactories, 
and pretty country-houses, while the engineering skill displayed in the 
construction of the line is another object of interest. This part of the line, 
34 M. in length, cost upwards of 25 million francs. The picturesque 
stream which the line crosses so frequently is the Vesdre, and pleasant 
glimpses of its wooded banks are obtained on both sides of the train. 
The rock penetrated by most of the tunnels is a bluish limestone , fre- 
quently veined with quartz, and often used for building purposes. This 
is the most beautiful part of the journey between England and Germany, 
and should if possible be performed by daylight. 

The Bergisch-Makkisch Railway also has a line between Verviers and 
Aix-la-Chapelle (l-l'A br. ; fares 2 fr. 60, 2 fr. 15, 1 fr. 50 c. ; or 2 m. 
10, 1 m. 70, 1 m. 20 pf.). It diverges at Dolhain (p. 199) from the 
Rhenish line, and near Welkenraedt passes the Eineburg , or Emma- 
burg, once a country-residence of Charlemagne, where his secretary Egin- 



198 Route 30. CHENEE. From Liege 

hard is said to have become enamoured of the emperor's daughter Emma 
whom he afterwards married. Near the next station Montzen-Moremet 
on the Belgian and Prussian frontier, is situated the neutral territory 
of Moresnet, a tract about 3 M. in length, and 'A M. in breadth, in which 
lie the valuable zinc-mines of the Altenberg, or Vieille itontagne, the prop- 
erty of a company whose works are near Liege. Station Bleyberg, then 
Aix-la- Chap ell e (Templerbend-Station) ; see Baedeker's Rhine. Through- 
trains of the Bergisch-Markisch Railway from Brussels to Diisseldorf go 
by this line (express from Calais to Berlin in 203/4 hrs.). 

The train starts from the Station des Ouillemins at Liege, 
crosses the handsome Pont du Vol Benoit, passes (l'/ 2 M.) Angleur 
(junction of the Ligne de VOurthe, for which see p. 189), and 
crosses the Ourthe near its confluence with the Vesdre. 

272 M. Chenee (4500 inhab.), at the mouth of the Vesdre, is a 
busy manufacturing place with ironworks and the extensive zinc- 
foundry of the Vieille Montagne Co. — Branch -line to Heme, 
Battice, and Aubel. 

472 M. Chaudfontaine (*6rand Hotel des Bains; Hotel d'An- 
gleterre), a small and beautifully-situated watering-place, attracts 
numerous visitors from Liege. The thermal spring (104° Fahr.) 
used for the baths is situated on an island in the Vesdre , which is 
connected with the bank by a handsome suspension-bridge. Chaud- 
fontaine, like the German watering-places, boasts of a 'Cursaal' 
situated near the station, in the garden of which concerts are given 
in summer. From the back of the church a pleasant path, provided 
with seats, leads to the top of the hill (10 min.), which rises above 
the village and commands a fine view of the valley of the Vesdre. 

On the rocks to the right, beyond the tunnel, is perched the tur- 
reted old castle of Le Trooz, which has been used for upwards of a 
century as a manufactory for boring gun-barrels. Beyond it is the 
station of the same name. Several other prettily-situated chateaux 
are passed. Then (9y 2 M.) Nessonvaux. 

I272 M. Pepinster, with 2500 inhab., is the junction for Spa 
and Luxembourg (see R. 31). The name is said to be derived from 
'Pepin's terre' , the district having anciently belonged to the an- 
cestors of Charlemagne. 

Stat. Ensival , on the left, is almost a suburb of Verviers. 

1572 M. Verviers {Hotel des Pays-Bas, in the town; Hotel du 
Chemin de Fer, Hdtel cTAllemagne, both at the station ; Railway 
Restaurant ; American Consul,Mv. Geo.C. Tanner, Rue du Palais 21), 
with 41,000 inhab., is a town of modern origin, containing numer- 
ous extensive manufactories, which have flourished here since the 
18th century. Cloth is the staple commodity of the place. Upwards 
of 390,000 pieces are manufactured annually in Verviers and the 
environs, about one-third of which is exported. Yarn is also spun 
here in considerable quantity. In the new part of the town, to the 
left of the approach to the station, is a handsome brick church in 
the Gothic style. Napoleon III. spent a night in the Hotel d'Alle- 
magne in 1870, when on his way as a prisoner to Wilhelmshohe. 



to Aix-la-Chapelle. DOLHAIN. 30. Route. 199 

Beyond Verviers the train passes through seven tunnels and 
crosses several bridges within a short distance. 

20^2 M. Dolhain (Hotel d'Allemagne), the last station in Belgium, 
a modern place, picturesquely situated in the valley of the Vesdre, 
occupies the site of the lower part of the ancient city of Limburg. 
On the height above it stands the conspicuous castle of Limburg, 
the ancestral seat of the ancient ducal family of Limburg, from 
which the counts of Luxembourg and the German emperors Hen- 
ry VII., Charles IV., Wenceslaus, and Sigismund were descended. 
The castle belonged to the ancient capital of the fertile Duchy of 
Limburg, of which but few traces now remain. The city possessed 
a cathedral and five other churches, and occupied the entire breadth 
of the valley of Dolhain. In 1288 it was sacked by Duke John I. of 
Brabant after the Battle of Worringen, it was afterwards taken and 
pillaged at different times by the Dutch, the Spaniards, and the 
French, and was at length entirely destroyed by Louis XIV. in 
1675. A number of well-built houses have sprung up within the 
walls of the ancient fortifications, from which peeps forth the old 
Gothic Church of St. George, containing a tabernacle of 1520. On 
a rocky eminence stands a small modern chateau. 

From Dolhain a visit may be paid (1 hr.) to the interesting Barrage 
de la Oileppe, the road to which ascends the valley beyond Limburg for 
about '/* M. , and then follows a lateral valley to the right. — The 
Barrage de la Gileppe, a triumph of modern engineering, was constructed 
in 1869-78 by Braive, Caillet, & Co., from a plan by the engineer Bidaut 
(d. 1868), for the purpose of forming a reservoir of pure, soft water for 
the use of the manufactories of Verviers. It consists of an immense em- 
bankment, 90 yds. long and 72 yds. thick at the base, and 256 yds. long and 
16 yds. thick at the top, carried across a narrow part of the valley of the 
Oileppe. The lake or reservoir thus formed is about 150 ft. in depth, 
covers an area of 200 acres, and contains 2,700,000,000 gals, of water. It 
is connected with Verviers by an aqueduct, 5'/2 M. long, built by Moulan. 
On the top of the embankment couches a colossal lion, 43 ft. in height, 
constructed by Boure' with 243 blocks of sandstone. The total cost of these 
waterworks amounted to five million francs. — On the way back Lim- 
burg may be visited. 

24 '/2 M. Herbesthal, the first Prussian station, is the junction 
for Eupen (train in */4 hr.). The custom-house formalities cause a 
detention of about lOmin. here. Beyond (27 Y2M.) Astenet, the train 
crosses the Obhl Valley by a viaduct of seventeen double arches, 
125 ft. in height. Beyond (30 M.) Ronheide it descends an in- 
cline to — 

34^2 M. Aix-Ia-Chapelle (see Baedeker's Rhine). Railway 
thence to Maastricht, see R. 17; to Cologne, Dusseldorf, etc., see 
Baedeker's Rhine. 

31. From Pepinster to Spa and Luxembourg. 

891/2 M. Railway from Pepinster to Spa O l k M.) in >/ 2 hr. (fares 95, 70, 
50 c.) ; from Spa to Luxembourg (82 M.) in 4 hrs. (fares 11 fr. 70, 8 fr. 10, 
5 fr. 40 c). Express fares '/4th higher. Belgian state-railway as far as 
Trois Vierges or Ulflingen, and afterwards the Alsace-Lorraine and Luxem- 
bourg line. — Seats on the top of the carriages pleasant in fine weather. 



200 Route 31 . SPA. From Pepinster 

Pepinster, see p. 198. The valley of the Hoegne, which the rail- 
way ascends, is enclosed by picturesque and wooded hills, and en- 
livened by a succession of country-houses, gardens, and manufac- 
tories. Near (3 M.) Theux, a small town with several cloth-factories 
and ironworks, rises a hill laid out in pleasure-grounds, to the left, 
in which stands the extensive ruined castle of Franchimont, de- 
stroyed as early as 1145 by a Bishop of Liege. The last proprietor 
is said to have been a robber-knight, who possessed vast treasures 
buried in the vaults beneath his castle, where they remain con- 
cealed to this day. The tradition is gracefully recorded by Sir Wal- 
ter Scott in his lines on the Towers of Franchimont, — 

'Which, like an eagle's nest in air, 

Hang o'er the stream and hamlet fair. 

Deep in their vaults, the peasants say, 

A mighty treasure buried lay, 

Amass'd through rapine and through wrong 

By the last lord of Franchimont'. 
Above Theux the Hoegne describes a wide curve towards the 
E., and the train enters the valley of the Wayai. 5 M. La Reid; 
the village is on the hill, 2 M. to the right (comp. p. 203). Farther 
on, also to the right, lies Marteau (p. 203). 

71/2 M. Spa. — Hotels. Hotel de Flandbe, Hue du Vauxhall; Hotel 
d'Obange, Eue Boyale; Hotel des Pays Bats, Sue du Marched Gkand 
Hotel Bbitannique , Hotel de l'Eueope, Hotel d'Yobk, all three in 
the Eue de la Sauveniere; Hotel du Midi, Avenue du Marteau, E. 3fr., 
D. 4'/2 fr. ; Hotel de Bellevue, same street; Hotel des Bains, Place 
Eoyale ; Hotel do Palais Eoyal, Eue du Marche 1 ; Hotel Leboy-Tatlob, 
Rue du Marteau ; Hotel Eotal, Hotel du Nobd, Place Pierre le Grand; 
Hotel de Poetugal, Place Eoyale; Hotel de Laeken, Eue du Marche; 
Hotel des Etbangebs, Eue du Marche; Hotel des Deux Fontaines, 
Place Pierre-le-Grand ; Hotel de Cologne, Eue du Fourneau; Hotel de 
la Chaine d'Ob, Eue du Marteau; Hotel de la Poste, Eue du Marche; 
Hotel Beighton, Eue du Marteau. Table d'hote generally at 5 o'clock. 
'Pension' at some of the hotels 7-13 fr. Funished Apartments may be 
easily obtained. — Omnibuses from the principal hotels are in waiting 
at the station. 

Restaurants. Casino, see p. 201; at most of the above-named hotels; 
others at the Oironstire, the Sauveniere, and Barisart, all dear. 

Carriages. There are three kinds of carriages : those with one horse 
and seats for two persons ; those with one horse and seats for three ; and 
others with two horses. The following are the fares for these different 
vehicles: '■Tour des Fontaines' (a visit to the different springs; 2 hrs.) 6, 
8, 10 fr. ; to Sart and Francorchamps, returning via Sauveniere (3'/2 hrs.), 12, 
14, 18 fr. ; Theux and Franchimont (2>/2 hrs.) 8, 10, 12 fr. ; Orotte de Remou- 
champs (3 hrs.) 18, 20, 25 fr.; Cascade de Coo (3 hrs.) 16, 18, 25 fr., via 
Stavelot 18, 20, 30 fr. 

Horses. Ponies ('bidets'), of a peculiar variety and as sure-footed as 
asses or mules, are much used; ride of 2 hrs. 5 fr. ; each additional hour 

2 fr. ; Orotte de Remouchamps 15 fr. ; Cascade de Coo 15 fr. ; etc. 

Visitors' Tax. Since the suppression of gaming the directors of the 
baths have exacted the following charges from frequenters of the Casino, 
the Winter Garden, and the Park : 1 pers. for a fortnight 20, 2 pers. 35, 

3 pers. 45 fr.; for thetseason 65, 90, or 110 fr. Day-tickets for the Casino, 
Park, and Pouhon 2 fr., for the Park or the Pouhon alone 50 c. 

Concerts. In the Promenade de Sept Heures in the afternoon from 
1.30 to 3.30, and in the evening from 6.30 to 8.30 (50 c; see below). No 
music in the forenoon. 




3*3x1 nl: T ' sd-nHMpm>w»u + ap Jfuijg y ?»*1T 9 T 



to Luxembourg. SPA. 31 . Route. 20 1 

Post and Telegraph Office, Rue Neuve. 

Physicians. Dr. Forbes; Dr. Thompson; Dr. Lezaak, Place Royale; 
Dr. Scheuer, Rue de la Sauveniere. 

English Church Service, in the handsome English Church in the Bou- 
levard des Anglais, opened in 1876; Sunday services at 8.30, 11. 30, and 
7; daily at 8.30 a.m. — Presbyterian Service in July and August at the 
Chapelle Evangelique. 

Spa (820-1080 ft. above the sea-level), a small, attractive- 
looking town with 6500 inhab., is prettily situated at the S. base of 
wooded heights, at the confluence of three streams, the Wayai, the 
Picherotte, and the Spa. Like other watering-places, it consists chiefly 
of hotels and lodging-houses , while numerous shops and bazaars 
with tempting souvenirs and trinkets , a pleasure-seeking throng 
in the promenades , and numbers of importunate valets-de-place 
and persons of a similar class, all combine to indicate that 
character which occasioned the introduction of its name into 
the English language as a generic term. This, the original 
and genuine 'Spa', the oldest European watering-place of any 
importance, has flourished for a century and a half, and was 
the Baden-Baden of the 18th century, the fashionable Tesort of 
crowned heads and nobles from every part of Europe. Peter the 
Great was a visitor here in 1717, Gustavus III. of Sweden in 1780, 
the Emp. Joseph II. and Prince Henry of Prussia in 1781 , and the 
Emp. Paul, when crown-prince in 1782 ; to whom might be added 
a long list of members of the noble families of England , France, 
Germany, and still more distant countries, who have patronised 
Spa and benefited by its waters. After the French Revolution its 
prosperity began to decline, but it has of late regained much of its 
popularity, and many new buildings have sprung up. It is now fre- 
quented by upwards of 20, 000 visitors annually, nearly half of whom 
are Belgians. The pretty painted and varnished woodwares offered 
for sale everywhere are a speciality of Spa ('bois de Spa'). 

The town is entered from the station by the Avenue du Marteau 
(p. 203), which leads to the Place Royale. The new and imposing 
Etallissement de Bains situated here is admirably fitted up (open 
6 a.m. to 6 p.m. ; baths 1 fr. 30 c-6 fr.). Near it, in the Rue 
Royale, is the Casino, corresponding to the 'Cursaal' of German 
baths, containing ball, concert, reading, and dining rooms (see above). 

In the Place Pierre-le-Grand, in the centre of the town , and 
nearly opposite the Casino, is situated the chief of the sixteen 
mineral springs, called the Pouhon (the Walloon word pouhir = 
pu iser in French , and pouhon = puits, or well). The pump-room 
erected here in 1820 was replaced in 1880 by a more handsome 
edifice with covered promenades, conversation - rooms , and a 
beautiful winter-garden (see above). The water of this spring (50° 
Fahr.), which is perfectly clear, and strongly impregnated with 
iron and carbonic acid gas, possesses tonic and invigorating proper- 
ties, and is largely exported to all parts of the continent, to Eng- 
land, and to the E. and "W. Indies. Adjacent, in the Rue Dundas, 



202 Route 31. SPA. From Pepinster 

is the Pouhon du Prince de Condi, the water of which is also ex- 
ported. Other springs in the neighbourhood are not used by the 
public. 

The favourite lounge of visitors in the afternoon and evening is 
the Promenade de Sept Heures, shaded by magnificent old elms 
(unfortunately seriously injured by a storm in 1876), where a good 
band plays (p. 200). The Place Royale (see above), immediately ad- 
joining the promenade, is also much frequented. During the con- 
certs a charge of 50 c. is made for admission to the Promenade 
de Sept Heures. — Pleasant paths diverging from the promenades 
ascend the neighbouring hills , leading through the woods to fine 
points of view. Opposite the music-pavilion of the Place Royale is 
an entrance to the Montagne d'Annette et Lubin, with a cafe. We 
may thence extend our walk down to (4y 2 M.) the valley of the 
Chawion, which flows into the Wayai near La Reid (p. 200). 

The various springs in the environs are most conveniently visited 
in the following order in 2'/2-3 hrs. (le tour des fontaines). We 
first follow, passing the Pouhon on the right, the broad Rue de la 
Cascade, which is embellished by a fountain with genii, by Jaquet. 
The prolongation of this street, which leads uphill, and is named 
Rue de la Sauveniere, is crossed by the railway, just after quitting 
the town. We now follow the high-road (the Sauveniere, IV2 M. ; 
Francorchamps, 5 M.), which is pleasantly shaded by elms, to a point 
about V4 M. beyond the Salon Levoz, an old gambling-house, with 
a garden. Here we turn to the left into an avenue, which leads in 
20 min. (on the left a retrospective view of Spa) to the Tonnelet 
(250 ft. higher than the Pouhon) , a spring now less in vogue that 
formerly. — About V2M. to the E. of the Tonnelet rises the spring 
of Niveze, now called the Source Marie Henriette, in consequence 
of a visit of the Queen of Belgium in 1868 ,- its water is conducted 
to the Etablissement de Bains. 

From the Tonnelet a road ascends to the S., through forests 
of birch and pine, to the (20 min.) Sauveniere (Restaurant, dear), 
situated 460 ft. above the Pouhon, on the road from Spa to 
Francorchamps and Malmedy. Close to it is the Oroesbeck spring, 
surrounded with pleasant plantations, where a monument was 
erected in 1787 by the Due de Chartres (Louis Philippe), to com- 
memorate the fact that his mother, the Duchess of Orleans, was 
cured of a serious illness by the waters of La Sauveniere. At the 
Fontaine de Groesbeck , women are frequently observed devoutly 
drinking the water on their knees , thus showing their simple faith 
in its miraculous virtues. Opposite the Restaurant de la Sauve- 
niere a promenade leads at a right angle from the high-road to the 
(!/2hr.) Oeronstere (Restaurant), situated 470 ft. higher than the 
Pouhon, and also reached (2'/2 M.) by a direct road from Spa. 
(Leaving the Place Pierre-le-Grand by the church on the right, we 
pass the Hotel de Flandre and ascend the Rue du Vauxhall ; about 



to Luxembourg. STAVELOT. 31. Route. 203 

100 yds. from the railway, we observe, on the left, the former gam- 
j)ling-house of Vauxhall, beyond which the road is called the Rue 
de la Geronstere.) — The Oeronstere Spring was formerly the most 
celebrated. Its properties were tested by Peter the Great, whose 
physician extols them in a document still preserved at Spa. — The 
high-road continues southwards , via La Gleize, to the (5 J /2 M.) 
Waterfall of Coo (p. 205). In returning to Spa from the Geronstere 
we soon strike a pleasant footpath on the left, leading in 20 min. to 
the Barisart (165 ft. above the Pouhon), which was not enclosed 
till 1850 (restaurant). Thence to Spa about 1 M. 

A beautiful level promenade is afforded by the Avenue du 
Marteau, a road flanked with a double avenue, and bordered here 
and there with well-built houses. It leads from the Place Royale 
to the E., following the course of the Wayai, to (l 3 / 4 M.) the 
village of Marteau. 

Excursions. To the Cascade of Coo, 10 M. (carr., aee p. 200). The 
road leads past the Geronstere and ascends to the Plateau des Fagnes. 
Farther on the road forks: the left arm leads via (4'/2 M.) Andrimont and 
Roanne to Coo; the right arm goes to Cow and La Gleize. Cascade of 
Coo, see p. 205. 

To Remouchamps , 10-12 M. (can-., see p. 200). The road descends 
the valley of the SoSgne to the station of La Reid (p. 200), and then as- 
cends to the left, through a pretty valley, to Hestroumont and the village 
of La Reid (885 ft.; 2 M. from the station). It here unites with the steep 
but more direct bridle-path from Marteau (see above). Beyond Bautre- 
gard the road descends to Remouchamps ( see p. 206). 

Excursions may also be made to Franchimont (p. 200) and Ambleve (p. 207). 



Beyond Spa the Luxembourg line at first runs towards the E., 
traversing a hilly and partly - wooded district, and afterwards 
turns to the S. (views to the left). 15 M. (from Pepinster) Hockai ; 
17M. Francorchamps. Farther on, a fine view of Stavelot is obtained. 

23 M. Stavelot (Hotel d' Orange), a busy manufacturing town 
with 4500 inhab., on the Ambleve, which was the seat of abbots of 
princely rank and independent jurisdiction down to the Peace of 
Luneville in 1801. The Benedictine Abbey was founded as early as 
651, and its possessions included Malmedy, which has belonged to 
Prussia since 1815. Part of the tower only of the Romanesque ab- 
bey-church is now extant. The parish-church contains the *Chdsse 
de St. Remade, Bishop of Liege 652-62 , a reliquary of embossed 
copper , gilded , enamelled , and bejewelled. The niches at the 
sides are filled with statuettes of the Twelve Apostles, St. Rema- 
clius, and St. Lambert, in silver, executed in the 14th century. 

About 5 M. to the N.E. of Stavelot (diligence twice daily, crossing 
the Prussian frontier halfway), in a pretty basin of the Warche, lies the 
Prussian district-town of Malmedy (Cheval Blanc), the capital of a Walloon 
district which formerly belonged to the independent Benedictine abbey 
of Malmedy-Stavelot, and was annexed to Prussia in 1815. The abbey- 
church, originally in the Romanesque style, and the abbey-buildings, 
which are occupied by public offices, form an extensive pile. French is 
still spoken by the upper classes, and the Walloon dialect by the lower 
throughout the district (about 10,000 inhab.). 



204 Route 31. DIEKIRCH. 

The line here follows the valley of the Ambleve. 26 M. Trois 
Ponts ( Auberge des Ardennes), a small village named after its three 
old bridges (over the Ambleve, over the Salm, and over another 
brook), and situated behind precipitous rocks through which the 
railway passes. Excursion from Trois Ponts down the valley of the 
Ambleve, see R. 32. 

The line now enters the picturesque ravine of the Salm , passes 
through a tunnel, and follows the left bank of the stream. 29!/ 2 M. 
Grand- Halleux ; 33 M. Viel-Salm, at some distance from the 
village (*H6tel Bellevue) of that name ; interesting slate-quarries 
in the environs. Farther on, to the right, is the ruined castle of 
Salm, the ancestral seat of the princely family of that name. The 
line now quits the valley of the Salm, passes (38 M.) Bovigny- 
Courty (diligence once daily to Houffalize, p. 191), and at (41 M.) 
Oouvy (Belgian custom-house) crosses the watershed between the 
Meuse and Moselle, which is at the same time the Luxembourg 
frontier. Branch-line to Bastogne (p. 170) in progress. 

46!/2 M. Trois - Vierges, Ger. Vlflingen, the frontier - station of 
Luxembourg, lies in the valley of the Wolz. The Luxembourg 
railway , under German management , begins here. Picturesque 
scenery. 

49 M. Maulusmiihle. A pleasant walk may be taken hence to the 
next station. — 5IY2M. Clerf or Clervaux, a picturesquely-situated 
place (Hotel Koner) to the E. of the line, with an old castle, visible 
from the line before and after the passage of the tunnel, but not 
from the station. The castle was formerly in the possession of the 
Seigneurs de Lannoy, the most famous of whom was Charles V.'s 
general, Charles de Lannoy, the conqueror of Francis I. at the battle 
of Pavia. The interior has been modernised. — 58 M. Wilwerwiltz ; 
to the left is the ruined castle of Schieburg. t — 61 M. Kautenbach, 
at the confluence of the Wilz and the Wolz. A branch-line diverges 
here to (6 M.) Wiltz (*H6tel des Ardennes). — 631/2 M. Goebels- 
miihle, at the confluence of the Wolz and the Sure, or Saur. The 
finest scenery on the line is between this point and the next station. 
On the left rise the imposing ruins of the castle of Burscheid, below 
which is a tunnel. — 66 M. Michelau, whence a visit may be paid 
to Burscheid (Y2 I" - .). — 71 M. Ettelbriick (Hotel du Luxembourg), 
a small town , pleasantly situated at the confluence of the Warche 
and the Alzette. Fine view from the Herrenberg. 

Beanch-line (in 10 min.) from Ettelbriick to (2'/2 M.) Diekirch ("Hotel 
des Ardennes, 'pens.' 5 fr. ; HStel du Luxembourg), a small town prettily 
situated on the Sure. — Pleasant excursion to Vianden ("H6tel du Luxem- 
bourg), 8 M. to the N. of Diekirch , in the valley of the Our. The little 
town is picturesquely commanded by an imposing ruined castle of the 
counts of Nassau. The elegant decagonal castle-chapel was restored in 1849. 
The parish-church contains tombstones of the 15th and 16th centuries. 

Feom Diekirch to Wassekbillig (Treves), 30 M., railway in l'/r 
2V«lir8. (to Treves */2- 3 /ihr. more). — The train ascends the valley of the 
Sure. 2V2 M. Bettendorf; 6 M. Reisdorf; 13 M. Bollendorf. — IVfr M. 
Echternach ("Hitel du t'crf), a great resort of pilgrims, noted for the 



WATERFALL OF COO. 32. Route. 205 

singular 'Leaping Procession' which takes place every Whit-Tuesday. The 
abbey of Echternach enjoyed independent jurisdiction down to 1801. The 
church was consecrated in 1051; the nave and aisles are separated by a 
series of alternate columns and pillars , the former of which are distin- 
guished by their lightness and the beauty of their capitals. — 22y 2 M. 
Rosport; 26 M. Born. — 30 M. Wasserbillig, at the confluence of the Sure 
and the Moselle, see p. 172. 

At Ettelbiiick the train enters the valley of the Alzette, which 
is at first narrow and picturesque, and follows it to Luxembourg. 
72 1 /2 M. Colmar-Berg, at the confluence of the Alzette and Attert, 
with an old castle of the Counts of Nassau. From (74y 2 M.) Kruchten 
a branch runs to (7Y2 M.) Larochette , a picturesquely - situated 
little town. — 76Y2 M. Mersch (Hotel Steffen) , at the confluence 
of the Eisch, Mamer, and Alzette , the valleys of which afford 
pleasant excursions. Thus to the W. are the chateau of Hollenfels 
and the ruined monastery of Marienthal in the valley of the Eisch, 
and the handsome chateau of Schonfels in the valley of the Mamer ; 
while to the E. lie the chateau and park of Meysemburg, the pro- 
perty of Prince Arenberg. — 82 M. Lintgen; 82^2 M. Lorentz- 
weiler; 84'^ M. Wolferdange ; 86y 2 M. Dommeldange, and — 

89y 2 M. Luxembourg, see p. 171. 

32. The Valley of the Ambleve. 

From Trois-Ponts down to Comblain-au-Pont a pleasant walk of l'/2-2 
days. Quarters for the night at Remouchamps. 

The Ambleve, Ger. Amel, rises in several branches on the Hohe Veen, 
and on the Belgian frontier receives the waters of the Warche on which 
Malmedy (p. 203) is situated. Below Trois-Ponts the river has worn for 
itself a deep passage through the plateau of the Ardennes, and its valley 
is wilder and grander at places than that of the Ourthe (p. 189). 

Trois-Ponts (p. 204) is a station on the Spa and Luxembourg- 
line (road from Spa to Coo , see p. 203). A little way from 
the station, on this side of the first bridge, a finger-post indicates 
the road to Coo, which the traveller follows without crossing the 
stream (the path on the bank of the river is a short-cut). At the 
(iy 2 M.) bridge of Coo a view is suddenly obtained of the beautiful 
*Waterfall of Coo, with its picturesque and mountainous environs. 
Part of the Ambleve is here precipitated through two artificial gaps 
in the rock, made during last century, while the rest of the water 
flows past the openings and reaches the bottom of the rocks by a 
circuitous course of 3 M. Near the waterfall is the Hotel de la Cas- 
cade, with a terrace and pavilion. 

Below Coo the road follows the narrow main valley for about 
1 M., and then ascends the hill. At the point where the road divides, 
we take the branch to the left, which leads to La Oleize (Inn of Veuve 
Delvenne); the arm to the right leads to Roanne (see above). Beyond 
La Gleize the road traverses the wood, passes the chapel of Ste. Anne 
and the farm of Froidcourt (on the hill beyond the Ambleve rises 
the old castle of La Veaux Renard), and leads to Stoumont ( H6tel 
du Val del' Ambleve), 6 M. from Coo. The road descends, command- 



206 Route 32. VALLEY OF THE AMBLEVE. 

ing a fine view of the wild and sombre valley as far as Targ- 
non, which rises on an almost isolated hill, and of the still wilder 
ravine of the Lienne opposite. "Woods are now occasionally traversed. 
About 4^/2 M. from Stoumont is the Fond des Quarreux, a wild Tocky 
basin, where the course of the Ambleve is obstructed by innumer- 
able masses of rock of all sizes. The villages of Quarreux and 
(li/4 M.) Sedoz are next reached. Opposite the village of Nonce- 
veux, before the river makes a sharp bend towards the W., the 
Dauneux is seen issuing from a gloomy gorge on the right. (As- 
cending the course of this stream, and passing a small farm-house, 
the traveller may in 5 min. reach the *Chaudiere, a small but inter- 
esting waterfall.) The road now runs nearly in the same direc- 
tion as the Ambleve, which forms a wide circuit round the hill ris- 
ing towards the S. A considerable saving is effected by following 
the road which ascends the lofty slope to the right, opposite the 
mouth of the Dauneux. Fine retrospect from the top. The latter 
route soon descends (at the cross-roads bear to the right) and leads 
to the road from Spa (10i/ 2 M. distant), by which (13V2 M. from 
Stoumont) Remouchamps is soon reached. 

Remouchamps (*H6tel des Etrangers, 'pension' 5 fr.), one of the 
prettiest spots in the valley of the Ambleve, is suitable for a pro- 
longed stay. Farther up, the ancient and still-inhabited chateau of 
Mont-Jardin, loftily situated on the opposite bank, peeps down from 
amid dense foliage. The stalactite Grotto is the chief attraction at 
Remouchamps , and should be visited by those who have not seen 
the finer caverns of Han-sur-Lesse (p. 169). The entrance adjoins 
the Hotel des Etrangers (admission 3 fr., torches included; costume 
for ladies 1^2 &• J trifling fee to the guide, extra). The grotto con- 
sists of an upper and a lower part, to which last a flight of steps 
descends, and it is traversed by a brook. Another peculiarity which 
the limestone basin of Remouchamps has in common with other 
similar districts is the disappearance of almost all the streams in 
the neighbourhood , towards the N. , in subterranean clefts or 
'entonnoirs' (funnels), locally called 'chantoirs'. The largest of 
these is the Entonnoir of Adseux, 3 M. north of the village. The 
traveller follows the road as far as the village of Dreigne, where a 
boy had better be taken as a guide. That the brook which disappears 
in the entonnoir is the same which re-appeaTS near Remouchamps 
has frequently been proved by the experiment of throwing in 
various objects and observing them emerge at the other end. 

Below Remouchamps, and also on the right bank of the Ambleve, 
lies Sougne, at the base of the cliff called l Heid des Qattes' (goats' 
rock). The road then crosses the river and passes the (1 M.) an- 
cient church of Dieupart, the parish-church of Aywaille (*H6tel du 
Luxembourg), a pleasant village, y 2 M. farther, rebuilt since its 
destruction during the battles between the French and Austrians 
here in 1794. The river is crossed here by a neat suspension- 



VALLEY OF THE AMBLEVE. 32. Route. 207 

bridge, a little to the N. of which, up the hill , a finger-post 
indicates the road to the left to the village and ruin of Ambleve, 
1 M. farther. The insignificant ruins are chiefly interesting from 
their association with the mediaeval legend of the Quatre Fits Aymon, 
who are said to have resided here, and with the 'Wild Boar of the 
Ardennes', who once occupied the castle, and was beheaded at Maas- 
tricht in 1485. The keys of the castle are kept at the village. The 
exploits of this adventurer are admirably depicted by Sir Walter 
Scott in his 'Quentin Durward'. His true history is as follows : — 

William de la Marck, the scion of a noble family of Westphalia, 
born about 1446, was educated by Louis de Bourbon , Bishop of Liege. 
The bravery, or rather ferocity, of his character, procured for him at an 
early age the sobriquet of the 'Wild Boar of the Ardennes'. Having been 
censured by the bishop's chancellor on one occasion, he slew that officer, 
almost before the eyes of his benefactor, and was banished in conse- 
quence. William now sought an asylum at the court of Louis XI. of 
France, where he planned a revolt in the Bishop's dominions , and re- 
ceived money and troops for the enterprise. On his arrival in the Province 
of Liege , he entrapped the unfortunate Bishop into an ambuscade , and 
slew him with his own battle-axe. The Liegeois, ever prone to rebellion, 
now created William their commander-in-chief. He next invaded Brabant, 
but having been defeated by Archduke Maximilian, he returned to Liege, 
and allied himself with Rene of Lorraine against Austria. Maximilian 
now had recourse to treachery. He bribed Frederick of Horn, William's 
friend, to betray him. The 'Wild Boar' thus fell into the power of the 
Austrians, and was conducted to Maastricht, where he terminated his blood- 
stained career on the scaffold at the age of 39 years. He died bravely 
as he had lived, meeting his merited fate with composure. 

At Martinrive , 3 / 4 M. farther , the traveller may cross the river 
by boat and follow the road from Aywaille in the valley, which again 
contracts. The river, which becomes navigable at Remouchamps, 
now presents a busy scene, the barges being used for the transport 
of stone quarried here. At (l 1 /^ M.) Halleux, on the right, is 'Li 
trawee (trouee) roche', a rock undermined by the river. To the right, 
farther on , is the huge furrowed limestone cliff called the Belle 
Roche. At Douflamme the Ambleve falls into the Ourthe. The road 
turns to the left and crosses a bridge to the railway-station of (3 M.J 
Comblain- au- Pont (p. 190), 9 M. from Remouchamps. 



HOLLAND. 

(Preliminary Information, see p. xxi.) 



33. From Flushing to Breda. 

61 M. Railway in 13/4-3 hrs. (fares 5, 4, 2"/ 2 fl.). 

The Flushing Route, opened in 1875, has become one of the most 
popular ways of reaching the Continent. Railway from London (Victoria, 
Holborn Viaduct, or Ludgate Hill Station) to Queenborough in ly i hr. ; 
steamer thence to Flushing in 8-9 hours. The steamers are large and com- 
fortable. Through-tickets are issued on this route to all the large towns 
in Holland, Belgium, Germany, etc. 

Flushing , Dutch Vlissingen (Duke of Wellington ; Hotel du 
Commerce), a seaport with 11,000 inhab., once strongly fortified, 
is situated on the S. coast of the island of Walcheren, at the mouth 
of the Schelde, which is here nearly 3 M. broad. The quays and docks, 
near the railway-station, have lately been much extended. 

After the Gueux. had taken Briel, Flushing was the first Dutch 
town which raised the standard of liberty (in 1572). Admiral de 
Ruyter , the greatest naval hero of the Dutch , was born here in 
1607 (d. 1676). He was the son of a rope-maker, but his mother, 
whose name he assumed, was of noble origin. His greatest exploit 
was the ascent of the Thames with his fleet in 1667, when he de- 
molished fortifications and vessels of war, and threw London into 
the utmost consternation. A few weeks afterwards, however, peace 
was declared at Breda, and the achievements of the Admiral were 
thus terminated. A monument was erected to his memory in 1841 
near the harbour. Flushing was also a place of some importance 
during the Napoleonic wars. It was bombarded and taken by the 
English fleet under Lord Chatham in 1809, on which occasion up- 
wards of a hundred houses, the handsome town-hall , and two 
churches, were destroyed. This was the sole and useless result of 
the English expedition to the island of Walcheren, undertaken by 
one of the finest British fleets ever equipped, the object of which 
was the capture of Antwerp. A monument to the poet Jacob 
Bellamy (1757-86), a native of Flushing, has also been erected 
here. The Church of St. James dates from the 15th century. 
The H6tel-de-Ville contains a collection of local antiquities. 

In 1559 Philip II. embarked at Flushing, never again to return to 
the Netherlands. He is said to have been accompanied thus far by 
Prince William of Orange, and to have reproached him with having 
caused the failure of his plans. The prince pleaded that he had acted 
in accordance with the wishes of the States, to which the disappointed 
monarch vehemently replied: 'No los JSstados, ma vos, vosT 



. Rri'iln 




MIDDELBURG. 33. Route. 209 

From Flushing a steamer plies several times daily to Terneuzen 
(p. 9), in i'/ 2 hr. 

Opposite Flushing, on the left bank of the Schelde, rises Fort 
Breskens, which commands the mouth of the river. 

4 M. Middelburg {* Hotel Nieuwe Doelen ; Hotel de Abdij ; 
Hotel de Flandre, R. & B. 1^2 u -)i tne capital of the Province 
of Zeeland, with 16,100 inhab, and the birthplace of Zach. Janssen 
and Hans Lipperhey, the inventors of the telescope (about 1610). 
The town is connected with Flushing and Veere by means of a 
canal. The large Prim Hendriks Dole was opened in 1876. 

In the market-place rises the handsome late-Gothic Town Hall, 
erected in the 16th cent, by one of the Keldermans , an artist- 
family of Malines; the tower, which is 180 ft. high, dates from 
1507-13. The facade is adorned with 25 statues of counts and 
countesses of Zeeland and Holland. 

Interior. The old 'Viekschaae', or court-room, on the first floor, is 
lined with fine panelling of the 16th century. — The Municipal Museum 
('Oudheidskamer') contains portraits of Jan and Cornells Everlsen, two 
Dutch naval heroes, who fell fighting against the English in 1666, 
and of other members of the same family ; also tankards and banners of 
the old guilds, documents, pictures, etc. Among the documents is a 
charter granted to Middelburg in 1253, by the German king William of 
Holland, the oldest existing deed in the Dutch language. 

The Zeeuwsch Qenootschap der Wetenschappen possesses a very 
interesting collection of Roman and other antiquities ; a portrait of 
Ruyter by Ferd. Bol, and various reminiscences of the great ad- 
miral ; the earliest telescopes , made by Zach. Janssen and Hans 
Lipperhey (see above); Zeeland coins; maps, plans, and drawings 
relating to Zeeland ('Zeelandia illustrata') ; and a complete col- 
lection of the fauna and flora of Zeeland. 

The Abdij (abbey) was built in the 12th, 14th, and 15th cent., 
and restored after a conflagration in 1568, in the Renaissance style. 
The interior is now occupied by the Provincial Council. The large 
hall contains some fine tapestry representing the battles between 
the maritime provinces and the Spaniards, executed at Delft and 
Middelburg at the end of the 16th cent., by Jan de Maeght. — The 
Nieuwe Kerk, once the abbey-church, contains the monuments of 
Jan and Cornells Evertsen (see above), that of William of Holland 
(d. 1256), who was elected German emperor in 1250, and that of 
his brother Floris (d. 1258; erected in 1820); the tower is 280 ft. 
high. ■ — The town possesses a few picturesque old houses, such as 
'De Steenrots', of 1590, and 'De Gouden Zon', of 1635. 

Middelburg is also connected with Flushing by a Steam Tkamway, 
which plies 8 times a day in IV2 hr., passing the village of Souburg, 
where Charles V. abdicated in 1556. A statue has been erected here to 
Philip van Marnix (d. 1598; p. 85), the famous author and statesman, who 
was lord of the manor. 

From Middelburg an omnibus (1 fl. ; one-horse carr. 5, two-horse 
fl.) runs twice daily to (IOV2 M.) Domburg (Bad-H6tel ; Schutlershof), 
a small bathing-place, frequented by Germans, Dutchmen, and Belgians. 
Pleasant walks in the neighbourhood. — About 5 M. from Domburg lies 
Westcapelle, with the extensives dykes mentioned at p. 153, and a lighthouse. 

Baeuekek's Belgium and Holland. 7th Edit. 14 



210 Route 34. ROTTERDAM. 

On the N. coast of the island of Walcheren , 3 M. from Middelburg, 
lies the ancient and. decayed town of Veere, with a fine Gothic church 
and an interesting town-hall containing some valuable antiquities. 

6^2 M. Amemuiden; the ancient harbour is now under tillage. 
The train crosses Het Sloe, an arm of the Schelde, by an embank- 
ment connecting the islands of Zuid-Beveland and Walcheren. 
127 2 M- '8 Heer - Arendskerke. The line now traverses a fertile 
district, where the peasants wear an interesting national costume. 
Near Goes is the Wilhelminapolder, upwards of 4000 acres in extent. 
15'/ 2 M. Goes (Hotel Zoutkeet), or Tergoes, the capital (6500 
inhab.) of the island of Zuid Beveland, with valuable archives, 
and an ancient chateau of Countess Jacqueline of Bavaria, called 
the Oosteinde, now an inn. The train commands a view of the 
lofty Gothic Church, consecrated in 1422, with a toweT over the 
centre of the transept. The Court Room in the Hotel-de- Ville is 
fitted up in the Louis XV. style, and contains paintings in grisaille 
by J. Geeraerts. 

19 M. Biezelinge; 21 M. Vlake, near which is Kapelle, with 
an interesting church ; 22*/ 2 M. Kruiningen , where the Zuid- 
Beveland Canal is crossed; 27 M. Krabbendijke ; 28 l / 2 M. Billand- 
Bath. To the right rises Fort Bath (p. 154). The train now quits 
the province of Zeeland(p. 153), and crosses iheKreekRak (p. 154). 
an arm of the Schelde now filled up. 34i/ 2 M. Woensdrecht. 

38>/ 2 M. Bergen op Zoom (Hof van Holland; Prim vanLuyk), 
the capital (10,300 inhab.) of a province which came into possession 
of the Elector Palatine by marriage in 1722, but reverted to Holland 
in 1801. The strong fortifications, constructed by Coehorn (d. 1<04), 
the famous Dutch general of engineers, were dismantled in 1867. 
The Stadhuis contains several portraits of Margraves of the province, 
and a fine chimney-piece of the 16th cent., formerly preserved in 
the margraves' palace, which is now used as barracks. The 
church was enlarged in the 15th cent., but never completed; it 
now possesses two transepts, but no choir. — A steam-tramway 
plies from Bergen to Tholen (p. 154) in 35 minutes. 

42 M Wouw. — 46'/2 M. Roosendaal, the junction for the 
lines to Rotterdam and Antwerp (R. 16). — 55 M. Etten-Leur. 
61 M. Breda, see p. 308. 

34. Rotterdam. 

From London to Rotterdam via, Harwich in 14-15 hrs. (sea'paiMage 
12 hrs ) ; fares 26s., 15s. ; return-tickets, available for one month, 21., W. 4». 
Tickets issued at Bishopsgate station, and at the chief stations ot me 
Great Eastern Railway at the same fares. Passengers may also book trom 
any station on the G.E.R. to Rotterdam at the above fares, on giving 
24 hrs notice to the station-master. Steamer daily in summer, bunoays 
excepted. Through-tickets to the principal towns of Belgium, Holland, 
and the Rhineland are also issued by this company. _ 

The steamers of the Netherlands Steamboat Co. ply thrice weekly 
between London and Rotterdam. These vessels run in connection witn 
the Rhine-steamers of the Netherlands Co., and tickets at very moderate 




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Tramways. ROTTERDAM. 34. Route. 211 

fares may be procured from London to any station on the Rhine as far 
as Mannheim. 

From Hull to Rotterdam 3-4 times weekly, in 20 hrs. (fare 20s.). — 
From Leith to Rotterdam, twice weekly (fare 21. 5s.). — Steamboats also 
ply from Grimsby, Newcastle, Liverpool, Dublin, Belfast, etc., to Rotterdam. 

Railway Stations at Rotterdam. 1. and Q. The combined stations of 
the Staatsspoorweg and the Hollandsch Spoorweg, for the Hague, Leyden, 
Haarlem, and Amsterdam to the N., and Dordrecht, Venlo, and Antwerp 
to the S. , one beyond the Delftsche Poort (PI. E, 1) and the other at the 
Exchange (PI. 23; F, 5), near the centre of the town. — 3. Rhijn Spoorweg 
Station (PI. H,6, 7), for Gouda, Utrecht (Amsterdam), Arnhem, and Germany. 
The quay of the Harwich steamers is immediately opposite this station. 

Hotels. New Bath Hotel (PL a; F, 6), on the Boompjes on the Maas, 
near the steamboat- piers, D. 2'/2 fL; Victoria Hotel (PL h; C, 6), in 
the Willemsplein, with a view of the harbour ; Grand Hotel du Passage, 
in the new arcade in the Korte Hoogstraat (PL E, 4); :: H6tel i>es Pays- 
Bas (PL b; E, 4), in the Korte Hoogstraat; R, & B. 1 II. 75, A. 25, L. 
30 c. ; Hotel Guilliams (PL c; E, F, 4), in the Groote Markt. 'Hotel de 
Hollande (PL e; G, 5), Hoogstraat, a second-class commercial inn: Hotel 
.St. Lucas (Pl.d; F, 4), Hoogstraat; Hotel Coomans, Hoofdsteg 12, with 
a cafe-restaurant, well spoken of; Hotel de l'Europe (PL i; F, 5), op- 
posite the new post-office; Hotel Weimer (PL f; G, 5), well spoken of, 
and Hotel Verhaaren, both on the Spanish Quay; "Hotel St. Petrus, 
Hoogstraat 171; Hotel Leijgraap, Westplein, near the park (PL 28; 
A, 6). — The hotels of Rotterdam are much below the standard of those 
of most towns of the same size. 

Cafes and Restaurants. Grand Cafi, with restaurant, in the Arcade 
(see above) ; Zuid Hollandsch Koffijhuis, Korte Hoogstraat, good beer; 
Ifieuw Koffijhuis, opposite; "Fritschij, at the corner of the Gapersteeg and 
the Geldersche Kade; Stroomberg, Westnieuwland 26, both near the Ex- 
change. — Luncheon Rooms (preserved meats, oysters, etc.): A. vanWitzen- 
burg ('Au Gourmet 1 ), in the Arcade. — Beer at the Miinchener Kindl, 
Hoofdsteeg 33, and the Lowenbrdu, Hoogstraat 353. 

Cabs. For 1-2 pers. 60 c. per drive, for 3-4 pers. 70 c. ; per hour 1 fl. 
20 c, each additional hour 1 fl. — From midnight till 6 a.m., per drive 
90 c, per hr. l'/g fl. — Each trunk 15 c. — For the drive from any of the 
railway-stations into the town, with luggage, 1 fl. is generally charged. 

Tramways. The chief station is the Beursplein, between the Ex- 
change and the Railway Station (PL 1 & 23; F, 5), whence all the chief 
lines diverge, — Line to Kralingen, see p. 304. — Steam-Tramways ply to 
Delfshaven ( ] /2|hr.) and Schiedam O/2 hr.). 

Booksellers. Van ffengel, Hoogstraat 385; 77. A. Kramers <(■ Son. 

Money Changers. Several on the Boompjes, and near the Exchange. 
The rate of exchange for foreign money is more favourable in a large 
commercial town like this than at the Hague and elsewhere. 

Steamboats. Six times daily to Delft in l'/2 hr. ; once daily to Nymegen 
(p. 305) in 8-10 hrs., to Arnhem (p. 291) in 10 hrs.; three times to Briel in 
2 hrs.; six or eight times to Dordrecht (p. 309) in l'/2 hr. ; four or five 
times to Gouda (p. 289) in 2>/2 hrs.; twice to Bois-le-Duc in G hrs.; "nee 
to Middelburg in 7 hrs. ; to Antwerp in 9-10 hrs. daily (see p. 153). Small 
steamers ply at frequent intervals between t..e Park (p. 218) and the 
Rhijn-Spoorweg, affording a good view of the traffic on the xMaas. Conip. 
the Officieele Reisgids voor Nederland. 

British Consul: Alexander Turing, Esq., Boompjes 22. — United 
States Consul: W. B. Wells, Esq., Westerstraat 5. 

English Church, in the Haringvliet; services at 11 a.m. and 6 p.m. 
Scotch Presbyterian Church, on the Schotsche Dijk. — English Pres- 
byterian Church, in the Haringvliet. 

Principal Attractions: Church of St. Lawrence (p. 213); Monument 
of Erasmus (p 212); I'.oynian's Museum (p. 213); the Boompjes (p. 218). 

Kotterdam, with 157,300 iiihab. (7 fi th Rom. Cath., 7000 Jews), 
the second commercial town in Holland, situated on the right bank 

14* 



212 Route 34. ROTTERDAM. Exchange. 

of the Maas , near its confluence with the Rotte, about 14 M. from 
the N. Sea , occupies a site in the form of a nearly equilateral 
triangle , the base of which is the Maas , and the vertex the Delft 
Gate. The city is intersected by numerous canals (grachten or 
havens) , such as the Leuvehaven , Oude Haven , Nieuwe Haven, 
Scheepmakershaven , Wijnhaven , Blaak , Haringvliet , etc. , all 
deep enough for the passage of heavily-laden East Indiamen. The 
average rise of the tide in the Maas is 6-8 ft. Communication 
between the different quarters of the town is maintained by means 
of drawbridges and swing-bridges (see p. xxvi). — The average 
number of vessels which enter the port is 2500 annually. The most 
important cargoes are coffee , sugar, tobacco , rice , and spices. 
Near the harbour aTe numerous large ship-building yards, tobacco 
factories, sugar refineries, and distilleries, and also the extensive 
machine- works of Feijenoord (p. 304). 

The Central Railway Station (PI. 23 ; F, 5) lies in the centre 
of the town, considerably above the level of the streets, and is 
reached by flights of steps. The Antwerp and Amsterdam lines 
are connected with each other by a lofty iron viaduct, 1 M. long, 
carried across the town. The viaduct, a triumph of engineering 
skill, has a double line of rails , and is supported by cast-iron 
piles, between every two or three of which stands one of solid 
masonry. The average span of the arches is 50 ft. 

Opposite the railway-station is the Exchange (PI. 1 ; F, 5), 
built of sandstone in 1772, enclosing a spacious court, flanked by 
colonnades, and covered with glass. The exterior is of very simple 
construction. Business-hour 1 o'clock. The upper rooms contain 
a good collection of scientific instruments (the property of the Ba- 
taafsch Oenootschap , or Batavian Society), and an art - industrial 
museum, belonging to the Vereeniging voor Oeschiedenis en Kunst. 
This museum, though only recently founded, already contains a 
large quantity of fine old furniture, glass, Delft ware, weapons, 
etc. Admission daily 10-4, 25 c. ; Sundays and holidays 10 c. ; 
entrance from the Beurssteg, behind the Exchange. — The tower 
of the Exchange contains a fine set of chimes. 

To the W. of the Exchange is the large new Post and Telegraph 
Office (PI. 45; F, E, 5). FartheT on, in the direction of Boy- 
mans' Museum (p. 213), rises the Fish Market (PI. 32; E, 4), 
built in 1882 and adorned with bronze reliefs after engravings by 
Artus Quellinus. 

The Grootb Makkt (PI. F, 4), the greater part of which is con- 
structed on vaulting over a canal, is embellished with a bronze statue 
of the illustrious Erasmus of Rotterdam (PI. 4), properly Gerrit 
Qerritsz , who was born at Rotterdam in 1467, and died at Bale 
in 1536. The monument, which bears long Dutch and Latin in- 
scriptions, was erected in 1662. It is attributed to Hendrik de 
Keyset, father of Thomas de Keyser, the painter. 



St. Lawrence. ROTTERDAM. 34. Route. 213 

To the N. of the market is the Hoogstraat, or high street, one 
if the busiest streets in Rotterdam, situated on an embankment 
vhich was originally built to protect the town from inundations. 
The Wijde Kerkstraat, which leads hence to the church of St. Law- 
ence, contains the house in which Erasmus was born (No. 3), 
idorned with a small statue , and bearing the inscription : 'Haec 
•st parva domus, magnus qua natus Erasmus'. 

The Church of St. Lawrence {Groote Kerk , PI. 10 ; F, 3, 4], a 
irothic brick edifice, consecrated in 1477, with a choir of 1487, 
ecently restored , will not bear comparison with the magnificent 
Jothic edifices of Belgium and Germany. 

Interior. — (The sacristan, who is to be found on the S. side of 
he church, receives 25 c. from each visitor; for the ascent of the tower 
c. additional for one pers., or 75 c. for two persons.) — Like most Dutch 
hurches, St. Lawrence is disfigured internally by the wooden stalls and 
lews. The chief objects of interest are the marble monuments of vice- 
,dmiral Wilte Corneliszoon de Witt (A. 165S), vice-admiral Cortenaer (d. 
665), contre-admiral Van Brakel (d. 1690), and other Dutch naval heroes, 
tearing long Latin or old Dutch inscriptions. The armorial bearings in 
his, as in almost all the other churches in Holland, were destroyed by 
he French republicans. The brazen screen which separates the choir 
rom the nave is finely executed, and dates from the 18th century. The 
irganist may be engaged to play for an hour, and to show the internal 
aechanism, for a fee of 10 fl. 

The Tower, 297 ft. in height (320 steps), consisting of three broad and 
apering stories, rises from the facade of the church. It formerly termi- 
lated in a wooden spire, which was removed in 1645, and replaced by a 
lat roof; and in 1650 it was disfigured by the construction of a massive 
upport, extending across the entire facade. The view from the summit 
mbraces the whole town with its canals and lofty railway-viaduct, the 
iver, the canals, and other expanses of water in the surrounding country, 
:ountvy-houses, windmills, perfectly straight avenues, and perfectly flat 
;reen pastures and fields. The towers of Briel, Schiedam, Delft, the 
lague, Leyden, Gouda, and Dordrecht are all visible in clear weather. 

Not far from the Melkmarkt is the Stadhuis , or town-hall (PI. 
S7; F, 4), a large modern building with an Ionic portico; its back 
ooks towards the Hoogstraat. — In the neighbouring Nieuwe Markt 
PI. F, G, 4) a handsome Fountain adorned with sculptures, com- 
nemorating the tercentenary of the establishment of Dutch indepen- 
lence (1572; see p. xxxi) in 1872, was erected in 1874. 

To the W. the Hoogstraat ends in the Route Hoogstraat, 
vhich contains several popular cafes (p. 211") and the Passage, a 
asteful arcade in the Renaissance style , built in 1878-79 from 
he plans of J. C. van Wijk. The other end of the Passage is 
lear the Hogendorpsplein (p. 217). 

*Boymans' Museum (PI. 5 ; D, 4), a collection of pictures, chiefly 
>y Dutch masters, which became the property of the town in 1847, 
ilthough inferior to the galleries of the Hague and Amsterdam, is 
veil worthy of a visit. The building was burned down in 1864, 
ind upwards of 300 pictures , besides numerous drawings and 
mgravings, were destroyed ; while the 163 which were saved were 
ill more or less injured. The building was re-erected in 1864-67, 
Hid the collection has since been extended by purchase and gift to 



214 Route 34. ROTTERDAM. Boymans' Museum. 

350 pictures. Admission 5 c. on Sundays, 11-4, and "Wednes- 
days, 10-4 o'clock ; 25 c. on Tuesdays, Thursdays, Fridays, and 
Saturdays , 10-4 o'clock. The collection is closed on Mondays, 
except when a holiday. Catalogue in Dutch 50, in French 75 cents. 
The names of the painters are affixed to the frames of the pictures. 

Ground Flook. On the left are three rooms containing Draw- 
ings, of which the Museum possesses upwards of two thousand. 
A few of the finest are exhibited under glass on the walls; the 
others are shown on Tuesdays , Thursdays , and Saturdays , from 
10 to 4 o'clock, for a fee of 25 cents. Among those exposed to view 
are the following : — 1st Room, on the left, Representation of an 
Anatomical Theatre (probably that of Leyden), ascribed by some 
authorities to Frans Hals, and by Vosmaer to Buijteweg of Leyden ; 
opposite the entrance , No. 8 , Adoration of the Shepherds , a 
painted relief of the 2nd half of the 16th cent. ; on the right wall, 
drawings by Caspar Netscher and A. van Ostade; entrance-wall, 
*Head by Ooltzius. — 2nd Room : Drawings by W. van de Velde 
(ships, naval engagements), Rubens (Crucifixion, by the windows), 
and modern artists. On the table , Assembly of Netherlandish 
painters in Rome (c. 1613). 

In the room to the right of the vestibule : 405. Napoleon I. , 
after David ; 250. Pienemann, King William III. ; 29. Bisschop, 
Prince Henry of the Netherlands ; portraits of several burgomasters 
of Rotterdam. — The ground-floor also contains the Archives of the 
city ; a collection of books, engravings, and drawings, relating to 
Rotterdam and its history; and the City Library (30,000 vols.). 
For admission apply to the librarian, 11-4 o'clock. 

Uppbb, Floob. The hall at the top of the staircase contains 
portraits by Netscher (223), Simon de Vos (356-358), Barth. van 
der Heist (112, 113), etc., and two landscapes by AdamPynacker 
(261, 262). 

Room I. No. 216. John Mytens, Portrait of Grand Pensionary 
Cats and his cousin Cornelia Baars; 195. J. Miense Molenaer, 
Merry company; 275. Isaac van Ruysdael, Landscape with cattle; 
— 380. Ad. Willaerts, Mouth of the Meuse at Briel (1633); 45, 
46. P. Brueghel the Elder, Village-scenes; 190. Mich. Mierevelt 
(p. 220), Portrait of Oldenbarneveld ; 286, 285. Dirk van Sandvoort 
(pupil of Rembrandt?), Shepherd and shepherdess; 308. H. M. 
Sorgh, Interior of a peasant's house ; 305. Pieter van Slingeland, 
Portrait of Joh. van Crombrugge (1677); 196. Jan M. Molenaer, 
Rustic merry-making (1642); 197. Nic. Molenaer, Bleaching-field ; 
254. Egbert van der Poel, Conflagration by night. Above, 83-86. 
C. W. Eversdyck (of Goes, beginning of 17th cent.), Corporation- 
pictures, of little interest. 

Room II. No. *399. Unknown Master of the 16th cent., Portrait; 
301. J. van Schooreel, Portrait; 74. Alb. Durer (?), Portrait of 
Erasmus, freely retouched; 396. Portrait of Erasmus. — 115. 



Boymans' Museum. ROTTERDAM. 



34. Route. 215 



III 
II 


IV 

Principal 

Saloon. 


V 
Modern 


Pictures. 
VI 


I 





Barth. van der Heist, Portrait, 1669; 50. Phil, de Champaigne, 
Portraits of two artists, 1654; W. C. Heda, Still-life; *78. Ger- 
brand van den Eeckhout, Ruth and Boaz ; 20. N. Berchem, Cave ■ 
389. Thomas Wyck, Interior, with a woman and children (the light 
md shade are somewhat exaggerated, but otherwise the work is 
ibly executed); Pieter Claesz, Still- 
life ; 323. A. van den Tempel, Por- 
traits (1671); 182. Jan van der 
Meet of Haarlem, View of the vil- 
lage of Noordwyk; 202. Paul 
Moreelse, Vertunmus and Pomona. 
— 124. G. Honthorst, Soldier light- 
ng his pipe ; 284. Saftleven, Rhe- 
lish landscape ; 360. S. Francken, 
Norsemen plundering a village; 
158. Pieter Eastman, Flight into 
4gypt (1608), probably painted in 
taly, where the artist attached him- 
elf to Elsh aimer; 76. A.vanDyck, 
>ketch for the large portrait-group 
if Charles I. and his family at Windsor, in a remarkably easy and 
pirited style; above, 306. Frans Snyders, Boar-hunt; 75. A. van 
Oyck, Group of saints, a sketch ; 359. Frans Franclcen, Dancers ; 
i32. Esaias van de Velde, Skirmish by night ; 353. J. J. van Vliet, 
)ld man (Rembrandt's model) ; 82. Allart van Everdingen, Cascade; 
25. After Murillo, Three children (the original in England); 317. 
1. Stork, Dutch harbour in winter; 116. V. de Heusch, Italian 
andscape; *35. Ferd. Bol, Portrait; 324. Tilborgh, Flemish 
wmly-group. — *333. Esaias van de Velde, Man on horseback 
13 in. in height). 

'This little figure, with its back turned to us, seated squarely and 
asily on a dun horse with flowing mane and tail, has all the effect of 
ife-size, and looks almost like an equestrian statue'. — Vosmuer. 

Room III. On the right wall are a number of works by Jacob 
krritz Cuyp and his son Albert. By the former, 60. Portrait, *58. 
rroup of children, 59. Portrait; by the latter, 64. Dead hare, *67. 
liver-scene by evening-light, 68. Eating mussels, *61. Two grey 
orses, 63. Fruit. ■ — 163. Jan Livens, St. Peter. 

*268. Rembrandt, 'De Eendracht van 't land' (union of the 
ountry), an allegorical painting, not very intelligible in its details, 
nd probably executed in 1648, the year of the Peace of West- 
halia, which Dutch poets and painters were never tired of cele- 
rating. Though merely a study in brown monochrome, probably 
leant as a sketch for a larger work, and unfinished, it is remark- 
bly effective. 

The foreground and part of the middle distance represent the interior 
F a fortress. In the centre is a lion couchant, bound by two chains, 
lie of which is attached to a wall on the right, bearing the arms of 
msterdam with the words 'Soli Deo Gloria', while the other is fastened 



216 Route 34. ROTTERDAM. Boymans' Museum. 

to the seat of Justice, who is represented in an attitude of supplication 
on the left. The lion raises its head defiantly and places his paws on a 
bundle of arrows, the emblem of the United Provinces, the shields of 
which surround him. The foreground is occupied by knights arming 
themselves to battle for the republic, while the guns on the ramparts 
are seen firing on the enemy, who retreats in wild confusion. 

Above, 283. Saenredam, Church of the Virgin at Utrecht. 
Farther on, 149. Salomon Koninck, Gold- weigher ; 77. 6. van den 
Eeckhout, Portrait of a child. — *277. Jacob van Ruysdael, Corn- 
field in sunshine, a very beautiful landscape, evidently influenced 
by Rembrandt; 246. A. van Ostade, Old man in his study; 221. 
Aart van der Neer, Moonlight-scene; 21. Job Berck-Heyde, Old Ex- 
change at Amsterdam; 384. Em. de Witte, Fishwife at Amster- 
dam ; *278. Jacob van Buysdael , Sandy road under trees ; 185. 
Oabriel Metsu, Pastor in his study; 279. Jacob van Ruysdael, 
Old Fishmarket at Amsterdam, the figures by Jan van Battum. — 
151. Jacob Koning, Herd-boy with cattle; 352. Hendrik van Vliet, 
Interior of a church; 170. Nic. Maes, Gentleman, lady, and child. 

Room IV. (principal room). To the right : 304. D. Seghers, 
Flowers ; *109. John Davidsz de Heem, Fruit; *117. Meindert Hob- 
bema, Landscape; 172. Nic. Maes, Portrait of Anna van Loon, wife 
of "Willem Nieupoort; 36. Ferd. Bol, Portrait of a man; 150. Phil, 
de Koninck, Landscape ; 280. Rachael Ruysch, Flowers ; 342. L. Ver- 
schuier, The Maas at Rotterdam. 

*334. A. van de Velde, The farrier, one of his earliest works 
(1658); 372. A. van der Werff, Entombment; 276. Sal. van 
Ruysdael, River-scene near Dordrecht, with barges and cattle, the 
atmosphere wonderfully transparent; *88. Karel Fabritius, Por- 
trait, formerly attributed to Rembrandt, of whom it would not be 
unworthy; 248. A. Palamedesz, Aristocratic company; 345. Ver- 
schuringh, Farrier. — 335. A. van de Velde, Pasture (painted in 
the same year as No. 334); 387. Ph. Wouverman, Cavalier; 206. 
Fred, de Moucheron, Mountain -scene; 231. Jacob Ochtervelt, 
Gentleman offering an oyster to a young lady; 54, 55. Com. 
Janszoon van Keulen, Portraits of a man and woman ; 121 . Mel- 
chior d'Hondecoeter, Dead poultry. 

*106. Frans Hals, Portrait of a man; 41. Jan Both, Italian 
scene; 140. Jan van Kessel, Environs of Amsterdam ; 7. Ludolf 
Bakhuizen, Rough sea off the coast of Holland ; 386. Phil. Wou- 
verman, Scene of plundering , in the background a burning vil- 
lage ; 247. Isaac van Ostade, Travellers in front of an inn ; 114. 
Bart, van der Heist, Lady and gentleman in a park (landscape by 
A. van Everdingen). — *118. Hobbema, Landscape. 

Small, but charming: by the side of a, pond in which two men are 
fishing, stands a cottage shaded by lofty trees; to the left a road on 
which two travellers are approaching; foreground in shade, with the 
surface of the water most effectively handled. 

312. Jan Steen, Feast of St. Nicholas, a merry family-group of 

seven persons; 336. W. van de Velde the Younger, Port of Texel; 



Boy mans' Museum. ROTTERDAM. 34. Route. 217 

338. Abraham Verboom, Evening-scene, with hunters reposing ; 
22. Gerrit Berck-Heyde , View of Cologne , with St. Cunibert's in 
the foreground, and the Bayenthurm behind, the cathedral not being 
included; 111. Barth. van der Heist, Portrait of a pastor (1638). 
— *90. Oovert Flinch, Woman sitting under a tree giving her hand 
to a man standing in front of her, one of the master's finest works, 
belonging to the period when he was a close adherent of Rem- 
brandt (1646); 165. Jan Lingelbach, Italian landscape. 

392. Zeeman, Calm sea; 414. Unknown Master, Quack. 313. 
Jan Steen, Stone-operation : a stone being cut out of the head of a 
boorish peasant by a doctor, to the great amusement of the by- 
standers ('le malade imaginaire'). Above, 6. Bakhuizen , Large 
sea-piece; 15. Jan Beerstraten, Old town-hall of Amsterdam, with 
figures by J. Lingelbach; 369. Jan Weenix, Dead swan; 81. Allart 
van Everdingen, Landscape with waterfall; 263. Adam Pynacker, 
Lake in a rocky landscape ; 222. Eglon van der Neer, Lady and 
gentleman; 388. Jan Wouverman, Dunes; 16. Jan Beerstraten, 
View of a town (1654). 

Rooms V- and VI. contain the Modern Pictures. To the left, 
428. Oreuze, Mother and child, a sketch ; 351. 8. L. Verveer, Sea 
at Katwijk, by afternoon-light; 269. Rochussen, Artillery mancBU- 
vres ; 166. Lingeman, Guard- room of the 17th cent.; 432. J. 
Ouvrie, View of Rotterdam. — In Room VI. : 270. Rochussen, 
Battle of Malplaquet in 1709; 184. Mesdag, Sunrise on the Dutch 
coast ; 198. P. M. Molyn, The painter Callot among gypsies ; 13. 
Jan van de Sande- Bakhuizen, Gracht in the Hague ; Ary Seheffer, 
(p. 310), 288. Count Eberhard of Wurtemberg cutting the table- 
cloth between himself and his son, 289. Count Eberhard by the 
dead body of his son who had fallen while fighting bravely in 
battle (after Uhland). 326. H. A. van Tright, The last days of Eras- 
mus of Rotterdam ; *142. Klinkenberg, View of the Vijverberg at 
the Hague. 

The Hogendorp's Plein (PI. D, 4), at the back of the Museum, 
is adorned with the statue of Oysbert Karel van Hogendorp (b. 1762, 
d. 1834), the 'promoter of free trade', and the 'founder of the 
Dutch constitution', by Oeefs (comp. p. 238). — In the Coolsingel 
are the handsome Hospital (PI. 7; D, 3) and the Theatre (PI. 24; 
E, 2). In the Coolvest (PI. D, E, 3), opposite the hospital, is the 
new Oymnasium Erasmianum, with a handsome group of sculpture 
in the pediment 

On the N. side of the town, outside the Delft Gate (PI. E, 1), 
the only one of the old city-gates which is still standing, is situated 
the Zoological Garden (Diergaarde ; PI. D, C, 1 ; admission 50 c), 
tastefully laid out (restaurant). The beasts of prey are fed in 
summer at 7 p.m., and after 1st Sept. at 2.30 p.m. 

An important new quarter has recently sprung up on the W. 
side of the town. Along the river in this neighbourhood stretch the 



218 Route 34. ROTTERDAM. Boompjes. 

Willem's Plein and the Willem's Kade (PL B, A, 7). At the W 
extremity of the latter lies the building of the Royal Dutch Yach 
Club (PI. 34), containing a 'maritime museum' or collection o 
objects connected with navigation from the 17th cent, onwards 
together with an exhibition of the latest discoveries in the same pro 
vince (open daily 10-4 ; adm. 25 cents ; Sun. and holidays 10 c). — 
On the other side of theVeerhaven stands the Zeemanshuie (PI. A, 7] 

The *Park, which extends to the W. along the bank of th 
Meuse, affords a pleasant promenade. It is embellished with group 
of trees , grassy expanses , and fish-ponds, while here and there i 
commands a view of the busy scene on the river. A military ban 
plays here on summer-evenings at the Officieren-Societeit. In th 
middle of the park rises a marble statue by Strackee of the popula 
patriotic poet, Hendrik Tollens (d. 1856), erected in 1860. 

The *Boompjes (PI. C, D, E, F, 6), a handsome quay, which de 
rives its name from the trees planted upon it, extends for up 
wards of 1 M. along the bank of the Maas, and is far more attrac 
tive than such localities usually are. Upwards of 100 steamboat 
start here for the neighbouring Dutch towns , the Rhine, Eng 
land, France, Russia, and the Mediterranean. 

At the upper end of the Boompjes the river is crossed by tw 
Bridges (PI. F, 6, 7) : the Railway Bridge, opened for traffic ii 
1877, which rests on four buttresses , or on nine , if those on th 
island of Noordereiland , opposite Rotterdam , be included ; am 
another for carriages and foot-passengers, opened in 1878, 930yds 
long, and also resting on four buttresses. 

The Cafe Fritschij, on the Noordereiland, at the S. end of th 
last-named bridge, commands a fine view of Rotterdam. Passin 
this cafe we reach the Konings-Haven, a large harbour, the con 
struction of which was necessitated by the discovery that the nei 
bridges interfered seriously with the shipping on the Maas. Railwa 
and road are conducted across it on drawbridges, through th 
openings of which the largest vessels can pass. Beyondthebridges 
to the right, is the wharf of the emigrant ships of the Dutch-Amer 
ican Steamboat Co. (visitors admitted ; fee). 

Beyond the warehouses of the same company are the gate an 
drawbridge of the Binnen-Haven, which is about 1000 yds. long 
Farther on is another drawbridge, affording a view of the Spoor 
weg-Haven, which is 1300 yds. long and flanked with rows of ware 
houses. Both of these harbours are accessible to the largest ships 
We may now return to the Boompjes by one of the small steamer 
which start here every 20-30 min. (fare 5 c). 

The Mission House (Zendelingshuis ; PI. G, 1), on the Regter 
Rotte-Kade, contains an ethnographical museum, chiefly consistiiij 
of objects from the Dutch colonies in the West Indies (Java, Bor 
ueo), which is always open to visitors. The Dutch Missionar 
Society was founded in 1797. 



219 

35. From Rotterdam to The Hague, Leyden, 
Haarlem, and Amsterdam. 

Railway (' Hollandsche Spoorweg^ ; stations, see p. 211) from Rotterdam 
to (52'/2 M.) Amsterdam in 2-23/ 4 hrs. (fares 3 fl. 75, 2 fl. 85, 1 fl. 85 c). 
Luggage extra. Passengers are cautioned against leaning out at the win- 
dows, as the carriages pass close to the railings of the numerous bridges. 

Flat pastures, numerous windmills, straight canals, and oc- 
casionally a few plantations and thriving farm-houses are the prin- 
cipal features of the country. On the left , immediately after the 
station is quitted, lies Delfshaven on the Meuse, with 11,500 in - 
hab., the birthplace of the naval hero Piet Hein (p. 220), the 
capturer of the Spanish 'silver fleet' in 1628, to whom a statue was 
erected here in 1870. 

3 M. Schiedam (Hulsinga), a town on the Schie, with 23,800 
inhab., is celebrated for its 'Hollands' and 'Geneva' (so called from 
the Jenever, or juniper-berry with which it is flavoured), of which 
there are upwards of 220 distilleries. About 30,000 pigs are an- 
nually fattened on the refuse of the grain used in the process. 
Tramway to Rotterdam, see p. 211. — Omnibus from Schiedam six 
times daily to the (6 M.) small town of Vlaardingen, the principal 
Dutch depot of the 'great fishery', as the herring, cod, and haddock 
fishery is called by the natives. 

972 M. Delft [Hotel Schaap, in the Groote Markt, indifferent ; 
Heerenlogement, near the Hague Gate ; cafe opposite the station), 
a pleasant town of 26,400 inhab. ('/3rd Rom. Oath.), with remark- 
ably clean canals bordered with lime-trees, is situated on the Schie, 
which flows into the sea at Delfshaven. The town was almost totally 
destroyed by Are in 1536, and in 1654 it was seriously damaged by 
the explosion of a powder-magazine. In the 17th and 18th cent, 
the pottery and porcelain of Delft were celebrated throughout Europe, 
but this industry afterwards fell into decay and was not revived 
till quite lately. Visitors are admitted to the manufactory of M. 
Joost Thooft on previous written application. Delft was the birth- 
place of Hugo de Qroot [Qrotius ; 1583-1645), the statesman and 
scholar, to whom a monument has been erected (see also p. 221). 

On leaving the railway-station we observe the tower of the 
Nieuwe Kerk. We turn to the left and cross the bridge over the 
Singel-Gracht , and then walk along the canal till we reach an 
intersecting canal, the Oude Delft. By following the Oude Delft 
to the left we arrive at the Prinsenhof and the Oude Kerk, while 
the Polytechnic School lies a few paces to the right. 

A melancholy celebrity attaches to the Prinsenhof, or palace, 
as the scene of the death of William of Orange, the Taciturn, the 
founder of Dutch independence , who was assassinated here on 
10th July, 1584 (see p. 233). The palace is now a barrack. 

By passing through the door opposite the Oude Kerk. marked '<; v m- 
nasium Publicum', and crossing the court, we reach the spot where the 
tragedy took place, on the first floor, to the right by the staircase. It is 



220 Route 35. DELFT. From Rotterdam 

marked by an inscription. The murderer, a Burgundian named Balthazar 
Gerhard, who was prompted by a desire to gain the price set upon the 
hero's head by Alexander Farnese, took up his position in front of the 
spot thus indicated , and when he discharged his pistol was quite close 
to his victim, who was descending the staircase with his friends. The 
marks left by the fatal bullet are still pointed out. 

Opposite the Prinsenhof , on the site of an earlier church , is 
situated the Gothic Oude Kerk, erected in the 15th cent., with a 
somewhat leaning tower, and wooden vaulting constructed in 1574. 

It contains the monument of Admiral Maarten Tramp (d. 1653), the victor 
in thirty-two naval battles, the last of which, fought against the English, 
and the occasion of his death , is represented on the monument. After 
defeating the English fleet under Blake near the 'Dunes', he caused a 
broom to be hoisted to his masthead, to signify that he had swept the 
channel clear of his enemies. Piet Hein (d. 1629), the admiral of the In- 
dian Company, who in 1628 captured the Spanish 'silver fleet', with its 
precious freight valued at 12 million florins, also has a monument in this 
church. A monument with a medallion-figure marks the tomb of the na- 
turalist Leeuwenhoek (d. 1723). Another interesting monument is that of 
a daughter of Philip van Marnix (p. 209), erected in 1655, and restored in 
1856. — The sacristan (15 cents) resides opposite the N. transept. 

The Nieuwe Kerk in the Groote Markt , another Gothic edifice, 
begun in 1412 , and consecrated in 1476 , contains a magnificent 
* Monument, executed by Hendrik de Keyser and A. Quellin in 1621, 
to the memory of William of Orange. Sacristan, Groote Markt 79. 

The effigy of the prince in marble lies on a black marble sarco- 
phagus , beneath a canopy supported by four clustered pillars and six 
isolated columns, all likewise of marble. In the niches of the pillars stand 
four allegorical figures: Liberty is represented with a sceptre, a cap of 
liberty, and the motto, 'Je maintiendrai piiti et justice'; Justice with her 
scales, beside which is inscribed William's favourite motto, l Saevis tran- 
quility in undis' ; Prudence, with a twig of thorn in her hand ; Religion, 
with the Bible in one hand, and a miniature church in the other, whilst 
her foot rests on a corner-stone emblematical of Christ. At the head of 
the statue is placed a second statue in bronze, representing the prince 
in full military accoutrement, while at the feet is a bronze figure of 
Fame, with outspread wings, 6 ft. in height, resting on the ground on 
the point of the left foot only. The dog, on which, in mediaeval fashion, 
the feet of the recumbent figure rest, is placed there in memory of the 
prince's favourite dog, which was the means of saving his life in 1572 
when he was attacked at night by two Spanish assassins in his camp at 
Malines. The inscription, on the canopy, is pointed out by weeping genii. 
The pillars are surmounted by obelisks. Beneath the same stone the 
prince's wife and his son Prince Maurice (b. 1567, d. 1625) also repose. The 
church afterwards became the burial-place of all the princes of the House 
of Orange, down to king William II. (d. 1849). Another simple monument 
marks the tomb of Hugo Grotius (p. 306). 

The handsome Stadhuis , on the W. side of the market-place, 
erected in 1618 , contains a few good pictures. 

Of special interest are the paintings of Michiel Janszoon van Miere- 
velt (Delft, 1567-1641), the first of the great Dutch portrait-painters. The 
Codncil Ciiambek contains a large corporation -piece (arquebusiers) by 
him, depicting 36 persons, with faces full of life and energy, but inar- 
tistically grouped; the portraits of the princes William I., Maurice, Phi- 
lip William, and Frederick Henry of Orange, and counts William Lewis, 
and Ernest Casimir of Nassau, are also all by Mierevelt. The other pic- 
tures in the council - chamber include a corporation -piece of 31 gesti- 
culating figures by J. W. Delph, 1592; and others by Rochus Delff, Jacob 
Delff (1648), etc. Two other portraits by Mierevelt, those of Frederick V. of 
the Palatinate (p. 3031 and Huso Grotius, hang in the magistrates' room. 



to Amsterdam. DELFT. 35. Route. 221 

By crossing the bridge at the S.W. corner of the market-place, 
turning to the right , and proceeding southwards along the canal 
('Koornmarkt'), we reach in about 5 min. the Synagogue, two 
doors beyond which (narrow passage; ring) stands the Town Hospi- 
tal. The latter contains four anatomical pictures, including one of 
the earliest paintings of the kind , executed by Mitrevelt in 1616, 
which it is interesting to compare with Rembrandt's celebrated work 
(p. 228; comp. p. liv); the three other pictures are of later date. 

The Polytechnic School, on the Oude Delft (p. 219), is attended 
by about 300 students. The once celebrated Model Chamber of the 
dockyard of Amsterdam, comprising models of ships, mills, machi- 
nery , etc. , is now established here. 

The Oude Delft is terminated towards the N. by the Hague Gate 
and on the S. by the Rotterdam Gate (tramway to the Hague, see 
p. 223), Close by the latter, to the left, rises a large and gloomy 
building , partly surrounded by water, and adorned with the arms 
of the old Dutch Republic. It was originally a warehouse of 
the E. India Company , but was subsequently converted into an 
Arsenal. The entire equipment of the artillery of Holland , with 
the exception of the guns cast at the Hague , is manufactured in 
this establishment, which is connected with an artillery-laboratory 
and a powder-magazine outside the town. 

The Railway journey from Delft to the Hague occupies l / t hr. 
only. At stat. Rijswijk the celebrated peace between England, 
France, Holland, Germany, and Spain was concluded in 1697. The 
palace of the Prince of Orange , where the treaty was signed , no 
longer exists , but its site is marked by an obelisk erected in 1792 
by the stadtholder William V. 

141/2 M. The Hague, see p. 222. From the Hague to Gouda, 
see p. 290. 

2OY2M. Voorschoten ; to the right rises the church-tower of the 
village, which is connected with Leyden by a steam-tramway (40, 
25cts.). The train now crosses the narrow arm of the Rhine which 
retains the name down to its efflux into the North Sea. 

24 M. Leyden, see p. 241. 

From Leyden to Woerden (for Utrecht), 21 M., railway in 1 hr. 
10 minutes. — 6 M. Hazerswoude-Koudekerk; 9'/2 M. Alphen; 12'/* M. 
Zwammerdam; 14 M. Bodegraven (steam-tramway to Gouda, p. 290); 21 M. 
Woerden. From Woerden via. Harmelen to Utrecht, see p. 291. 

25^2 M. Warmond, to the left of which rises a large Roman Ca- 
tholic seminary. To the left ot(30'M..)Piet-Gijzenbrug is the church 
of Noordwijkerhout. 3Z l /%M. Veenenburg ; 36^2 M. Vogelenzang. 

About I1/2 M. to the E. of stat. Vogelenzang, near the village of 
Bennebroek, is situated Harlenkamp, a country-residence, where Linne, the 
celebrated Swedish naturalist, resided in 1736-38 with his wealthy patron 
George Clifford, who was English ambassador at that time. Linne wrote 
his 'Hortus Oliffordianus' and his 'Systema Natural here. 

The line traverses for a short distance the E. slopes of the 
North Sea Dunes. 



222 Route 36. THE HAGUE. 

42 M. Haarlem (p. 247) is the junction for Amsterdam, Alk- 
maar, and the Helder (R. 42). 

The Amsterdam line turns towards the E. , running parallel 
with the canal and high-road in a perfectly straight direction. The 
Fort aan de Liede is seen on the right , immediately after the 
train has quitted the station. The line now traverses an extensive 
plain, formed on the right by the Haarlemmer Polder, and on the 
left by the newly-reclaimed Polder of the Y (see p. 284). Down 
to 1840 the first of these was the Haarlemmer Meer, a lake 18 M. 
in length, 9 M. in breadth, and about 14 ft. in depth, which was 
formed in the 15th cent, by the overflow of the Rhine and the 
gradual crumbling away of the banks of the Y, and afterwards 
increased so considerably as to imperil the towns of Amsterdam, 
Haarlem, Leyden, and Utrecht. The operations for draining the 
lake were begun in 1840 , and completed in 1853, at a cost of 
1372 million florins. The area of this vast 'polder' (see p. xxviii) 
is about 72 sq. M., and the land thus reclaimed realised an average 
price of 200 fl. per acre, while its present value is estimated at 
800 fl. per acre. It is encircled by canals, used for purposes of 
drainage and irrigation. The population of this district is now 
about 10,000. The engines with their lofty chimneys, constructed 
originally for the purpose of pumping out the water of the 'Meer', 
and now used in draining it, are worthy of the notice of engineers. 

At Halfweg , the 'halfway' and only station between Haarlem 
and Amsterdam , there are strong lock-gates which formerly sepa- 
rated the waters of the Y from the Haarlemmer Meer. The old 
chateau of Zwanenburg near the railway, dating from the 17th cent., 
is now a beetroot-sugar manufactory. About 250 years ago the cha- 
teau lay nearly Y2 M. from the Haarlemmer Meer , which before it 
was drained had advanced to the very walls of the building. 

52y 2 M. Amsterdam; see p. 254. 

36. The Hague. 

Railway Stations. 1. Dutch Station (PI. C, D, 6), for Rotterdam, 
Leyden, Haarlem, and Amsterdam; 2. Rhenish Station (PI. E, 4), for 
Gouda (Rotterdam, Amsterdam), Utrecht, and Arnhem. The two stations 
are joined by a connecting line. Tramway from the Dutch station into 
the town , and cabs , see below ; tramway to Scheveningen, see p. 239. 
The traveller is often pestered on his arrival by valets-de-place , who at 
first demand a fee of 2 fl. for accompanying him through the town and 
to Scheveningen, but their services are quite unnecessary, unless the 
traveller is much pressed for time, and are amply recompensed with 1 fl. 

Hotels. 'Hotel des Indes (PI. I; D 2), in the Lange Vorhout, R. 
from I1/2, D 2 fl. ; "Hotel Bellevue (PI. a ; E, 4), near the Park and the 
station of the Rhenish railway; "Hotel de l'Eukope (PI. b; D,3), Lange 
Houtstraat 61 ; "Viedx Doelen (PI. d; D 3), Tournooiveld, R. l>/2, D. 2fl. 
(doel, a common sign for inns in Holland, means 'target'; doelen, 'shoot- 
ing gallery'); Hotel Paulez (PI. c; L>, 3), opposite the theatre; "Hotel du 
Marechal Tdeenne (PI. e; D, 4), Nieuwe Markt, D, 21/2 fl. — Hotel- 
Cafe Central, Lange Pooten (P1.D,4), with a large cafe-restaurant, R. from 
l'/a, L>, 2 fl., B, 70 c. , well spoken of; Gkoot Keizershof, in the Bu- 



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Cafes. THE HAGUE. 36. Route. 223 

itenhof; Hotel Toelast (PI. h; C, 3), in the Groemnarkt; Hotel Baesjou 
(PI. i; D, 5), in the Spui, D. l'/ t fl. ; Hotel Maassen (PI. n; C, 4), Eerste 
Wagenstraat22; Twee Steden (PI. g ; C, 3), in the Buitenhof, well spoken 
of; Hotel du Commerce, Spuistraat til (PI. C, 4); Lion d'Ok (PL k; C, D,4), 
Hofstraat; Zeven Kekken van Rome (PI. m; D, 5), in the Spui; Hotel 
du Globe, Plein 10, with the Cafe-Restaurant Franeais. 

Restaurants. "Van der Pijl (PI. C,3), Plaats 18, D.'from 2-2'| 2 fl.; "Cafi 
Central, see below; J. R. Buwalda, Plaats 27; Maassen, Eerste Wagen- 
straat 22. — Beer. Linke (PI. C, 3, 4) , Venestraat 20 ; Miinchener Kindl, 
Spuistraat 12; Stadt Erlangen, Eerste Wagenstraat 4; Beyersch Bierhuis, 
Kettingstraat 8. 

Cafes. "Cafi Central, Lange Pooten, also a restaurant; Zuid-Hollandsch, 
Vischmarkt, opposite the Groote Kerk; St. Hubert, Hoogstraat 5; Gouden- 
hoofd, Groenmarkt, at the corner of the Hoogstraat; Cafe Francois, on 
the S. side of the Plein; Belvedere, Buitenhof. — Confectioner: "Monchen, 
Lange Houtstraat, near the Plein. 

Warm Baths at the Mauritskade (PI. D, 2), with a basin for swim- 
mers ; at the back of the Groote Kerk (Wasch en Bad-Inrigting ; 50 c.) ; and 
at Scheveningen. 

Cabs (at the stations, and in the Buitenhof, Plein, Huygensplein, etc). 

According to the new tariff of 1883 all fares are reckoned by time. 



1-2 pers. 

— fl. 50 c 

— 75 
1 — - 

25 



3-5 pers. 

— 11. 60 

1 - — 

1 25 

25 



For y 4 hr 

For 20 minutes 

Per hour 

Each additional V* hr 

Two-horse cabs one-half more. Each trunk 10 c, small articles free. 
Tolls extra. The drivers are forbidden to demand fees, but may exact 
their fare in advance. — Fare to Scheveningen, see p. 239. 

Tramways traverse the town in various directions, starting from the 
Dutch and Rhenish Stations (comp.the Plan). — To Delft, in V2 hr., starting 
from the upper end of the Spui, crossing the Huygensplein, traversing 
the Hnygenstraat (PI. D, G), and passing Rijswijk (p. 221), every 1/2 hr. ; 
fare to the Hague Gate at Delft 25 c, to the Rotterdam Gate 30 c. 

Post Office (PI. 29; B, 3), at the back of the Groote Kerk, open from 
6 a. m. to 10 p. m. 

Telegraph Office at the Binnenhof, near the Picture Gallery (p. 224); 
also several branch-offices. 

Theatre (PI. 31; D,3) in the Turnooiveld. French plays on Mondays, 
Thursdays, and Saturdays, Dutch on Tuesdays and Fridays, German operas, 
in winter only, on Wednesdays. Performances begin at 7. 

Panoramas. Panorama Mesdag, Zeestraat (PL C, 1), with a represen- 
tation of the beach at Scheveningen and a picture-gallery. — Panorama 
Langlois, Bezuidenhout, to the E. of the Heerengracht (PI. E, 4), with the 
Battle of the Pyramids and a diorama of Cairo (adm. 40 c). 

Engravings. Ooupil & Co., Plaats 20; Brouwer, Noordeinde 12; Aber- 
crombie & Co., corner of the Kneuterdijk and the Vijverberg; Couve", Lange 
Pooten 41. — Art-exhibitions are held from time to time in the Teeken- 
academie , in the Oothische Zaal (p. 236), and in the new Oebouw voor 
Kunst en Wetenschappen (PI. 43; E, 4), which is also used for theatrical 
and other performances. 

De Boer's Grand Bazar Royal (PI. 2; C, 1), Zeestraat 72, is a very 
attractive emporium of Japanese , Chinese , and other curiosities and 
fancy-articles of every description. The Koninkl. Magazijne/i van Bronzen, 
Kneuterdijk 1, offer a large selection of bronzes. 

British Minister: Hon. W. Stuart, Westeinde. — American Minister: 
Hon. W. L. Dayton. 

English Church Service in the Church of SS. John and Philip, near 
the Rhenish Station (PI. E, 4), at 11 a.m. and 3 p.m.; Rev. W. Jamieson, 
chaplain to the British embassy. 

Principal Attractions. "Picture Gallery (p. 225); Binnenhof (p. 224); 
walk through the Plein (p. 233) , the Korte Voorhout , and the Lange 
Voorhout (p. 236); excursion to Scheveningen. The Picture Gallery is 



224 Route 36. THE HAGUE. Vijver. 

1 M. from the Dutch, and 1 /i M. from the Rhenish railway-station. If 
the traveller starts at 6 a. m., he will have time to enjoy a bath at 
Scheveningen, visit the Huis ten Bosch (p. 238) on the way back, and 
reach the Picture Gallery at the Hague between 10 and 1 o'clock. 

The Hague (123,500 inhab., »/ 3 rd Rom. Cath.) , Fr. La Haye, 
originally a hunting- seat of the Counts of Holland, whence its 
Dutch name 'S Graven Hage or den Haag (i.e. 'the count's enclos- 
ure', or 'hedge'), has for centuries been the favourite residence of 
the Dutch princes. From the 16th cent, downwards it was the 
political capital of the States General , and in the 17th and 18th 
centuries was the centre of all their most important diplomatic 
transactions. Owing, however, to the jealousy of the towns entitled 
to vote in the assembly of the states, the Hague was denied a voice 
in that body, and therefore continued to be 'the largest village in 
Europe', as it has sometimes been called, until Louis Bonaparte, 
when King of Holland , conferred on it the privileges of a town. 
Its aristocratic and prosperous appearance is due solely to the pres- 
ence of the court and the numerous nobles and diplomatists who 
reside here, and not to the internal resources of the town itself. 

No town in Holland possesses so many broad and handsome 
streets , lofty and substantial houses , and spacious and imposing 
squares as the Hague. The N.E. quarter of the town, with the 
Vijverberg, the Kneuterdijk, the Voorhout, and the Noordeinde, is 
especially remarkable in this respect. 

The neighbourhood of the *Vijvee. (i. e. fish-pond ; PI. C, D, 3), 
a sheet of water nearly in the middle of the town, enlivened with 
an island and swans, and partly surrounded by fine old avenues, 
is the most fashionable quarter. The water is kept in motion by 
artificial means, freshwater being pumped by a steam-engine on the 
Dunes into the Vijver and the canals. The impetus thus given to 
it causes a slight stream towards Rotterdam , where the water is 
finally pumped out into the Maas. 

On the S.E. side of the Vijver is situated the Binnenhof (PL 
0, D, 3), an irregular pile of buildings, some of them of mediaeval 
origin , and once surrounded by a moat. Most of the houses have 
been restored of late, and some of them entirely rebuilt. About the 
year 1250 Count William of Holland, afterwards elected emperor of 
Germany, built a palace here , and this building was enlarged by 
his son Florens V., who in 1291 made the Hague his capital. The 
stadtholders, from Maurice of Nassau onwards, all resided here. 

In the centre of the square stands the old Hall of the Knights 
(PI. 33), a brick building of the time of Florens V., resembling a 
chapel, with lofty gables and two turrets ; it now contains the Ar- 
chives of the Home Office. To the E. of the Knights' Hall is the 
Gebbgtshof, or court of justice, the assize-chamber in which con- 
tains good reliefs of 1511, while the civil court-room is embellish- 
ed with scenes from Roman history by O. de Lairesse (entrance 
from the passage on the S.E. side, near the 'Rijkstelegraaf'). 



Museum. THE HAGUE. 36. Route. 225 

The N. wing of the Binneiihof contains the Chambers of the 
States General. The old hall of the States of the time of the 
republic, containing two ancient mantel -pieces and some alle- 
gorical paintings by Parmentier, is at present cut up into several 
small rooms, but is soon to be restored to its original condition. 
The interesting Treves Saloon, built by William III. in 1697 as a 
reception-room , contains a handsome ceiling and the portraits of 
seven electors by Brandon and other painters (curious echo). The 
entrance to these apartments is in the E. corner of the court, 
door No. 20 (PI. 39; D, 3). 

The history of the Republic, during its most glorious period, was sullied 
by two dark tragedies, of which the Binnenhof was witness. The influential 
John van Oldenbarneveld, the Grand Pensionary, or prime minister of 
Holland, having incurred the displeasure of Prince Maurice of Orange by 
his opposition, the stadtholder, during a meeting of the States General, 
caused Oldenbarneveld to be arrested, together with his learned friends 
Grolhis and Hogerbeets, the Pensionaries of Rotterdam and Leyden. The 
two latter were conducted to the castle of Loevenstein (p. 306), while the 
Grand Pensionary himself was condemned to death, 'for having conspired 
to dismember the States of the Netherlands, and greatly troubled God's 
Church' (comp. p. xxxii). On 24th May, 1619, the unfortunate minister, 
then in his 72nd year, was executed on a scaffold erected in the Binnen- 
hof, after having written a touching vindication of his innocence to his 
family, and solemnly declared on the scaffold that 'he had ever acted 
from sincerely pious and patriotic motives'. The other tragedy alluded to 
is the death of De Witt, which took place in the immediate neighbour- 
hood of the Binnenhof (see p. 233). 

Passing through the N. E. gate of the Binnenhof, which is 
adorned with the arms of the County of Holland , we reach a 
house standing alone on the left, No. 29, with an entrance-court 
enclosed by a railing. This is the Maueitshuis (PI. 25; D, 3), 
erected by Prince John Maurice of Nassau , the Dutch West India 
Co. 's governor of Brazil (d. 1679), and now containing the cele- 
brated **Picture Gallery (Koninklijk Kabinet van Schilderijen). 

The collection is open daily, Monday to Friday 10-4 in sum- 
mer, 10-3 in winter (Oct. -April), Saturdays 10-2, Sundays 12.30 
to 3 or 4. It is closed at Easter, on Ascension Day, for two days 
at Whitsuntide, for two at Christmas, and on New Year's Day. 

The nucleus of the Gallery of the Hague consists of collections 
made by the princes of the House of Orange. As early as the first 
half of the 17th cent. Frederick Henry (d. 1647) and his consort 
Amalia of Solms-Braunfels ordered so many pictures from Dutch 
and Flemish masters that they left no fewer than 250 works to be 
divided among their four daughters (1675). William III. formed a 
collection at the Chateau of Loo, which on his death was sold at 
Amsterdam. The Stadtholder William V. (1748-1806) also gradually 
collected about 200 pictures, many of which are still in this gal- 
lery. To the purchase of the Slingelandt collection the gallery 
was indebted for a number of its finest works. The flight of the 
Prince of Orange in 1795 , on the approach of the French troops, 
was followed by the removal of the pictures to the Louvre. In 

Baedekeb's Belgium and Holland. 7th Edit. 15 



226 Route 36. 



THE HAGUE. 



Museum. 



1815 a partial restitution took place , but 68 works still remained 
in Paris. In 1817 the gallery contained only 173 pictures, but 
the number was rapidly increased by the zealous and successful 
exertions of King William I. The catalogue now numbers up- 
wards of 300 paintings , of which 200 belong to the Dutch school, 
40 to the Flemish , 40 to the Italian , and 20 to the German. 

Rembrandt and Potter are the princes of the collection. The 
five works by Rembrandt are all among the best specimens of his 
early manner. Jan Steen , Terburg , Gerard Dou , Adrian van 
Ostade , and Adrian van de Veldt are also represented by master- 
pieces. The finest landscapes are those of the three Ruysdaels and 
of Van der Meer of Delft, a painter who has only recently obtained 
the fame he deserves. — Excellent catalogue in French, by Vict, de 
Stuers, 172 fl-; abridgment in Dutch or French (1879), 50 c. 

Ground - Floob. — Room I. Flemish School. In the centre: 

219, 220. D.Seghers, Flowers; to 
the right, 215. Rubens, Portrait of 
his confessor Michael Ophovius, 
afterwards Bishop of Bois - le - 
Due; above, 206, ter. Van Dyck, 
Magdalene. On the walls, be- 
ginning to the right of the door : 
217. School of Rubens, Departure 
of Adonis ; 223. David Teniers the 
Younger, The good kitchen ; above, 
221. Frans Snyders, Kitchen with 
game and vegetables, the figure by 
Rubens; *203, 204. A. van Dyck, 
Portraits, once erroneously called 
Buckingham , now catalogued , in 
- arms in the corner , as ' Sir . . . 
Sheffield' and his wife 'Anna Wake'; 224. D. Teniers the Younger, 
Alchemist; 206, bis. Van Dyck, Portrait jn grisaille of Andr. Co- 
lyns de Nole, a sculptor of Antwerp. By the window, 9. and 10. 
Two good heads in terracotta of the Admirals De Ruyter and Van 
Gent. Left Wall : *213, *214. Rubens, Isabella Brant and Helena 
Fourment, the master's first and second wife, both admirably exe- 
cuted; 222. Fr. Snyders, Stag-hunt, the figure of Diana and the 
landscape by Rubens; *209. Jacob Jordaens, Faun and nymph, 
half -figures life-size, boldly drawn, one of the best works of the 
master; *206. Van Dyck, Portrait of the Antwerp painter Quintyn 
Simons , one of the finest portraits painted by the master before 
he went to England ; 216. Rubens , Adam and Eve in Eden, the 
animals by Jan Brueghel; 205. Van Dyck, The Huygens family, 
six separate medallions , probably from a ceiling ; 207. Frans 
Franken Junr. and Fr. Pourbus Jr. , Ball at the court of the 
archducal pair, Albert and Isabella, about 1615. 





Rubens 






I 






and Van Dyck. 




II 






IV 






= 




= 






— 




"i in 




~~ "~ 








Vestibule. 




w 1 









the Duke 
accordance 



and Duchess of 
with the coat -of- 



Museum. THE HAGUE. 36. Route. 227 

Room II. On the right: 225, bis. M. van Valckenborg the 
Younger and J. Francken , Alexander the Great visiting Apelles, 
with sketches of several famous paintings ; 210. Jacob Jordaens, 
Venus, Cupid, Nymphs, and Satyr in a grotto (after Rubens); 
201. Phil, de Champaigne, Portrait of Jacob Govaerts; 202. Gon- 
zales Cocx or Coques, Interior of a picture-gallery; opposite, 19, bis. 
Cornells van Haarlem, Marriage of Peleus and Thetis. Third Wall : 
34a, 34e. Hendrik Goltzius, Mercury, Minerva; 166. Esaias vande 
Velde, Dinner, dated 1614; Adrian van der Venne, 168, ter. Pea- 
sants brawling, in grisaille. 

Room III. On the right : 235, 236. Adam Elshaimer, Italian 
landscapes. Left wall : 19. Cornells van Haarlem, Massacre of the 
Innocents. In the middle of the room : 40, bis, 40, ter. Marten 
Heemskerk van Veen, Nativity, and Adoration of the Magi ; on the 
back, Annunciation. Opposite: 226. Roger van der Weyden, 
Descent from the Cross ; 237. Hans Holbein the Younger, Female 
portrait , painted in the artist's early period, when he still resided 
at Bale ; *240. Holbein, Portrait of a man, an excellent specimen of 
his later style (1542); *95. Ant. Moro (Sir Anthony More), Portrait 
of a man ; 231, 232, 233. B. Beham, Portraits of Elizabeth, Maxi- 
milian, and Anna of Austria when children; 316, quater. Floren- 
tine School (Piero di Cosimo?), Portrait of Giuliano da Sangallo, 
the architect; 239. After Holbein, Portrait of Jane Seymour, wife 
of Henry VIII.; *238. Holbein, Portrait of Robert Cheseman, 
holding a falcon (1533); 241. After Holbein, Erasmus of Rotter- 
dam ; 316, ter. Florentine School (Piero di Casimo?) Portrait of 
a musician. 

Room IV. : Portraits of Princes of the House of Orange, their 
relatives , and other celebrated personages , including the Great 
Elector of Brandenburg, by Honthorst (51, quater), a princess by 
Mytens (92, bis, to the right, above), nine by Mich, van Mierevelt 
of Delft (76-84; 82. William the Silent), and several by Rave- 
steyn. The names of the persons represented are inscribed on 
the frames. 

Room V. also contains portraits of princes and other eminent 
personages of the 17th and 18th cent. : 15, 16. Admiral De Ruyter 
and his son, by Ferd. Bol. 

First Floob. ■ — Ante-Room, beginning with the left wall , at 
the window : 47. Melchior d'Hondecoeter, The 'Raven in peacock's 
feathers'; below, 128. Schalcken, Young woman putting on earrings; 
6. hud. Bakhuizen , Dutch harbour ; 69. Jan Lingelbach, Prince 
William II. of Orange, before Amsterdam (1650) ; 37b. and 37c. 
Fr. Hals, Portraits of J. Olycan and his wife (1625); between these, 
without a number, E. de Witte, Church -interior ; 70. Jan Lingelbach, 
Charles II. embarking for England; 5. L. Bakhuizen, William III., 
King of England, disembarking at the Orange-Polder on his return 

15* 



228 Route 36. 



THE HAGUE. 



Museum. 



IV 


Potter 


V 


Rembr. 

Anatomy 

I 

11 


Staircase. 


VI 

VII 



from England in 1692; 14. Bloemort, Wedding of Peleus; 465. P. 
Codde, Soldiers playing backgammon. — Right wall, again begin- 
ning at the window : 52. Van Hoogstraeten, Lady reading ; 96. Paul 

Moreelse, Portrait of Amelia Eli- 
zabeth, Countess of Hanau ; *184. 
Phil. Wouverman, 'Un manege 
en pleine campagne'(an equestrian 
puts his steed through its paces, 
before a lady seated in a carriage 
drawn by six grey horses); 97. 
Moreelse, Portrait of Countess Er- 
nestina of Ligne - Arenberg ; 36, 
37. J. Verhaege, Landscapes; 11. 
Nicholas Berchem, The ford, Ital- 
ian landscape ; 9. Nic. Berchem, 
Pastoral scene , of unusual size ; 
33. Caesar van Everdingen, Dio- 
genes 'seeking for a man' in Haarlem market-place, with portraits of 
Grand Pensionary Steyn and his family ; 180. Jan Wynants, View 
on the dunes, the figures by Lingelbach; 64. Ph. Koninck, Mouth 
of a river; 195. Unknown Artist, Portrait of Grand Pensionary Jan 
de Witt. Among the busts we may mention that of William the 
Taciturn, by Hendrik de Keyser (No. 3). 

Room I. (comp. Plan). To the right: 31a. Corn. Dusart, Tavern 
interior; 168a. W. van de Veldt, Sea-tight between the Dutch and 
English (1666); 65e. Peter Lastman, Raising of Lazarus (1632). 
— Right wall: 66. Jan Livens (?), Portrait of a man; 95, bis. 
Paul Moreelse , Portrait of the artist himself. 

**115. Rembrandt's celebrated School of Anatomy, painted for 
the Amsterdam guild of surgeons in 1632, and intended to adorn 
the Dissecting Room ('Snijkamer') at Amsterdam along with other 
pictures of a similar nature (see p. lvi). These, however, whether 
of later or earlier date , have been completely eclipsed and con- 
signed to oblivion by this masterly group of portraits. Burger 
has justly characterised this picture as the truest and most lifelike 
representation of the 'working of intellect' ever produced. The 
painting remained among those mentioned at p. 275 till 1828, 
when it was purchased by King William I. for 32,000 fl. 

'This picture represents the celebrated anatomist Nicolaus Tulp, a 
friend and patron of Rembrandt, in a vaulted saloon, engaged in ex- 
plaining the anatomy of the arm of a corpse. He wears a black cloak 
with a lace collar, and a broad-brimmed soft hat. With his half-raised 
left hand he makes a gesture of explanation, while with his right he is 
dissecting a sinew of the arm of his subject. The corpse lies on a table 
before him. To the right of Tulp is a group of five figures; and two 
other men are sitting at the table in front. These listeners are not 
students, but members of the guild of surgeons of Amsterdam, as shown 
by a paper held by one of them. They are attending to the lecture with 
very various expressions. They are all bare-headed, dressed in black, 
and with turned-over collars, except one who still wears the old-fashioned, 



Museum. THE HAGUE. 38. Route. 229 

upright ruff. There are perhaps other persons present in the hal) , as 
Tulp appears to be looking beyond the picture, as if about to address 
an audience not visible to the spectator; and it is here worthy of remark 
that Rembrandt's compositions are never imprisoned in their frames, but 
convey an idea of a wide space beyond them. It is somewhat singular 
that the spectator seems hardly to notice the corpse lying before him at 
full length, the feet of which he can almost touch, although it is strongly 
lighted in contrast to the surrounding black garments and most faith- 
fully presents the peculiar hue of a dead body, leaving no doubt that it 
was painted from nature as well as the living heads. The admirable 
art of the composition consists in its power of riveting the attention to 
the living in the presence of death. The painting is signed at the top, 
'■Rembrant f. 1632\ Burger. Musies de la Hollande. 

61. Thomas de Keyser, Portrait of a magistrate, 1(531 ; *32. Oer- 
brand van den Eeckhout, Adoration of the Magi. — Opposite, third 
wall : — 

*105. Adrian van Ostade, The Fiddler. 

An itinerant fiddler, standing in front of an old and weather-beaten 
house, is delighting a numerous audience with his skill. The representa- 
tion of the scene in the open air has given the artist an opportunity of 
introducing the most varied effects of the reflection of light. Few of 
Ostade's works can compare with this in freshness of composition and 
finish of execution. It was painted in 1673, when the artist was in his 
sixty-third year. 

*62. Thomas de Keyser, The four burgomasters of Amsterdam 
receiving the news of the arrival of Marie de Me'dicis (1638), per- 
haps merely a sketch for a larger work , but painted with great 
vigour; 117. Rembrandt, Portrait of a young man, perhaps the artist 
himself, painted, according to Vosmaer, about 1630; *165. Adrian 
van de Velde, Beach at Scheveningen , enlivened with charming 
groups of figures , and an aerial perspective perhaps unequalled 
by the painter in any other work ; 17. Jan and Andries Both, Italian 
scene. 

*104. Adrian van Ostade, Cottage-interior, with eight figures, 
assembled for the purpose of smoking, singing, and drinking; 
or Worship of Bacchus and Apollo (1662). 134. Jan Steen, Den- 
tist. — On the other side of the door: 188. Ph K Wouvermnn. 
Hunters resting; 102, 103. C. Netscher, Portraits of M. and Mine. 
van Waalwijk ; 41. Jan van der Heyde, View of a town, with figures 
by A. van de Velde; 130. Schalcken, Physician; 101. C. Netscher, 
The painter with his wife and daughter (1665) ; 129. Schalcken, 
Bootless warning. 

Room II. On the right : *28. G. Dou , The young housekeeper. 

A lady with a child in the cradle, and an attendant , a carefully-exe- 
cuted picture. The work, also known as 'The Household', is one of the 
gems of the collection, and is of equal merit with the celebrated 'Drop- 
sical Lady' in the Louvre. It is dated 1658. 

170. A. de Vols, Huntsman. 

*116. Rembrandt, Susanna, on the point of stepping into her 
bath, is alarmed by the presence of the two elders (of whom one 
only is distinguishable in the shrubbery), painted in 1637. Placed 
by the side of the School of Anatomy and the Simeon , the merits 



230 Route 36. THE HAGUE. Museum. 

of this work are too often overlooked. Yet Susanna, strongly re- 
lieved against a dark background , is one of the most interesting 
female figures ever painted by Rembrandt, being remarkably faith- 
ful to nature, though not of classic beauty. In all probability the 
painter's wife Saskia stood to him as a model 

73. Gabriel Metsu , Huntsman ; 18. Jan and Andries Both, 
Italian scene. 

**114. Rembrandt, Presentation in the Temple, usually called 
in Holland 'Simeon in the Temple', the earliest important com- 
position of the artist known, painted in 1631, soon after he settled 
at Amsterdam. 

'In the middle of the Temple, the fantastic architecture of which is 
lost in the darkness, the light is concentrated on a group of seven per- 
sons. Simeon with eyes raised towards heaven , and wearing a robe 
glittering with gold, is represented kneeling, with the infant Christ in 
his arms; the Madonna, in a light blue robe, with folded hands is also 
kneeling; while Joseph on his knees offers the sacrificial doves. A little 
to the left, as a counterpoise to Simeon, is the high-priest, with a long 
flowing robe, and almost turning his back to the spectator, raising his 
right hand, which gleams in the strongest light, in an attitude of bene- 
diction. Behind the Virgin are two rabbis. To the left, in the back- 
ground of the aisles, several groups are observed in the twilight, and to 
the right in the chiaroscuro are a number of people ascending and 
descending a stair. On the same side, quite in the foreground, are two 
venerable old men sitting on a bench. The back of the bench bears the 
monogram R. H. (Rembrandt Harmensz) and the date 1631. This ad- 
mirable little work, of the master's earliest period, already exhibits the 
bold touch and the striking effects for which Rembrandt is famous , but 
the Madonna, who stands in the full light, is somewhat cold and insigni- 
ficant in character'. Burger. Musses de la Hollande. 

*113. Paul Potter, Landscape with cows and pigs. — At the first 
window : Frans van Mieris the Elder, *87. Portraits of the painter 
and his wife , 86. Portrait of Professor Florentius Schuyl of Ley- 
den, 85. Soap-bubbles. 29. Ger. Don, Woman with a lamp. At 
the second window. *164. A. van de Velde, Wooded landscape 
with cattle, a small picture, full of life and charming in colour. 

Second Wall: *181. Ph. Wouverman, The arrival; *112. Paul 
Potter, 'La Vache qui se mire', a herd of cattle by a river, with 
the form of a cow reflected by the water in the foreground, and men 
bathing behind (1648); *72. Jan Ver Meer, usually called Van der 
Meer of Delft, View of Delft; *182. Ph. Wouverman, The de- 
parture; 40. Cor. de Heem, Fruit; 186. Ph. Wouverman, Large 
battle-piece. In the corner : 71 a. Nic. Maes, Diana and her com- 
panions ; 179. Jan Wynants, Outskirts of a forest. 

Third Wall: 162. Jac. Ochtervelt, Fishmonger; 75. G. Metsu, 
Justice protecting the widow and the orphan ; 169. Hendrik Willemsz 
van Vliet, Interior of the Oude Kerk at Delft; 71. N. Maes, Por- 
trait of a man; 12. Nic. Berchem, Cavalry attack. On the entrance 
wall: 18 aa. Pieter Codde, Ball; 46. Ger. van Hoeckgeest, Tomb of 
William I. at Delft (p. 220). 

Room III. (comp. Plan, p. 228). On the right: 45. Hoeckgeest, 



Museum. THE HAGUE. 36. Route. 231 

Interior of the Nieuwe Ketk at Delft. — *139. Jan Steen, Guest- 
chamber in the painter's brewery. 

This work is also sometimes styled a 'picture of human life', many 
persons being of opinion that Steen painted scenes of conviviality with 
the same moralising tendency as Hogarth, for the purpose of rehuking 
human follies and vices. The picture contains about twenty persons. 
While the elders are enjoying their oysters, the children are playing with 
a dog and cat. Jan Steen himself plays a merry air, while a young 
woman is looking towards him , and a portly boor is laughing , glass in 
hand. In the background are card-players and smokers. This is one of 
the master's best works. 

21. A. Cuyp, Portrait of Mr. de Roovere , overseer of the 
salmon-fisheries at Dort; *118. Rembrandt, 'The Officer', study of 
a head, probably the painter's own portrait (painted about 1634, 
according to Vosmaer) ; 48. Melchior d'Hondecoeter , Menagerie of 
Prince William III. at the Chateau of Loo ; 187. Ph. Wouverman, 
Camp ; *145. Oerard Terburg, Portrait of the artist as burgomaster 
of Deventer ; *122. Jac. van Ruysdael, Waterfall ; *42. Barth. van 
der Heist, Portrait of Paul Potter, the animal-painter. 

*111. Paul Potter's far-famed Bull , the most popular picture 
in the collection, remarkable as one of the few animal-pieces which 
the master painted on so large a scale. 

The picture was carried off to Paris by the French, and was regarded 
as fourth in point of value among all the pictures in the Louvre. The 
three which ranked before it were Raphael's Transfiguration, Domeni- 
chino's Communion of St. Jerome, and Titian's Martyrdom of St. Peter. 
This celebrated picture was purchased in 1749 for 630 fl., but before it 
was restored by the French the Dutch government offered 60,000 fl. to 
Napoleon for its restoration. Much, however, as the bull, which has a 
cow, a sheep and lamb, a ram, and a shepherd as companions, has been 
praised, it must in candour be admitted that several of the master's 
smaller animal-pieces are more attractive and perfect. The large animals 
in this work are in too strong relief, and the light is distributed somewhat 
monotonously over the whole picture without being softened by inter- 
mediate tones. 

At the central window : * 185. Phil. Wouverman , Landscape 
known as 'The Haycart' ; 183. Ph. Wouverman, Hawking ; 10. Nic. 
Berchem, Boar-hunt; 39. De Heem, Wreath of flowers and fruit ; 
74. O. Metsu, Lady writing, a man behind her, and a mandoline- 
player in the background. 

Third wall, by the window: *135. Jan Steen, Poultry-yard, 
known as the Menagerie (1660). 

The picture represents a platform with several steps leading to a 
court with a brook flowing through it, and an old leafless tree on the 
right with a peacock on one of its branches. Ducks are paddling in the 
water, and pigeons and fowls picking up grain from the ground. On one 
of the steps sits a girl with a saucer , out of which a lamb is drinking. 
A bald-headed man-servant with a basket of eggs is speaking cheerfully 
with her, while another standing on the platform with a fowl under his 
arm looks at her laughingly. The last is a remarkably characteristic and 
life-like figure. 

167. W. van de Velde the Younger, The Y ; 173. Jan Weenix, 
Dead swan, natural size; 22. Dirk van Deelen and Ant. Palamedesz, 
Hall of the Binnenhof during the grand assembly of the States 



232 Route 30. THE HAGUE. Museum. 

General in 1651 ; 168. W. van de Velde Junr., Calm sea with 
shipping. — We now return to the entrance-wall : — 

50, 49. Mel. d'Hondecoeter , Hens, Ducks; 136. Jan Steen, 
Physician feeling a young lady's pulse ; *123. J. van Ruysdael, Sea- 
shore. 

*138. Jan Steen, Portrait of himself and his family, an unusu- 
ally large picture for this master, boldly and energetically painted 
in his best style. 

'The worthy Jan Steen has here assembled his whole family around 
him. The group consists of eleven persons. The principal place at the 
table is of course occupied by Jan himself, a figure with long hair and 
a broad hat, laughing and smoking, and apparently about to drink. On his 
left is his wife, a corpulent lady in a blue fur-trimmed velvet jacket, 
filling a pipe, which one is almost tempted to think is for her own use. 
Jans aged mother, to the left in front , is dandling a grandchild on her 
knees, while his father by the fireside, in spectacles, is singing from a 
sheet of music accompanied on the (lute by Jan's eldest son, a handsome 
lad, almost grown up. In the immediate foreground are a dog, some copper 
utensils, and a mortar on which the master has placed his signature'. 

Burger. Musies de la Hollande. 

*124. Jacob van Ruysdael, Distant view of Haarlem, purchased 
in 1827 for 6700 florins. 

'The foreground is occupied by a level meadow, on which long strips 
of linen are being bleached. The houses in connection with the bleaching- 
green stand towards the left. Beyond, stretching to the horizon, is a 
monotonous plain, almost totally destitute of trees or dwellings, and in 
the extreme distance are distinguishable the town and church of Haarlem. 
And all these miles of landscape are represented on a little canvas, only 
18 in. high!' Burger. 

137. Jan Steen, The doctor's visit. — *144. Qerard Terburg, 
'The Dispatch'. 

An officer holds a letter which appears to have heen delivered to him 
by a trumpeter. This picture, also called 'The Interruption', is one of 
the most charming works of the master, full of life and expression, and 
rivalling the famed 'Paternal Admonition' at Amsterdam. It is unfortun- 
ately much darkened by age. 

Room IV. Nos. 1.47-161. Corn. Troost, Fifteen drawings in 
chalk, illustrating the customs of the early part of the 18th cent., 
and of little artistic value. 

Room V., and the last two rooms, contain works of the Italian, 
Spanish, and French schools. Those in Room V. are almost all 
by unknown masters and of little importance. 297. After Titian, 
Portraits of a Venetian and his mistress ; 299. Domenichino, Ou- 
msean Sibyl. 

Room VI. (comp. the Plan, p. 228). No. 292. Fabr. Santafede 
(d. 1634), Holy Family and St. Elizabeth ; 277. Gasp. Poussin, 
Landscape ; 268. Paris Bordone , Christ blessing ; 256. Murillo, 
Shepherd ; 257. School of Velazquez, Portrait of the Infante Charles 
Balthazar, son of Philip IV. of Spain; 297, bis. School of Titian, 
Portrait of a lady ; 274. Cignani, Adam and Eve ; 289, 290. Sal- 
vator Rosa, Monks praying ; 280. Lodovico Mazzolino, Massacre of 
the Innocents; 264. Old Copy of Fra Bartolommeo, Holy Family. 

Room VII. 259. M. Cereso, Penitent Magdalene ; 267. P. da 



Qevangenpoort. THE HAGUE. 36. Route. 233 

(ortona, Holy Family; 293. Venus and Cupid, old copy of an en- 
graving by Raphael ; 253. C. J. Vernet, Waterfall ; 255. After Murillo, 
Madonna; 298. School of Titian, Madonna and Child with St. Ca- 
tharine ; 286. SalvatorRosa(?~), Landscape ; 300. School of Vicenza, 
Madonna with saints. 

The Plein (PI. D, 3, 4), an extensive square on the E. side of 
the Mauritshuis , is adorned with the Statue of Prince William I. 
(PI. 36), in bronze, by Royer, erected in 1848. The statue is re- 
presented with one finger slightly raised, in allusion to his well- 
known taciturnity. His favourite motto , 'saevis tranquilhts in 
undis', and the dedication of the monument by 'the grateful people 
to the father of their fatherland' , are inscribed on the pedestal. 
On the S. W. side of the Plein is the Colonial Office, and adjoining 
it on the S., with an entrance-court and portico, is the Hooge Raad 
(PI. 4). In the S. angle is the office of the Ministry of Justice, a 
handsome new building of brick and white stone, in the Dutch 
Renaissance style. Opposite rises the War Office (PI. 23) , which 
in the time of the Republic was the residence of the deputies from 
Rotterdam. On the N.W. stands the handsome edifice which 'at 
present contains the National Archives (PI. 30), formerly the house 
of the Amsterdam deputies. The most interesting document in the 
collection is a copy of the Peace of Westphalia (1648). — On the 
W. is the club-house of the Nieuwe or Litteraire Societeit (PL 25 b ; 
D, 3) , to which strangers are only admitted when introduced by a 
member. Not far off stands the new Gemeente- Museum (p. 234). 

The Buitknhof (PL C, 3), a large open space adjoining the 
Rinnenhof on the S. W., and also bounded on the N. side by the 
Vijver , is adorned with a mediocre Statue of William II. (PL 23; 
d. 1849) in bronze, erected in 1853. 

The Gevangenpoort (PL 3 ; C, 3) is an ancient tower with a 
gateway leading (N.) from the Buitenhof to the Plaats. In 1672 
Cornells de Witt, who was falsely accused of a conspiracy against 
the life of the stadtholder William III. , was imprisoned here. 
His brother John de Witt, the Grand Pensionary, hearing that his 
brother was in danger , hastened to the tower to afford him pro- 
tection. The infuriated populace, who had been induced by the 
enemies of the two brothers to believe in their guilt, availed 
themselves of this opportunity, and, having forced their way into 
the prison, seized the persons of their ill-fated victims, whom they 
literally tore to pieces with savage cruelty (comp. p. xxxiii). The 
brothers are buried in the Nieuwe Kerk. The old prison, in which 
a collection of instruments of torture has been formed, is open 
daily, free, from 10 (Sundays and holidays 12. 30) to 4. A little 
farther to the N. lie the Plaats and the Vijverberg, see below. 

Adjoining the Ruitenhof on the S.W. is the Vegetable Market, 
and beyond it the Fish Market (PL C, B, 3). 



234 Route 36. THE HAGUE. Town Hall. 

The Town Hall (PI. 35) , built in 1565 , enlarged in 1734 by 
the addition of theN. wing, and restored and extended in 1882-83, 
stands on the E. side of the Fish Market. The sculptures on the 
facade next the Groote Kerk are by J. B. Xavery. A hall on the 
ground-floor contains a corporation - piece by Jan van Ravesteyn 
(1580-1657), the greatest of the early Dutch portrait-painters with 
the sole exception of Frans Hals (p. liv). He was the favourite 
painteT of the Town Council and fashionable society of the Hague. 
His best works are still in possession of the town , which has lately 
collected several of them in the new Municipal Museum (see below). 

The picture by Ravesteyn in the Town Hall represents 25 arquebusiers 
of the Guild of St. Sebastian , descending the staircase of the Shooting- 
gallery ('Doelen') , engaged in animated conversation and strikingly life- 
like. Another work of the same kind, hanging in the same room, and 
depicting three officers of the white arquebusiers, was formerly also attri- 
buted to Ravesteyn. The room also contains an unattractive painting, 
by Jan de Baen (1633-1702), of the Magistrates of the Hague in 1682, as- 
sembled round the council-table in stiff attitudes, and wearing wigs a 
la Louis XIV. In the corners of the ceiling are four small paintings in gri- 
saille, by Jacob de Wit. 

The Groote Kerk (PI. 9 j B, 3) of St. James is a Gothic edifice 
of the 15-16th cent., with a hexagonal tower, surmounted by a 
modern iron spire. The interior, which is finely vaulted, contains 
a few monuments , among them that of Admiral Obdam, who fell 
in 1665 in a naval engagement with the English in the Sound. In 
the sacristy are the remains of an alabaster monument of a Mynheer 
van Assendelft (d. 1636) and his wife. A public performance is 
given every Tues. from 3 to 4 p.m. on the large new organ, built in 
1881 by "Witte of Utrecht (adm. 25 c). The sacristan lives at Kerk- 
plein 13, near the Post Office (25 c). 

To the S., opposite the Groote Kerk, is the covered Fish Market 
(PI. 40; B, 3), the rendezvous of the fish-women of Scheveningen. 
Several storks (a bird which figures in the armorial bearings of the 
town) are maintained in the court at the public expense. 



Along the N. side of the Vijver (p. 224) extends the shady 
Vijvbkbbrg , which is continued on the E. by the Tournooiveld 
(PI. C, D, 3). In the latter, at the corner of the Korte Vijver, is 
the new building of the ^Municipal Museum (Het Oemeente- 
Museum ; PI. 44), which contains most of the pictures formerly in 
the Town Hall, and also numerous good modern works. 

Old Pictures. "Jan van, Goyen , View of the Hague , S. side of the 
town, the largest (15 ft. by 5'/2 ft.) and one of the most important works 
of this master, who knew so well how to pourtray the autumnal colour- 
ing of a Dutch landscape ; Joachim Hoeckgee&t (first half of the 17th cent.), 
An ensign of the green banner of the house of Orange ; Mierevelt the El- 
der, Prince Frederick Henry and Princess Amelia of Solms (1634), William 
the Taciturn, and other portraits; "Jan van Ravesteyn, Banquet partaken 
of by seventeen town-councillors and nine officers of the Guild of Arque- 
busiers, whose Captain, according to the annual usage, receives the 'cup 
of welcome' ('een frissen roemer met wijn') the costume is not that of 
the 17th cent., but of an earlier period, with tall, narrow-brimmed hats 



Steengracht Collection. THE HAGUE. 38. Route. 235 

and upright ruffs, and accords well with the grave and dignified deport- 
ment of the figures (dated 1618); Jan van Ravesteyn, Six officers of the 
white arquebusiers (1638); "Jan van Ravesteyn, Fifteen members of the 
town-council of 1636 in half-figure, sitting at their green table, with 
which their black dress contrasts admirably; the only colours the picture 
contains are green, black, and the flesh -tint of the faces, and the effect 
is very harmonious and pleasing. The paintings still in the town-hall 
(p. 234) will very possibly be transferred to this museum. 

Modern Pictures. Van Hove, Interior of a synagogue; Ten Kate, 
Reckoning day ; /. Hanedoes, Sunset on the dunes near Haarlem ; /. Bos- 
boom, Interior of St. Peter's Church at Leyden; Henri Source, Wives and 
children of Scheveningen fishermen on a summer-evening; Mesdag, Sea- 
piece; Verveer, Four 'old salts'. 

The museum also contains a collection of Antiquities belonging to 
the town (glasses, porcelain, medallions, banners of the guilds, etc.). 

To the W., in the direction of the Plaats, Vijverberg 3, is the 
house (PI. 42 ; C, 3) of Baron Steengracht van Oosterland, con- 
taining a fine Collection of ancient and modern paintings ar- 
ranged in three saloons, to which all lovers of art are liberally ad- 
mitted (10-4; fee, 111.). Catalogues are distributed throughout 
the rooms. 

The Modekn Pictures, of the French and Dutch schools, are exhibited 
in Room I. To the right of the entrance. Girdme, Scene in the Desert ; 
Decamps, Dogs and children; Willems, Lady and cavalier. To the left of 
the entrance: Verweet; Canal at Amsterdam; Horace Vernet , The last 
cartridge; Winterhalter, Roman women; Waldorp, Sea-piece. — On the 
opposite wall : "Meissonier, Soldiers playing cards ; Bougereau, Girl knit- 
ting; Blees, By the cradle; Landelle, Girl with fruit; Villegas, Siesta. — 
Back-wall, to the left : Meyer, Sea-piece ; Kobell, Landscape with cattle ; 
Verschuur, Stable; Noel, Tavern; Schelfhout, Winter-scene near Haarlem; 
Navez, Roman women; "Koekkoek, In the forest. 

Among the "Ancient Pictures are specimens of the chief Dutch masters 
of the 17th cent., some of them being cabinet-pieces of the first rank. There 
are in all upwards of 80 works, which fill the two following rooms. 

Room II. On the left: "Rembrandt , Bathsheba, after her bath, 
watched from a distance by King David. The beautiful Jewess is seated on 
a rug in a thickly-wooded park , by the side of the basin in which she 
has been bathing; beside her are two attendants. The arrangement of 
the picture is analogous to that of the Susanna in the Mauritshuis (p. 229), 
but this work is the finer of the two. The chiaroscuro, against which, 
as in the Susanna, the female figure stands in exquisite relief, is treated 
in the most masterly style, forcibly recalling the famous 'Night Watch' 
at Amsterdam. According to Vosmaer, the Bathsheba was painted in 
1643 , less than a year after the completion of that splendid work. — As 
if to enhance the effect, another picture is hung below of the same sub- 
ject by Tan der Werff, whose smooth and elegant Bathsheba almost re- 
sembles a wax figure when compared with the warm and life-like crea- 
tion of Rembrandt. 

Rubens, Heads of SS. Peter and Paul; A. van de Velde , Cattle; 
Rubens, Drunken Bacchus ; Alb. Cuyp , Horse; Rubens, Infant Christ; 
Jordaens, At the fountain; Peter de Hooch, Musical party; Barth. van 
der Heist, Portraits of a man and woman; Th. de Keyser, Portrait of a 
man; "Paul Potter, Three cows; Mc. Maes, Peasant woman making 
pancakes, and a boy eating them. 

Room III. Right wall, beginning at the window: J. van Ruysdael, 
Waterfall; A. van Ostade, Interior of a cottage; Terburg, Mother dressing 
her daughter's hair; Karel du Jardin, Herd-boy playing with his dog; Te- 
nters Jr., The Seven Works of Mercy; Jan Steen, The painter and his 
family, nearly life-size, an unusually large work for this master; Melsu, 
Mother with a sick child; W. van de Velde, Sea-piece; Jan Steen, Physi- 



236 Route 36. THE HAGUE. Navy Office. 

cian's visit; Ascribed to Rembrandt, Mother and child. Entrance-wall: 
Allari van Everdingen, Waterfall; A. van Ostade, Pig driven to market; 
F. Bol, Portrait; L. Bakhuizen, Sea-piece; Q. Netscher, Two portraits; 
Adr. Brouwer, Peasant scene; "Hobbema, Large landscape; Th. de Keyser, 
Lace-maker; Fr. van Mieris, Boy with a cage; Mieris and Sling eland, The 
captive mouse; 6er. Dow, Portraits of a man and woman; Ary de Vois, 
Peasant smoking; A. van Ostade, Peasants. Also numerous landscapes. 

Among the numerous handsome houses in the adjacent square, 
called the Kneuterdijk (PI. C, 3), are the old Palace of the 
Prince of Orange (PI. 27), with the 'Gothische ZaaV, in which ex- 
hibitions are held ; the Palace of Prince Alexander (No. 6), once 
the house of De Witt ; and the office of the Minister of Finance 
(PI. 22), originally the house of Oldenbarneveld. The first of these 
stands at the corner of the Noordeinde (PI. C, 3, 2, 1), a street 
which also contains the Royal Palace (PI. 26; C, 2), built in the 
time of Stadholder William III., and containing a few unimportant 
family-paintings (admission only in the absence of the royal family). 

Also in the Noordeinde, between the two palaces just mentioned, 
stands the equestrian * Statue of Prince William I. of Orange 
(PI. 37; C, 2), in bronze, designed by Count Nieuwerkerke , and 
erected by King William II. in 1845. On the pedestal are the arms 
of the seven provinces. — Farther on , to the right in the Park- 
straat, is the new Church of St. Jambs, built by P. J. H. Cuypers. 

The Kneuterdijk is bounded on the E. by the Langb Voorhout 
(PI. C, D, 2), a square surrounded by handsome buildings and 
planted with trees, which, along with the Kneuterdij k and the Noord- 
einde, forms the finest quarter of the town. 

The Navy Office (PI. 21; C, 3), Lange Voorhout 7, con- 
tains, in the Modelzaal (on the first floor), a very complete col- 
lection of objects connected with shipbuilding, ship-armour, and 
navigation (open on week-days, 10-3 ; visitors ring ; no fee). 

Models of ships of all kinds, from the Dutch men-of-war of the 17th 
cent, to the modern turret-ship, East India merchantmen, etc. Models 
of parts of vessels, rudders, compasses, sextants, anchors, models of 
guns, arms. Models of dry docks; 'camels', an apparatus used before the 
opening of the North Canal for conveying ships of heavy tonnage over 
the shoals of the Zuiderzee; model of the landing-stage at Amsterdam, 
with the various pieces of machinery used on it ; large relief-model of 
Hellevoetsluis. — The historical relics formerly kept here have been 
removed to Amsterdam (p. 276). 

On the N. side of the Lange Voorhout is a spacious edifice (No. 34) 
containing the royal Library (PI. 1 ; D, 2) , open to the public 
daily, except Sundays and holidays, from 10 to 3 o'clock. It con- 
tains about 200,000 volumes. The miniatures in the prayer-book 
of Philippe le Bon of Burgundy, painted in grisaille (1455-65), are of 
great artistic value; several of them, such as the Annunciation and 
Coronation of the Virgin, are in the style of Memling. The prayer- 
book of Isabella of Castile (1450), a Gospel of the 10th cent., a 
Psalter of the 12th cent., etc., also merit inspection. The most 
precious objects are exhibited under glass. 



Library. THE HAGUE. 36. Route. 237 

The valuable collection of Coins, Medals, and Gems in the same 
building is open on Mondays , Wednesdays , and Fridays , 10-3 
o'clock. It contains upwards of 40,000 coins and medals, and 300 
cameos, most of them antique, including the Apotheosis of theEmp. 
Claudius, one of the largest known ; also a collection of Syrian and 
Babylonian seals and dies. 

The following are among the finest: Head of Hercules; bust of Bac- 
chus; Faun attempting to rob a Bacchante of her robe; reversed lyre 
with horns represented by two dolphins, springing from a rose-crowned 
head of Cupid, grouped artistically with the panther of Bacchus, which 
holds the thyrsus in its front paw; mask with large beard and open 
mouth; Venus and Cupid; Cybele riding on the lion; giant dragging a 
griffin from a cavern; helmeted head in profile, with a long beard; Ho- 
mer as a statue; several portrait-heads; head of Medusa, in cornelian, 
a beautiful modern work. The catalogue of the director gives full par- 
ticulars about, every object in the collection. 

On the W. side of the Lange Voorhout is an octagonal sand- 
stone monument (PI. 3a; D, 3) to Duke Charles Bernhard of Saxe- 
Weimar (d. 1862), who distinguished himself in the Dutch service 
at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, in the battles against the Belgian 
insurgents in 1831 , and in the East Indian Wars of 1849. — Ad- 
jacent rise the Theatre (PI. 31; D, 3), and the Palace of Princess 
Marie (PI. 28; E, 3), the king's cousin. 

On the Prinsessen-Gracht is the Cannon Foundry (PI. 20), 
beyond which is the Museum Mebrmanno-Westreenianum (PI. 7a; 
E,2), a somewhat motley collection of MSS., specimens of early 
typography, coins, ancient vases, a few small ancient sculptures, 
Japanese curiosities, etc., bequeathed by Count Meermann (d. 1816) 
and Baron Westreenen (d. 1850). 

The most interesting MSS. are a fragment of an Old Testament of 
the 5th cent. ; a book of the Gospels of the 9th cent. ; a Flemish Bible in 
rhyme, of 1332 ; a French Bible with miniatures by Jan of Bruges, executed 
in 1371 for Charles V., the Wise, of France; the Ethics of Aristotle in 
French, of 1376, with miniatures in grisaille ; French translation of Au- 
gustine's 'De Civitate Dei 1 , with numerous miniatures (end of the 15th, 
or early in the 16th cent); and several others of the early Flemish and 
Dutch schools. Among the specimens of Typography are several block- 
books, such as were common at the close of the middle ages, particularly 
in Holland ; incunabula of Gutenberg and Caxton, etc. Unfortunately the 
museum is open only on the first and third Thursday of every month, 
10-4 o'clock. Tickets are issued on the previous day, 10-3 o'clock, by 
the director of the library (p. 236). The visitor is conducted through 
the museum by an attendant. 

The Willems-Park(P1. C, 1), a circular Place enclosed by pleas- 
ant houses and gardens, at the N.W. corner of the town, on the 
way to Sclieveningen , is adorned with the imposing ^National 
Monument (PI. 25 a) , begun in 1863 and inaugurated in 1869, 
to commemorate the restoration of Dutch independence in 1813 
and the return of Prince William Frederick of Orange, who after- 
wards became king. On the massive substructure rises a lofty rect- 
angular column bearing a smaller one which is adorned with the 
arms of the kingdom and the seven provinces, the whole being 
crowned with a Batavia in bronze, holding a banner in her right 



238 Route 36. THE HAGUE. Park. 

hand aud a sheaf of arrows in the left, with the lion of the Nether- 
lands at her feet. On the side facing the town Prince "William 
Frederick is represented in his coronation-rohes, swearing to main- 
tain the constitution. At the hack are Gyshert Karel van Hogen- 
dorp, Fr. Ad. van der Duyn, and Count L. van Limburg-Styrum, 
the leaders of the rising in November, 1813. The figures on the 
narrow sides are emblematical of Liberty and Law. All these figures 
are in bronze, having been modelled by Jaquet. Two reliefs on the 
round part of the pedestal represent the rising of the people and 
the arrival of the king. The whole monument was designed by 
W. C. van der Wayen-Pieterszen and Koelman. 

Near the monument is De Boers Bazaar (p. 223). 

At No. 4, Prins Hendrik Plein, near the road to Scheveningen, 
is the Prins Hendrik Museum, a collection of physical apparatus, 
models, drawings, musical instruments, and works of art (open 
daily, 1-4). 

The Nieuwe Kerk (PI. 13 ; C, D, 4), on the Spui, was built by 
Hendrik de Keyser (p. 207); it contains the tombs of the De Witts 
(p. 233) and of Spinoza (near the pulpit). Spinoza' s House, Pavel- 
joensgracht 32, opposite the Heilig - Geesthuis (PI. C, 5), was 
occupied by the great philosopher from 1671 down to his death 
in 1677. Opposite is a bronze Statue of Spinoza, by Hexamer, 
erected in 1880. 

The Zoological - Botanic Garden (PI. E, 2) is a favourite 
place of recreation, but contains few animals. Admission 50 c. ; 
those who make a prolonged stay at the Hague may subscribe. 
Concerts on Monday and often Friday evenings in summer , and 
Sunday afternoons in winter, admission 1 fl. (restaurant). 

To the S. of the Zoological Garden is the Maliebaan, the drill- 
ing-ground of the garrison. Farther on begins the celebrated and 
beautiful *Park (het Bosch), a plantation intersected by avenues in 
different directions, and about 3 M. in length. In the centre is a 
large garden belonging to the Nieuwe Societeit (p. 233), to which 
admission is granted only on introduction. On Sundays from 2.30 
to 4, and on "Wednesdays from 7 to 9.30 o'clock, a band plays here 
and attracts numerous visitors. Adjacent is the Panorama Langlois, 
mentioned at p. 223. On the S.W. side the forest is converted 
into a deer-park (Hertenkamp), where there are regular avenues of 
stately old trees near the road, while the remoter parts are in their 
primitive condition. Comp. the small map on the Plan. 

Near the N.E. corner of the Park, about l'/^M. from the Hague, 
is situated the Huis ten Bosch, i. e. the 'House in the Wood', a 
royal villa, erected by the widow of Prince Frederick Henry of 
Orange (p. xxxii) in memory of her husband. 

The Interior is worthy of a visit. (Visitors ring at the door in the 
right wing ; fee 1 fl. for 1-3 pers., 2 fl. for a larger party.) The Dining Room 
is embellished with grisailles by De Wit (1749) of Meleager, Atalanta, 
Venus, Adonis, and Genii, painted in imitation of bas-reliefs, and pro- 



SCHEVENINGEN. 37. Route. 239 

ducing an almost perfect illusion ; it also contains Chinese, Saxon (Meissen), 
and Delft porcelain. In the Chinese Room is some tapestry of rice-paper 
of the lKth century. The Japanese Room contains bright-coloured em- 
broidery with birds and plants, presented to Prince William V. of Orange 
in 1795, Japanese cabinets, etc. 

The chief attraction is the "Orange Saloon, an octagonal hall adorned 
with scenes from the life of Prince Frederick Henry, painted by artists 
of the School of .Rubens (comp. Introd., p. li), and lighted partly by the 
cupola above, and partly from the sides. The walls are about 50 ft. 
in height, the lower part being covered with canvas, while the upper 
part is of wood. The best of these paintings is that which covers the 
principal wall, by Jordaens, representing the triumph of the young prince 
over vice, sickness , and other enemies of youth. The others contain 
several bold and finely-conceived groups, but exhibit numerous traces of 
the inaccurate drawing of Rubens's school, while the general effect is far 
from pleasing. 

The following pleasant Excursion may be taken from the Hague 
(2-3 hrs. driving). Along the Leyden road ('Straatweg naar 
Leiden' ; PI. G, 2), through the Park, and then by the 'Papenlaan' 
to Voorschoten (p. 221), the Leidsche Dam, and Voorburg , near 
which is a popular resort with a restaurant. Then back by the 
'Laan van Nieuw Oosteinde\ 

37. Scheveningen. 

Comp. Plan of the Hague, p. 222. 

There are three conveyances between the Hague and Scheveningen, 
a distance of 21/2-3 M. 

1. The Steam Tramway of the Dutch and Rhenish Railway (Stoom 
Tramway der 'Nederl. Rhyn-Spoorweg MaaUchappy), which starts from the 
Rhenish Station (PI. E, 4) every V4 hr. during the season, and also V2 nr - 
after the arrival of each train (for the passengers from Utrecht, Gouda, 
etc.). The station at Scheveningen is situated close to the German Protes- 
tant Church, near the large Bath House. Fares 25 or 15 c, 10 tickets 1 '/a 
or 1 fl.; tickets are obtained in the car. In returning, travellers may pro- 
cure through railway-tickets and book their luggage at Scheveningen. 

2. Teamwat. There are two tramway-lines, both of which start from 
the Plein (PI. D, 3, 4), while one follows the old, and the other the new 
road (see p. 240). The former is divided into Ave, the latter into four 
sections. Fare 5 c. per section. 

3. Cabs. For 1-2 pers. l l k, 3-5 pers. l 3 /4 tl. ; trunks 10 c. each. Comp. 
p. 223. 

Hotels. "Hotel d'Oeange, built by a company and opened in 1874, a 
large house situated on the Dunes, with about 180 apartments, including 
drawing-rooms , reading-rooms, etc. ; R. from 21/2 , D. at 5 o'clock 2 ] /2 
il., B. 75, A. 50 c. — Near this hotel is the Pavilion, a building con- 
taining twelve distinct suites of furnished apartments for families, each 
of which is let for 1500-1800 fl. for the season. — *Geand Hotel des 
Bains (Het Badhuis), an extensive winged building, also on the Dunes, 
containing upwards of 100 rooms at 2-12 fl. per day, B. 75 c, D. at 
5 o'clock 2 l /i fl., A. 30 c, porter extra (farther particulars, see tarill'l. 
Reading-room per day 25 c, week 75 c, fortnight l'A A. — Hotel des 
Galekies, a large new building, the end of which looks towards the sea, 
with a restaurant, cafe, and shops on the ground-floor; R. from l'/2 fl. 
(before 21st July from V/ t il.), extra bed *li-lft., A. 25, L. 25, B. 60 c, 
'pens.' 3'/2-4, D. 2fl. — "Hotel Garni, the property of a company, with 
about 190 rooms, R. from 1 fl., D. 2-2>/2fl., B. 60c, 'pension' without 
room 3'/2 fl., good cuisine. — Hotel Rauch , Hotel Zeebust, with ter- 
races, also situated on the Dunes, to the right and left at the end of 
the principal street of the village; R. 1-6 fl., before and_after_the season 



240 Route 37. SCHEVENINGEN. 

somewhat cheaper, well spoken of. — Hotel Pension ; Hotel de l'Union. 
There are also several villas on the Dunes, which are let io summer-visitors. 

Behind the Dunes, without a view of the sea: "Hotel Continental, 
Nieuwe Badweg, >/» M. from the Hotel des Bains; Hotel Deutschmann, 
adjacent. Nearer the village are numerous hotel-pensions and furnished 
villas, rooms in which are cheaper than in the hotels on the beach. — In 
the village: Hotel -Restaurant St. Hubekt , R. l-l'/z, D. I1/2, 'pens.' 
3-4 fl., unpretending; Belvedeee, with a cafe; *H6tel de la Promenade, 
the halfway point of the tramway-route, see below; "Beausejour, at the 
entrance of the Scheveningsche Boschjes. — Most of the private lodgings 
in the village are indifferently fitted up; in engaging rooms it is ad- 
visable to come to a written agreement beforehand. — On Sundays Sche- 
veningen attracts crowds of Dutch visitors from all parts of the country, 
most of whom dine at the hotels. 

Baths. Bathing-coach with awning 70, without awning, generally 
used by gentlemen, 50c. ; subscription for 20 baths with towels 10 or 7 fl.; 
small bathing-coach, which is conveyed to the water's edge only, with 
one towel, 20 c; subscription for the whole season 7'/j fl. ; fee 10 c. for 
each bath, or 1 fl. 20 c. for 20 baths. The custom of promiscuous bath- 
ing, as in Ostend, Blankenberghe, and elsewhere, has been lately intro- 
duced, but there are also separate bathing-places for gentlemen and ladies. 
Tickets are procured" at the office on the beach in front of the Bath House. 
On Sundays there is no bathing allowed after 2 p.m. 

Warm Baths of salt-water (75 c. and fee), vapour-baths, etc., at the 
Bath House, well fitted up (from 7 a.m. to 4 p.m.). 

Visitors' Tax: For the season 15 fl., for a fortnight 8 fl.; for members 
of families 'cartes secondaires' are also issued, for the season 5 fl., fort- 
night 3 11. 

Bath Physician: Dr. Mess, villa on the Dunes, next to the Hotel Garni ; 
consultation-hours, at the Bath House 7-8, 10-12, and 3-4. 

Post and Telegraph Office, Keizerstraat 294 ; branch-office at the large 
Bath House (N. wing). 

Donkeys. Per Vz hr. 20 c, V2 day 1 fl. 25 c. ; with Small carriage, 
per hour 50 c, l fa day 2 fl. ; carriage and pair of donkeys, per hour 75 c, 
V* day 21/2 fl. 

Boating hardly obtainable. Tents , 'pavilions' , and chairs may be 
hired on the beach. — 'Le Petit Courrier' and the official gazette (published 
daily) contain a list of visitors. 

English Church at the Hague (p. 223). 

There are two roads between the Hague and Scheveningen : — 

1. The Old Road, paved with 'klinkers' , constructed in the 
middle of the 17th century, leaves the town by the N.W. gate 
(PI. C, 1), and is shaded by trees and provided with a tramway- 
line. On the right, between the old road and the Canal, lies 
the Scheveningsche Boschjes, a park with numerous line old oaks, 
affording beautiful walks. On the left is the royal chateau of Zorg- 
vliet, once the residence of Cats, the Dutch statesman and poet (d. 
1660). Farther on , we pass a row of villas , including Klein 
Zorgvliet, now Hotel de la Promenade (half-way house on the tram- 
way-route). Distance from the Scheveningen Gate at the Hague to 
the beginning of the village iy 2 M., to the beach 2*/4 M. 

2. The uninteresting and shadeless New Road leads direct from 
the N. end of the town (PI. E, 1) to the Bath House, skirting the 
canal at first, and crossing it halfway. This is the route followed 
by the steam-tramway and the tramway from the Dutch station. On 
the Dunes to the right, in the distance, is the large building of 
the Hague Water Works (adm. Tues. and Thurs. 12-4 ; fine view). 



LEYDEN. 38. Route. 241 

Scheveningen, a clean fishing- village with 12,300inhab., con- 
sists of neat brick houses, sheltered from the sea by a lofty dune. 
The late-Gothic church, consecrated in 1472, With its pointed spire, 
once stood in the middle of Scheveningen, but on 1st Nov., 1570, a 
spring-tide swallowed up half of the village, consisting of 125 
houses, so that the church now standB at the W. end. As the ground 
rises gradually behind the village, no view is obtained of the sea 
until the top of the Dunes is reached. 

An undulating Terrace, paved with bricks, extends along the 
top of the Dunes from the village to the Hotel d'Orange (about 
1 M.), forming an admirable promenade. Lower down, on the side 
next the sea, another paved road, completed in 1877, connects the 
village with the large Bath House. At the 8.W. end of the Terrace 
are the Lighthouse (Vuurtoren ; adm. 15 o.) and the Monument, an 
obelisk erected in 1865 to commemorate the return of William I. 
after the French occupation (p. xxxiv). Near the church are the 
Hotels Zeerust and Rauch. Farther on are numerous villas, the 
Grand Hotel des Bains, and the other hotels mentioned above. A 
little inland is a new German Protestant Church , with two towers. 

The large Bath House (Groot Badhuis) or Grand Hotel des Bains 
is the great rallying-point of visitors. In front of it the Terrace in- 
creases to a breadth of 50 paces. 

Scheveningen possesses numerous fishing -boats (pinken), the 
cargoes of which aYe sold by auction on the beach immediately on 
their arrival. The scene on such occasions is often very picturesque 
and amusing. The herring-fishery is also prosecuted with consid- 
erable success, many of the 'pinken' occasionally venturing as far 
as the N. coast of Scotland. 

Scheveningen is now frequented by about 20,000 visitors an- 
nually. Living is dearer than at Ostend, though the latter is gayer 
and more fashionable. The height of the season is from 15th July 
to 1st Sept., before and after which charges are lowered. A great 
advantage which Scheveningen possesses over the other watering- 
places on the N. Sea is the proximity of the Hague and the woods 
a little inland, which afford pleasant and shady walks. 

In 1673 Admiral de Ruyter defeated the united fleets of France 
and England off the coast near Scheveningen. 

38. Leyden. 

Comp. the Plan, p. 246. 

Hotels. Hotel do Lion d'Ok (PI. a), E. & B. 2, l>. with wine 2>/.i fl., 
A. 25 c; "Hotel Levedag (PI. d), E., L., & A. 2'k&.; Hotel Central, 
opposite the post-office, new, D. l 3 /4fl.; Hotel Smits de Zon (PI. b), all 
in the Breedestraat; Hotel de la Poste, with cafe-restaurant, in the 
Aal-Markt (PI. D, K, 3). 

Cafes-Restaurants. Zomerzorg, near the railway-station, with a pleas- 
ant garden; Cafe Suisse, Breedestraat 84 ; Sladt ffttrnberg, Breedestraat 16 
(good beer); Cafi New/, Breedestraat 107, opposite the H6tel-de-Ville. 

Baedeker's Belgium and Holland. 7th Edit. 16 



242 Route 38. LEYDEN. Burg. 

Tramways. From the station (PI. B, 1) to the Zijl Poort (PI. H, 2) 
via the Beestenmarkt (PI. C, 2) and the Haarlemmer Straat, and from the 
station to the Hoogewoerds Poort (PI. H, 5) through the Breestraat. The 
latter line passes most of the points of interest in the town. — Steam- 
Tramways to Haarlem and to Katwtjk aan Zee (see p. 246). 

Cab from the station to the town 60 c., per hour 1 fl. 

Leyden, one of the most ancient towns in Holland (although 
probably not the Lugdunum Batavorum of the Romans), with 
41,700 inhab., is sufficiently extensive to accommodate 100,000, a 
number it boasted of when at the height of its prosperity. In 1574 
the town sustained a terrible siege from the Spaniards, which lasted 
for four months. William of Orange then caused the dykes to be 
pierced , and the country being thus inundated , he relieved the 
besieged by ship. Leyden was the birthplace of several of the 
painters of the 16th and 17th centuries: Lucas van Leyden, Joris 
van Schooten , Jacob van Swanenburgh , the great Rembrandt van 
Rijn, Jan Steen, Gerard Dou, Gabriel Metsu, Jan van Goyen, 
Frans van Mieris, Peter Slingeland, etc. It possesses, however, 
but few specimens of their works. 

The Rhine, or rather the comparatively-unimportant arm of that 
river which alone retains the name, flows through Leyden, resembl- 
ing a canal , and destitute of current except when the sluices at 
Katwijk are opened at low tide (p. 247). 

The town still presents many picturesque mediaeval features, and 
although most of the quaint old decorations are in the question- 
able taste of the 17th cent. , they bear testimony to the former 
prosperity of the citizens, and their appreciation of artistic forms. 

The oldest edifice in Leyden is the Burg (PI. 9 ; E, 3), situated 
on a mound of earth in the centre of the town. It is circular in 
form , and is undoubtedly of very ancient origin. The chroniclers 
connect it with Drusus and the Anglo-Saxon Hengist. It first ap- 
pears in authentic history during the 10th century. The building, 
which has been badly restored and adorned with pinnacles, is in 
the garden of the Hotel Burg (adm. 10 c. for persons not staying at 
the hotel). 

Near the Burg is situated the Church of St. Pancras, or Hoog- 
landsche Kerk (PI. 2 ; F, 4), a late-Gothic stone edifice erected on 
the site of an earlier building in the 15th cent., and recently re- 
stored. It is a large basilica with nave and aisles , with a transept 
also flanked with aisles. The nave, which has not been carried 
up to the projected height, is covered by a wooden roof of barrel- 
vaulting. The arms of the transept, the facades of which are richly 
decorated, are surmounted by singular-looking towers. The spa- 
cious interior is supported by thirty-eight massive buttresses. By 
one of these is the insignificant monument of the burgomaster Van 
der Werff (d. 1604), who in 1574 gallantly defended the town 
during the siege by the Spaniards. 

A few paces to the S.W. of the Burg is a bridge with a covered 



Museum of Antiquities. LEYDEN. 38. Route. 243 

wooden portico built in 1825, and used as a Com Exchange (PI. 13 ; 
E, 4), leading to the Breedestraat ('Breestraat'"), the principal street 
in Leyden, which, with its continuation the Oude and Nieuwe 
Hoogewoerd, intersects the whole town in the form of an S. 

In this street, on the right, rises the long Stadhuis (PI. 20 ; 
E, 4), a quaint, but picturesque building in the later style of 
the 16th cent., with a lofty flight of steps. Over the side-entrance 
on the N. is the following inscription: 'nae sWarte hVnger-noot 
gebraCht had tot de doot blnaest zes-dVIzent MensChen, aLs't god 
den heer Verdroot gaf hi Vns Weder broot, zo VeeL WI CVnsten 
WensChen' (i. e. literally: When the black famine had brought 
to the death nearly six thousand persons , then God the Lord re- 
pented of it, and gave us bread again as much as we could wish). 
This inscription, which refers to the siege of 1574, is a chro- 
nogram, the capitals (among which W is reckoned as two V's) 
recording the date, and the 131 letters the number of days during 
which the siege lasted. 

Near the Post Office is the handsome building of the Minerva 
Club, to which most of the students belong. 

At the W. end of the Breedestraat is the Museum of Antiquities, 
or Museum van Oudheden (PI. 16; C, 3), open on Sun. 12-4, 
andonTues., Thurs., and Sat. 11-4 o'clock, but shown at other 
times on payment of a fee (50 c). It occupies eleven rooms, 
and is most valuable in the Egyptian department. Some of the 
Greek sculptures are also very important. 

Ground Floor. Room I. (r.). Indian Idols. Brahma, the 'Creator', 
Vishnu with the trunk of an elephant, the 'Preserver', Shiva, the 'Destroyer', 
resting on skulls, in numerous examples of various sizes (sun, water, and 
fire; or power, wisdom, and justice; or the past, the present, and the 
future; i.e. the Indian Trinity, often represented as a body with three 
heads) ; an idol in the form of a bull of lava ; relics from Carthage ; custo- 
dian of a temple, a quaint figure with a sword. 

Booms II, III. Roman and Greek Antiquities. In K. II. Roman 
statues and busts: 76. Trajan; 75. Augustus ; 129. Bust of Hadrian. — 
R. III. : In the middle, on a circular altar with reliefs, "103. Colossal Head 
of Dionysus, much injured. By the right wall: "52. Statue of Zeus, well 
preserved and of unusual type. By the window : 62. Youthful Pan. Ad- 
jacent, Votive Relief to jSsculapius and Hygieia, of good Greek workman- 
ship. Left wall: Statue of Apollo, freely restored (head, perhaps, of a 
Venus?). Numerous inscriptions. High up, 352. Head of Apollo, a very 
ancient Greek work. 

Room IV. Egyptian Sculptures. Sarcophagi with figures of the dead 
and hieroglyphic inscriptions; Greek tomb-inscriptions from Egypt, mostly 
of the Christian period. Funereal pyramid of a royal secretary; kneeling 
statues from tombs. Slabs with reliefs and inscriptions, some with well- 
preserved colouring (No. 26). In the entrance-wall is a recess fitted up 
in the style of an Egyptian tomb. — The end of the room is partitioned 
off by four pillars and a gate from the entrance to an Egyptian tomb. 
Large niche in granite, presented to a temple by King Amasis in the 6th 
cent, before Christ. Relief from the grave of King Horus (15th cent. B. 
C), with captives (Jews?). 

First Floor. Room I, II, III. Smaller Egyptian Antiquities. R.I. 
Mummies, ornaments, flowers; statuettes in wood, bronze, and porcelain. 
Papyrus scrolls in hieroglyphic and hieratic text (halfway up the next 

16* 



244 Route 38. LEYDEN. University. 

staircase). — RR. II, III. Egyptian gems, statuettes, jewels, scarabpei, 
bronzes, vessels in terracotta and alabaster, etc. 

Rooms IV and V, which contain Greek and Roman Antiquities, are 
fitted up in imitation of the Roman columbaria or grave-chambers for 
funereal urns. In R. IV. are funereal urns and inscriptions, and an Early- 
Chrislian Sarcophagus, with reliefs. The next room contains Etruscan 
Gists, with figures of the deceased and reliefs (So. 400, Ulysses and the 
Cyclops). Here are also several admirable Greek Funereal Monuments, some 
of them of the classic period. The finest is the ""Belief of Archestrate, 
daughter of Alenos, from Sunium, one of the best Attic monuments of the 
kind, dating from the 4th cent. B. C. 

Second Floor. Casts from the antique; Greek, Roman, and Etruscan 
bronzes, weapons, helmets; Greek and Roman vases in the ancient and 
more modern style; terracotta vessels; models of ancient tombs. 

Third Floor. Cork models of ancient structures ; models of lake- 
dwellings in the Lake of Zurich; model of a 'giant's grave' in the pro- 
vince of Drenthe (p. 317); Teutonic idols and relics from the same district. 

The Natural History Museum (PI. 15; C, D, 4), Rapen- 
burger Gracht, No. 28, open to the public daily, except Sundays, 
12-4 o'clock, is established in a building admirably adapted for 
the purpose. The collection is particularly well supplied with 
specimens of the products of the Dutch colonies in the E. and 
W. Indies. The cabinet of stuffed birds includes the collection 
of M. Temminck (d. 1858) , one of the greatest of European 
ornithologists. The cabinet of Comparative Anatomy is also very 
complete. 

The Church of St. Peter (PI. 1 ; D, 4), erected in 1315, with 
double aisles, is the largest church at Leyden, and the last resting- 
place of many distinguished men. 

The monument of the celebrated physician Boerhave (d. 1738) bears 
the modest inscription: 'Salutifero Boerhavii genio sacrum'. Other mon- 
uments record the names of Dodonaeus , Spanheim , Meerman , Clusius, 
Scaliger, and other Dutch savants. The inscription on that of Prof. Luzac 
states that he perished in the explosion of 1807 (p. 246). 

A house in the Klok-Steeg, immediately adjoining the Pieters- 
Kerk-Plads , bears an inscription to the effect that John Robinson, 
the leader of the first Puritan party banished from England , lived, 
taught, and died here (1611-25). The present house , however, 
was not built till 1683. 

According to a popular tradition, Prince William of Orange, 
after the siege of 1574, offered to reward the citizens for their 
gallant conduct in the defence by exempting them from the pay- 
ment of taxes for a certain number of years, or by the establish- 
ment of a university in their city. The latter alternative is said to 
have been preferred, and the prince accordingly founded a High 
School, or University, in 1575. Its fame soon extended to every 
part of Europe. Hugo Grotius and Cartesius (Descartes), the greatest 
scholars of their age, Salmasius, Scaliger, Boerhave, Wyttenbach, 
and others resided and wrote here, and Arminius and Gomar, the 
founders of the sects named after them (p. 310), were professors at 
the university. Lord Stair (d. 1695), the celebrated Scottish jurist, 
spent several years in exile at Leyden, whence he accompanied his 



Museum. LEYDEN. 38. Route. 245 

future sovereign William of Orange to Great Britain in 1688. Leyden 
still enjoys a high reputation as a seat of learning, especially as a 
school of medicine and natural science, owing to the very extensive 
collections which it possesses. Most of the professors (46, students 
800) teach at their private residences (some of them still in 
Latin) ; a few only deliver lectures in the university - building 
itself (Academic, PI. 8; C, 5, E, 5). The hall of the Senatus is 
adorned with portraits of all the professors, from Scaliger down 
to those last deceased. Niebuhr in his Roman History expresses 
his opinion that no locality in Europe is so memorable in the 
history of science as this venerable hall. The Library (PI. 26 ; 
D, 5), the oldest and richest in Holland, contains upwards of 
300,000 vols, and 5600 valuable MSS. Considerable sums of 
money have recently been granted for the erection of new buildings 
and the improvement of the collections. 

The Botanic Garden (PI. C. 5), open to the public daily till 
1 o'clock, is arranged according to the systems of Linne" and Jus- 
sieu, and kept in excellent order. The collection of exotics, 
chiefly from the E. Indies, is very fine. The hot-houses contain 
examples of the cinnamon-tree, the quinine tree, the coffee-plant, 
the cotton-tree, the mahogany-tree, the New Zealand flax-plant, 
the papyrus-tree, the bamboo, the sago-shrub, the camphor-tree, the 
'fly-catcher', the arrowroot-plant, the tamarind-shrub, palms, etc. 
— The new Observatory, which enjoys a considerable reputation, 
is situated close to the Botanic Garden. 

In the Nieuwe Hoogewoerd, the E. prolongation of the Breede- 
straat, No. 108, is the Ethnographical Museum (PI. 14 ; G, 5), 
open daily 10-4 (Sun. 12.30 to 4). 

The nucleus of the collection is a series of Japanese curiosities brought 
to Europe by Col. von Siebold, who acted as a physician in Japan from 
1822 to 1830, though that country did not become accessible to Europeans 
without danger till 1853. After the death of the founder in 1866 his 
collection was purchased "by government. It comprises a domestic altar, 
figures of saints, images in bronze, surgical instruments, fans, parasols, 
magnets, toys, bons-bons, musical instruments, numerous objects in bam- 
boo, anatomical figures, two suits of armour, flags, pictures, an idol, 
carefully-wrought nets , numerous Japanese books, models of a country- 
house, etc., beautifully-embroidered articles of dress, ornaments, pipes, 
knives, scissors, amulets, paper, playing cards, articles manufactured of 
straw, travelling-boxes, brooms, silk, fancy-articles, model of a burial- 
ground , altar from Thibet, paintings in curiously - carved gilt frames, 
etc. The collection also contains numerous curiosities from Sumatra, 
Florida, Celebes, New Guinea, the Aroe Islands, China, Hindostan, Acheen, 
etc., which have been added to it within the last few years, partly from 
the old Museum of Curiosities at the Hague. 

The municipal Museum (PL 25 ; D, 2), in the Lakenhal ('cloth- 
hall', erected in 1640), Oude Singel 32, contains a multifarious 
collection of antiquities connected with Leyden, and also a few 
interesting pictures, most of which were brought from the Stadhuis. 
It is open daily, 10-4, adm. 10 c; Sundays, and 3rd Oct., the 
anniversary of the raising of the siege in 1574, free. Catalogue 30 c. 



246 Route 38. KATWIJK. 

Vestibule. Stained glass of the 16th century, representing the counts 
and countesses of Holland (in brown monochrome). 

First Floor. In the middle of the large hall two glass-cases, con- 
taining (left) gold and silver plate belonging to the municipality, of the 
17th and 18th cent., and (right) glass of the same period, relics of the 
siege, coins, medals. The walls are hung with numerous portraits and 
'Regent' or corporation pictures. To the right, on the end-wall: 11. Gov. 
Flinck, Portrait of a man; to the right of it, 7. Adr. Brouwer, Rustic 
scene; left, Dom. van Tol (pupil of Dou), Woman baking pancakes, and 
four boys. To the left: 143. Unknown Painter, Regent-piece of 1618. The 
tapestry opposite the entrance (No. 166), representing the relief of Leyden, 
was executed in 1587. — The contents of the side-rooms are similar. 

Upper FIoor. The pictures here, chiefly arquebusier and regent 
pieces, are more interesting and important. On the principal wall, facing 
the entrance : Van Brie (p. 126), Burgomaster van der Werff offering his 
body to the starving citizens, who demand the surrender of the town or 
the satisfaction of their hunger, a large but mediocre work. To the left 
and right are six pictures of arquebusiers (Nos. 40, 37, 34, 38j 36, 39), 
painted in 1626 and 1628 by Joris van Schooten (b. at Leyden in 1587); 
the execution is good and the heads are full of expression, but there is 
no attempt at artistic grouping. On the end-wall to the left: 32. Van 
Schooten, Representation of the misery that reigned during the siege ; 
71. Sortie; 70. Peter van Veen (1570-1639, Leyden), Arrival of the Water 
Gueux; Medallion-portrait of Burgomaster Van der Werff, in terracotta 
(17th cent.). On the end-wall to the right: 17. Lucas van Leyden, Last 
Judgment, the only authenticated large painting by this artist. To the 
right and left, Cornelis Engelbertsz, 9. Crucifixion with numerous figures, 
and wings representing Abraham's Sacrifice and the Miracle of the Bra- 
zen Serpent, 10. Pieta, with six scenes from the life of Christ. The 
small adjacent room contains five singular pictures by Is. Claesz. van 
Swanenburgh (d. 1614), father of Rembrandt's master, Jac. Isaacsz. van 
Swanenburgh, representing the old cloth manufactures of Leyden and the 
advent of Flemish cloth-makers. — The rooms adjoining on the other side 
contain a collection of old weapons and standards. 

The promenades near the Rijnburg Gate (PI. C, 1), by which 
we enter the town from the railway -station, are adorned with 
a statue of the physician Herman Boerhave (PI. 24; see p. 244), 
modelled by Prof. Strackee. Beyond it is the Academic Hospital, 
and, in the distance, the Military Hospital. — On the Galgewater 
(PI. B, C, 3) is the Zeemans-Kweekschool, or naval school. 

The open spaces on both sides of the Steenschuur Canal were 
formerly covered with houses and owe their present appearance to 
an appalling explosion of gunpowder, which took place in 1807. 
The space on the N. bank is now partly occupied by buildings 
connected with the university (PL 8; E, 5), while that on the S. 
serves as a drilling-ground. 

About 6 M. to the N.W. of Leyden lies Katwijk aan Zee, which 
may be reached either by Steam Tramway in 40 min. (starting 
from the railway-station), or by Steamer in 1 hr. (from the bridge 
at the Beestenmarkt, PL C, 2; fare 25 or 10c). 

Katwijk aan Zee (*GVoot Badhotel , *H6tel Levedag, Hdlel 
Zeerust, Hotel-Pension van Tellegen, *H6tel de Zwaan , all on the 
sea, unpretending but comfortable; Villas and Private Lodgings 
obtainable by application to the Burgomaster) is a popular Dutch 




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Ceo graph .An Etalt von 



Hotels. HAARLEM. 39. Route. 247 

watering-place, near the mouth of a canal closed with huge gates, 
which here assists the sluggish Rhine to empty itself into the sea. 

The mouth of the Rhine was completely obstructed by sand in con- 
sequence of a hurricane in the year 839, and from that period down 
to 1807 its waters formed a vast swamp, which is now almost en- 
tirely drained (p. 222). At length at the latter date the evil was re- 
medied by the construction of a large canal with three locks, the first 
of which was furnished with two, the second with four, and that next 
to the sea with five pairs of gates. During high tide the gates are closed 
in order to exclude the water, which rises to the height of 12 ft. on the 
outside, while the level of the canal on the inside is much lower. At low 
tide the gates are opened for 5-6 hours in order to permit the accumulated 
waters of the Rhine to escape, and the masses of sand thrown up by the 
sea are thus again washed away. It is computed that 100,000 cubic ft. 
of water issue from the gates per second. In stormy weather, when the 
wind blows towards the land, the tide does not fall sufficiently to admit 
of the gates being opened. The dykes constructed at the entrance to the 
canal and on the sea-shore are of most imposing dimensions. The founda- 
tions consist of piles driven into the loose sand, upon which a massive 
superstructure of masonry is placed. These magnificent works, undertaken 
during the reign of King Louis Napoleon by the engineer M. Conrad (p. 248), 
are the finest of the kind in Europe, and have recently been strengthened 
in consequence of an outlet of the Haarlemmer Meer having been conducted 
to this point. The neighbouring kilns convert the heaps of shells thrown 
up by the sea into lime, which is used in the construction of the dykes. 

Endegeest , a country-house with pleasant grounds, halfway between 
Leyden and Katwijk, was for many years the residence of Descartes (Car- 
tesius), who wrote his chief mathematical and philosophical works here. 

39. Haarlem. 

Hotels. -Hotel Funoklek (PI. a; B, 3), in the Kruisstraat, '/* M. from 
the station, R. & A. 1 fi. 75, L. 30 c; Gouden Leeow (PI. c. ; B, 2; Lion 
d'Or), in the same street, a little nearer the station; Leeuwekik (PI. b; 
B, 3), a few paces beyond the Hotel Fiinckler, commercial , R. & L. 1 fl. 
50 c, well spoken of. — Hotel van den Berg and 't Wapen van Amster- 
dam, outside the town, near the park, are two very good houses for a 
prolonged stay, R. & B. 2 fl., D. 2 fl., A. 50, L. 25 c. — On the right, at 
the egress from the station, are several cafes, where accommodation for 
the night may also be procured. — Brinkmamis Cafi-Restaurant , Groote 
Markt 11, well spoken of. 

Tramway from the station through the Kruisweg and the Kruisstraat, 
past the Town Hall (p. 249), and through the Groote Houtstraat, to the 
Pavilion (p. 251) ; fare 10 c. — Steam- Tramway to Leyden, starting from 
the Park (p. 251). 

Cabs. With one horse: from the station to the town with 561bs. of 
luggage 60 c. ; to the Pavilion (p. 251) 80 c. ; extra luggage, 20 c. per 561bs. ; 
per hour, in the town 1 fl., outside the town l'/2 fl. 

Haarlem, with 43,900 inhab., the seat of the governor of the 
province of N. Holland, one of the cleanest and most attractive 
towns in Holland , and possessing several thriving manufactories, 
lies on the Spaarne , which flows through the town in a curve. 
The old ramparts have been converted into public promenades. 
The town is surrounded by well-kept gardens and pleasure-grounds. 

Haarlem was for a long period the residence of the Counts of 
Holland. Like Leyden, it sustained a most calamitous siege during 
the War of Independence, and was taken, after a resistance of seven 



248 Route 39. HAARLEM. Qroote Kerk. 

months (1572-73), by the Spaniards under Frederick of Toledo, son 
of the Duke of Alva. The defence , though ineffectual , was most 
heroic, even the women, led by Kenau Simons Hasselaar , taking a 
share in it. Upwards of 10,000 of the inhabitants perished on this 
occasiou, and the commandant, the Protestant clergy, and 2000 of 
the townspeople were executed by order of their conqueror. Four 
years later the Spaniards were again expelled. The town attained 
the height of its prosperity in the first quarter of the 17th cent., 
when its school of art was also of some importance. Cornells Oor- 
neliszoon, Hugo Goltzius, H. C. de Vroom, P. Soutman , the two 
Grebbers, the eminent Frans Hals, and other artists flourished here 
at that period. 

The Kruisweg and its prolongation, the Kruisstraat, lead from 
the station to the ('/2 M.) chief market-place. On the left, half- 
way (Kruisweg 59), is the Episcopal Museum (PI. 1 ; B, 2), a col- 
lection of Dutch ecclesiastical antiquities, which is however much 
inferior to that of Utrecht. Admission Mon. to Frid. (holidays 
excepted) 10-5 o'clock, 25 e. ; catalogue 25 c. 

The Groote Markt (PI. B, C, 4), in whioh stand the Groote 
Kerk, the Stadhuis, the old Fleshers' Hall, a quaint Renaissance 
edifice of the end of the 16th cent., and the old town-hall, now a 
barrack, dating from 1250, lies nearly in the centre of the town. 

The Groote Kerk {St. Bavo; PI. 5; B, C, 4) is an imposing 
and lofty cruciform church, erected at the close of the 15th century, 
with a tower 255 ft. high, completed in 1516 (extensive view from 
the top ; the sacrista'n demands 1 fl. for the ascent). A thorough 
restoration of the edifice has been in progress for several years. 

Interior (sacristan's house on the S. side of the choir). The vaulting 
rests on twenty-eight columns, on which decorative paintings of the end 
of the 16th cent, have lately been brought to light. The nave and choir 
were apparently meant to be covered by stone vaulting, but are provided 
merely with a wooden roof of cross-vaulting, dating from 1530. The 
roof above the intersection of the nave and transept is, however, of stone. 
The late-Gothic choir-stalls , and the brazen screen separating the choir 
from the nave, are adorned with the arms of various donors. By one 
of the pillars, to the right in the choir, is a monument to the memory 
of Conrad (d. 1808), the engineer who constructed the locks of Katwijk 
(p. 247) , and his coadjutor Brunings (d. 1805). The small models of 
ships suspended from the adjoining arch commemorate the 15th Crusade, 
under Count William I. of Holland. They date from 1668, the originals 
having fallen into decay. By the choir is the tomb of Bilderdijk the poet 
(d. 1831). The pulpit in carved wood, with its handsome brass railings, 
belongs to the 17th century. A cannon-ball in the wall is a reminiscence 
of the Spanish siege. The pleasing group in marble below the organ, 
by Xavery, represents ecclesiastical poetry and music , expressing their 
gratitude to Haarlem for the erection of the organ. 

The 'Organ, constructed in 1735-38 by Christ. Miiller, and thoroughly 
restored in 1868, was long considered the largest and most powerful in 
the world, and still ranks as one of the finest instruments in existence. 
Public recitals take place on Tuesdays and Thursdays, 1-2 o'clock; at 
other times the organist may be engaged to play for a fee of 13 fl., which 
admits one or more persons. 

The organ possesses 4 keyboards, 04 stops, and 5000 pipes, the largest 
of which is 15 inches in diameter and 32 ft. long; it fills one entire 



Town Hall. HAARLEM. 39. Route. 249 

side of the church. Under the skilful hand of the organist the tone 
ranges from an exquisite 'piano' to the most overwhelming 'thunder- 
storm' with which the performance generally concludes. The hautbois, 
piano-forte, trumpet, whistle, etc., are imitated with marvellous accuracy, 
and the mimic chiming of bells is so perfect that the audience are tempted 
to doubt whether it is really produced by means of organ-pipes. The 
full capabilities of the vast instrument are, however, rarely brought into 
action during the public recitals. 

In the large market-place in front of the church rises a bronze 
Statue of Coster (PL 2; B, 4), the alleged inventor of printing, 
designed by Boyer, and erected in 1856. 

The controversy as to whether Coster or Gutenberg was the real 
inventor of printing may now he considered definitely settled in favour 
of the latter, as the very existence of Laurenz Janszoon Coster (i. e. the 
'sacristan') has been rendered problematical by recent investigations. Im- 
pressions from wooden tablets were known at the beginning of the 15th 
cent., and it is possible that Gutenberg may have seen such tablets in the 
Netherlands. The all-important idea of movable types is, however, in- 
disputably his own. 

Opposite the principal facade of the Groote Kerk rises the 
Town Hall (PL 11; B, 4) , originally a palace of the counts of 
Holland, but remodelled in 1633. The ""Museum here is open daily 
10-4, in winter 10-3 (adrn. 25 c; on Sun. 12-4, gratis; catalogue 
30 c). It contains a small but valuable picture-gallery , the only 
one where it is possible for the traveller to become thoroughly 
acquainted with the jovial Frans Hals , the greatest colourist of 
the Dutch painters next to Rembrandt. He is represented here by 
eight large pictures, painted at different stages of his career. The 
other pictures in the collection possess considerable interest as 
affording a complete historical survey of the painting of Corporation 
and Regent pieces from 1583 down to the close of the following 
century. 

On entering the building from the market-place we ascend the 
staircase on the left, and reach a vestibule, the beams of which 
date from the 13th cent.; on the wal